teaching strategies 2 DoL overview

 Framework
of 5 types of thinking (dimensions
of learning) that are essential to successful
 Gathers and organises range of educational
research that’s known to work
 Designed to reduce reliance on chalk and
 Puts student at centre of learning process
Take 3 minutes to stop and think about how
you feel about this prospect (learning about
Dimensions of Learning)
(3min pause a strategy from Dim 1, all about developing positive Attitudes and Perceptions a learner
brings to the classroom environment and the task)
I’m not sure I . . .
One thing I hope is . . .
As long as we . . .
I’m expecting . . .
I wonder if . . .
 DoL
gives teachers bank of strategies that
help teachers teach and students learn
 Emphasises explicitly teaching these
 Students able to select and apply strategies
 Students become independent learners
Dictionary Meanings (Dim2)
(this is useful to encourage learners to be active participants in the getting of knowledge)
Look up the words in assigned phrase
In pairs discuss what the phrase means at its most complex
Peer Teach: work out a way to help the group to learn
what it means at the highest level possible (nature of the
teaching in your hands)
Dimension 1:
Dimension 2:
Dimension 3:
Dimension 5:
Attitudes and Perceptions
Acquire and Integrate Knowledge
Extend and Refine Knowledge
Use Knowledge Meaningfully
Habits of Mind
 Helps
us maintain the focus on teaching
 Allows us to plan curriculum, instruction and
assessment tasks that take the 5 critical
aspects of learning into account
 Develops a common language that lets us
communicate with each other/students
across subject divides (helps us talk explicitly
about learning)
 Helps us study the learning process
systematically . . .
Two Types
1. Declarative Knowledge
Content or Information, facts and concepts:
things students know or understand, facts
and concepts
2. Procedural Knowledge
Processes or skills: things students can do
Section 2
 Dimensions 1 and 5 (the background
 Unit Planning Grid
Section 3
 Dimensions 2,3 and 4 (the ‘learning journey’
 Planning Grids for Each Dimension
 Dimension 3 and an action learning project
Marzano (1997) (pp 13-42)
Two Areas
1. Helping Students Develop Positive Attitudes and Perceptions about
Classroom Climate
• Feel accepted by Teachers and Peers
• Experience a Sense of Comfort and Order
2. Helping Students Develop Positive Attitudes and Perceptions about
Classroom Tasks
• Perceive Tasks as Valuable and Interesting
• Believe they have the Ability and Resources to Complete Tasks
• Understand and be Clear about Tasks
Work in 4 groups on one sheet at a time
Feel accepted by teachers and peers
Experience a sense of comfort and order
Develop positive attitudes about classroom tasks
Believe they have the ability and resources to complete tasks
Brainstorm activities that would work
towards achieving the aim: use info from
the text and your own experience (5 min)
Each new sheet: read responses and add
your thoughts (2 min)
Three Areas
Marzano (1997) pp 261-297
 Accuracy
 Clarity
 Open
 Restraining
 Taking a
 Responding
y to others
 Perseverance
 Pushing the
limits of
and abilities
 Developing
own standards
of evaluation
 Developing
l ways of
viewing a
Monitoring own
Identify and
use necessary
to feedback
of your actions
 Identify
a behaviour in class that stops
some/all students learning effectively.
Discuss the behaviour with partner. Listen
carefully to each other.
 Match blocking behaviours to the
corresponding habit(s)s of mind in the text
 Think of a story/film character who displays
one of the habits you want to see developed
by the class
 Build bones of a unit of work based on that
character and their demonstration of the
habit of mind you want to develop
Take 3 minutes to stop and think about what
you’ve learnt about Dimensions 1 and 5
I enjoyed . . .
I was surprised by . . .
I was challenged . . .
I’m not sure I . . .
One thing I learnt . . .
Content or information,
facts and concepts:
things students know
or understand
Procedural Knowledge
Processes or skills:
things students can
Add and subtract
Write a paragraph
An amoeba
The conventions of punctuation
When oppression meets resistance,
conflict results
Set up an experiment
Read music
The rules of basketball
Shoot free throws
A numerator
What is the major
difference in how
we learn a concept
and a skill?
Understanding the different knowledge types influences how
teachers identify knowledge when planning for lessons and units
(what do students already know, what do they need to know,
what will they know by the end of the lesson/unit)
Task1: Which of the examples are declarative, which are
procedural knowledge? (classifying task, Dim 3)
Task2: Using one example of each or of your own, in a pair, think
about how we teach declarative and procedural knowledge
differently . . . (comparing task, Dim 3) (circles rather than
Task 3: Think of an average lesson/unit of work and work out
which parts of it involve the learning of procedural knowledge
and which the learning of declarative knowledge . . . What
different types of learning tasks do you use for each (Deductive
reasoning, Dim 3)
content and
skills and
Each method has three stages, which are roughly parallel to each
other, but the relationships between the phases is different
So teachers need to select different types of instructional strategies
for the different knowledge types too.
