MENA Region Energy, Water and Food Security Issues

Report
MENA Region
Energy, Water and Food
Security
Issues
Oman, February 22-23, 2011
Francis Ato Brown, Sector Manager for Water
1



The Middle East and North Africa (MENA)
region is considered the most water-scarce
region of the world
As the region’s population continues to grow,
per capita water availability is set to fall by 50
percent by 2050
It is also predicted with that climate change
affects in weather and precipitation patterns
the region will experience more frequent and
severe droughts and floods
2
Average annual
renewable
sources in MNA
at 1,200
m3/year
compared to
7,000 m3/year
globally
Australia & New Zealand
Latin America & Caribbean
North America
Europe & Central Asia
Sub-Saharan Africa
East Asia & Pacific (incl. Japan&Koreas)
Western Europe
South Asia
Middle East & North Africa
0
10
20
30
40
1000 m^3 / year
14 out of the top
20renewable
Waterwater
Scarce
Annual
resources
per capita
Countries
Renewable water resources per capita (m3/year) by Country
Country
Rank
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
Country
1992
Kuwait
United Arab Emirates
Qatar
Bahamas
Yemen
Saudi Arabia
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Maldives
Malta
Singapore
Bahrain
Jordan
Occupied Palestinian Territory
Israel
Barbados
Algeria
Djibouti
Tunisia
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Oman
10
72
117
75
155
140
132
131
138
189
220
256
359
369
308
440
507
539
585
707
1997
2002
11
55
105
69
126
125
119
116
132
162
191
205
297
313
314
399
453
502
546
616
Source: FAO AquaStat 2008
8
42
85
64
109
110
108
107
128
146
171
184
247
281
319
372
393
478
511
564
2007
7
34
51
60
94
97
97
100
124
134
153
158
208
257
314
345
360
456
480
514
Change
between
1992 and
2007
-30%
-53%
-57%
-20%
-39%
-31%
-26%
-24%
-10%
-29%
-31%
-38%
-42%
-30%
2%
-22%
-29%
-15%
-18%
-27%


Water is scarce in the region, and getting scarcer with time…water
will become a challenge to growth…the trend is not sustainable
Desalination on a larger scale has environmental and energy
implications (brine, GHG emissions, energy security)…should be
sustainable.

Renewable energy (e.g., CSP) is possible, making it a feasible energy
alternative…MENA is also suitable for CSP.

Countries in MENA are already leading the innovation and
market demand for desal:
 Some countries use desal water for 100% of their water need
 MENA countries are on the cutting edge of innovation in the
combined use of desal and RE, mainly CSP (e.g., Saudi and IBM)

The region would benefit from cultivating the desert for a growing population and
economy, using the natural resources that are barely tapped: desert land, salty
water and solar energy, in order to ensure sustainable development…but
action has to start soon and on large scale to benefit from economy of scale.
Demand side management:
1.
a) Strengthen institutions to support a move towards more
efficient resource use
b) Support policies that rationalize demand for water
services
c) Support investments in efficiency improvement
2. Supply Augmentation:
a)
b)
c)
d)
Introduce/scale-up technologies in desalination and
reuse
Support innovations in renewable energy (e.g., CSP)
Support innovations in concentrate management
Support water quality protection and storage capacity,
including aquifer recharge…
Favorable for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP)
Worth considering for CSP
•
•
•
•

High potential for application of the technology exists in
MENA itself
Compared to other renewable energy technologies such as
photovoltaic or wind energy, the CSP potential is limited in
many of the major developed countries
A CSP industry in MENA could serve not only the regional
market but also existing markets in Southern Europe, the
USA and elsewhere
Examples of emerging wind industries in India and China
demonstrate the positive effects that manufacturing of
innovative renewable energy technologies can have on the
respective economies
MENA could become home to a new, high potential industry
in a region with large solar energy resources and benefit
from the associated job- and wealth creation
8
Current CSP projects classified by applied technology [in MW capacity]
Operational
Tower
Construction
Planning
phase
44
17
1603
778
1400
8144
Fresnel
9
30
134
Dish & Stirling
2
1
2247
Parabolic
CSP projects by country
(operating, under construction
and in planning phase)
Sun & Wind Energy 6/2010
9



The demand-supply gap must be bridged
Large scale seawater desalination may be
used to close the gap
Renewable energy, especially Concentrated
Solar Power (CSP) for seawater desalination
could be a viable means to close this
demand-supply gap.
10
1. What are the available options to bridge the
water demand gap (in terms of policy,
technology, financing, institutions, etc)?
2. How do you see the implications of such
decisions on
• energy, water and food security in the region?
• environment (e.g., sustainability of the health of
the regional seas due to concentrate
management, GHG emissions, etc)?
11
3. Desalinated water is more expensive and it consumes
a lot of energy

What available strategies to (a) reduce cost, and (b) support
countries that have less oil (but still have scarce water)

What are the strategic long-term options that the countries in
the region should consider in order to sustain growth?


How could the region benefit from seawater and desert sun-both are abundantly available--to solve challenges in two of
the most important sectors (water and energy)?
How could the region invest in technologies (desalination,
RE/CSP, etc) that could make use of such abundant resources
and create jobs for its burgeoning young population?
12
Thank You!
[email protected]
13

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