Discuss the notion of the “exotic” in relation to the representation of Latin America on screen, making reference to Lúcia Murat’s documentary Foreign View Georgina Borley, Joshua Fountain, Emmie Morrissey & Charlotte Rusby • • • • • • • • • • What do we mean by “exotic”? About Foreign View and Lúcia Murat The exotic as comical The exotic as sexual The exotic as a threat Exoticism essentialised Consequences of exotic stereotypes Side note on Eurocentric view of the exotic List of films mentioned Bibliography What do we mean by “exotic”? • • • • Charm of the unfamiliar Striking or out of the ordinary Commonly misunderstood, inherent quality “aesthetic perception - one which renders people, objects and places strange even as it domesticates them, and which effectively manufactures otherness even as it claims to surrender to its immanent mystery” (Huggan, 2001, p.13) • “fetishised otherness” (Huggan, 2001, p.14) About Foreign View and Lúcia Murat • • • • • Olhar Estrangeiro 2006 Clichés and stereotypes of Brazil Brasil Documenta and international film festivals “a fun and fascinating look at how stereotypes are born, packaged and sold to audiences the world over” (Jacqueline Rush Rivera) • O Brasil dos gringos – Tunico Amâncio The exotic as comical Carmen Miranda: • • • • Pronunciation Speed of speech Exaggeration “Carmen Miranda constituted a most remarkable caricature of woman. Behind the peerless vulgarity of her costumes and ornaments, tutti-frutti hats and necklaces, frilly sleeves and multicoloured skirts, lurked a transvestite.” (Johnson and Stam, 1995, p.360) Supporting characters: • Stereotypical roles or jobs • Witty one-liners • Si tu vas à Rio, tu meurs (1987) The exotic as sexual • “charming, fun, to be played with or desired, but always irretrievably ‘other’.” (Swanson, 2009, p.3) • “The camera roves fetishistically over the colourful bodies of performing Latins” (Swanson, 2009, p.11) • Wild Orchid (1990) The exotic as a threat • The Simpsons, Blame it on Lisa • “spectre of Latin sexuality’s implicit threat” (Swanson, 2009, p.6) • José Zúñiga’s character in Next Stop Wonderland (1998) Exoticism essentialised • On del Rio: “Hers was a vague upper-class exoticism articulated within a general category of ‘foreign/other’ tragic sensuality” (López, 1993, p.71) • “did not have a specific national or ethnic provenance, simply an aura of foreignness” (López, 1993, p.71) • Michael Caine • Brenda Starr (1989) • Next Stop Wonderland (1998) • Blame it on Rio (1984) • Wild Orchid (1990) Consequences/Implications • • • • Missed economic opportunities for Brazil Misrepresentation of Brazil by foreigners Misrepresentation of Brazil by Brazil The “exotic” ideas of Brazil overshadow other important aspects of culture or history • Brazilian paranoia Eurocentric view of “exotic” • “While the international sex tourism industry in Brazil reflects a fascination on the part of foreign visitors with the ‘exotic’ mulata and black woman, many young Southern women of Northern European ancestry and colouring migrate to urban areas where they are prized for their exoticism by Brazilians.” (Shaw and Dennison, 2007, p.168) List of films mentioned in Foreign View • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Blame it on Rio. 1984. USA. Stanley Donen The Champ. 1979. USA. Franco Zeffirelli L’homme de Rio. 1964. France. Phillippe De Broca Sällskaps Resor [The Charter Trip]. 1980. Switzerland. Lasse Åberg Next Stop Wonderland. 1998. USA. Brad Anderson Si tu vas à Rio...tu meurs. 1987. France. Philippe Clair T’empêches tout le monde de dormir! 1982. France. Gérard Lauzier Samba. (never finished). USA. David Weisman Wild Orchid. 1990. USA. Zalman King The Forbidden Dance. 1990. USA. Greydon Clark Anaconda. 1997. USA. Luís Llosa Brenda Starr. 1989. USA. Robert Ellis Miller The Burning Season. 1994. USA. John Frankenheimer Le fils du Français. 1999. France. Gérard Lauzier Le grabuge. 1968. France/USA. Édouard Luntz Bibliography Articles Kingstone, S., 2007. No stereotypes please – we’re Brazilian. BBC News, [online]. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/6383919.stm [Accessed 26 November 2012]. Swanson, P., 2009. Going Down on Good Neighbours: Imagining America in Hollywood Movies of the 1930s and 1940s (Flying Down to Rio and Down Argentine Way), Bulletin on Latin American Research, 28(3), pp.1-14. Books AMANCIO, T. 2000. O Brasil dos gringos: imagens no cinema. Niterói, Intertexto. HUGGAN, G. 2001. The postcolonial exotic: marketing the margins. London, Routledge. JOHNSON, R., and STAM, R. 1995. Brazilian cinema: expanded edition. New York, Columbia University Press. SANTAOLALLA, I. 2000. "New" exoticism: changing patterns in the construction of otherness. Amsterdam, Rodopi. SHAW, L., and DENNISON, S. 2007. Brazilian national cinema. London, Routledge. Chapters from books LÓPEZ, A.M., 1993. Are all Latins from Manhattan? Hollywood, ethnography and cultural colonialism. In: King, J., López, A.M. and Alvarado, M. eds. Mediating Two Worlds: Cinematic Encounters in the Americas. London: BFI, pp. 67-80. Films Olhar estrangeiro, 2006. [Film] Directed by Lúcia Murat. Brazil: Taiga, Limite, Okeanos. YouTube videos Carlos Silva, 2009. Simpsons no Brasil. [video online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=invBjPmY8iE&feature=related [Accessed 21 November 2012]. TuttiFruttiHat, 2011. Carmen Miranda: “Rebola a bola (1941). [video online] Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gQtRPvBlkKY [Accessed 26 November 2012]. QUESTIONS?