Declarative Knowledge:
 1: Construct Meaning: by linking it to prior knowledge (e.g. 3
min pause, KWL (know, want, learned), BDA strategy, inquiry
strategies etc)
 2: Organise Knowledge: graphic organisers (cause/effect,
principle/example, concept patterns etc), advance organiser
questions etc, note-taking frameworks
 3: Store: symbols and substitutes, link strategies etc
1. Construct Model: think-aloud, written/graphic representation of
skill/process, link to other skills
2. Shape Knowledge: practising/modifying model, avoiding common
3. Internalise: as a result of practice: set up practice schedule,
chart progress
articulates the difference between the types of
knowledge, how they relate to each other
defines different types of declarative knowledge
(descriptions, sequences, processes, episodes,
principles, concepts) and distinguishes between
macro and microprocesses (skills)
For each of the three processes involved in
acquiring and integrating knowledge (declarative
and procedural), DoL offers a collection of
strategies teachers can select from and a
suggested series of steps
Marzano (1997) p 113-184
This occurs as learners examine and analyse knowledge
and information in a way that:
helps them make new connections
discover or rediscover meanings
gain new insights
clarify misconceptions
Results in learners being able to do more than recite
definitions and give other examples.
Involves them thinking about the information by using
reasoning process that are more complex than those
used to recognise or reproduce knowledge.
These processes CHANGE the knowledge they have.
Many of these processes we scaffold for the
students as part of our normal lessons . . .
TASK: think pair share two examples of when
we have used one or more of these processes
in scaffolding our lessons.
(have a look at the next slide if you need a
brief summary of what each process involves)
Comparing: Indentifying and articulating similarities and
differences among items
Classifying: grouping things into definable categories on the
basis of their attributes
Abstracting: Identifying and articulating the underlying theme or
general pattern of information
Inductive Reasoning: inferring unknown generalisations or
principles from information or observations
Deductive Reasoning: Using generalistions and principles to
infer unstated conclusions about specific information or
Constructing Support: building systems of support for assertions
Analysing Errors: identifying and articulating errors in thinking
Analysing Perspectives: identifying multiple perspectives on an
issues and examining the reasons or logic behind each.
As well as getting students to use these processes
through the scaffolding of assessment tasks and
learning activities, we also need to directly
teach these processes to the students, so they
can select and use them independently.
Each of the processes is used unconsciously every
day, but to use this as a way of refining and
extending knowledge, we need to teach the STEPS
involved, so students use them DELIBERATELY and
1. Help students understand the process: (the
function/goal of it)
2. Give students a model for the process, and create
opportunities for them to practice using the process. (the
steps involved and examples)
3. As students study and use the process, help them focus
on critical steps and difficult aspects of the process
(examples and suggestions of how to deal with elements)
4. Provide students with graphic organisers or
representations of the model to help them understand and
use the process
5. Use teacher-structured and student-structured tasks
(modeling to independent work)
1. Identify the Issue: e.g. How can we improve students’ critical
literacy skills in English, specifically their ability to analyse a
writer’s use of linguistic and visual techniques to achieve their
purpose and appeal to their audience.
2. Plan the DoL Project:
 major issue for students as being the gap between their
declarative knowledge of the techniques writers use and their
procedural ability to analyse how a particular writer uses these
techniques for specific effects.
 In DoL terms:
Able to gain and integrate the knowledge of techniques (they can
explain their purposes and give examples) – Dimension 2
Cannot use this knowledge meaningfully in new situations –
Dimension 4.
In order to do this, we need to focus on Dimension 3, helping them
to extend and refine their knowledge.
Marzano (1997) p 189-254
Using knowledge requires more complex
reasoning processes than required by
Dimension 2 of learning (recall, reproduce
DoL’s identified 6 complex reasoning processes
that can be applied to help them use
knowledge meaningfully . . .
Decision Making: generating and applying criteria to select from
among seemingly equal alternative
Problem Solving: overcoming constraints or limiting conditions
that are in the way of pursuing goals
Invention: developing unique products or processes that fulfil
perceived needs
Experimental Inquiry: generating and testing explanations of
observed phenomena
Investigation: identifying and resolving issues about which there
are confusions or contradictions
Systems Analysis: analysing the parts of a system and the
manner in which they interact
. . . so that students can learn how to do it
themselves . . . (same steps as for Dim 3)
1. Help them understand process
2. Give them a model for it
3. As they practice, help them focus on critical
4. Provide them with graphic organisers to help
them use the process
5.Use teacher-structured tasks leading to
student-structured tasks.

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