Project Approach

Empowering Automated & Dynamic Decision Making
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
 Who is Kiltech?
 Background information: Common Challenges in Energy and Plant Performance
 What is Central Plant Optimization?
 Overcoming challenges: Overview & Benefits
 M&V: Continuous Commissioning & Preventative Maintenance
 Questions & Discussion
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
1998 to 2005
Turbocor Development - Redefining Chiller Technology
Began Providing Chiller Controllers - Optimized compressor sequencing for the Turbocor magnetic bearing
compressor (up to eight compressors in parallel). As of today, more than 1,500 chillers are installed worldwide
that currently utilize the Kiltech chiller controller.
2005 to 2007
Optimization Development & Testing - To develop and test the Brute-Force optimization logic, Kiltech
developed numerous plant simulation, control and testing-equipment as part of a two (2) year heat exchanger
and cooling tower modeling exercise to prove the models. The goal was to further expand the control logic to
incorporate variable condenser water flow through shell and tube heat exchanger, cross flow cooling towers
and counter flow cooling towers.
2007 to 2010
In 2007, a scaled down version of the optimization logic was deployed to approximately a dozen sites in the
Southwest, United States on single chiller projects as an add on module to the tower and pump control
software of the Kiltech chiller controller (this add on module to the Kiltech chiller controller is no longer
offered). The following year a complete automation I/O panel with capability of up to four chillers, four pumps
and four towers was deployed to seventeen (17) sites.
2010 to Present
Kiltech expanded platform to include the optimization of air side components, steam driven operations, cogen,
TES and gas driven operations of chilled water plants.
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
Today, Kiltech has deployed over 120 optimization projects worldwide.
Plants that range from approximately 200 tons to approximately 16,000 tons, and have projects
scheduled that are over 25,000 tons up to 50,000 tons.
Kiltech has assembled a team with a diverse knowledge and experience base comprised of experts
• Mechanical, electrical, thermodynamic, aerodynamic, fluid-dynamic engineering and modeling
• Energy market trends
• Financial incentives
• Utility procedures and trends
• Project financing
• Performance contracting
• Graphic developers
• System start up, commissioning, measurement and verification and post-installation service
The multi-disciplined approach is critical to assuring that the central plant energy saving project
goals are achieved and sustained.
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Energy and Plant Performance: Common Challenges
1. Understanding How Individual Equipment Performance Targets and Variables Impacts
Overall Chiller Plant Performance
2. Achieving optimal chiller plant energy performance (kW/ton) while maintaining cooling
needs and respecting equipment parameters
3. Proactive Responses vs. Reactive Reponses to Central Plant Issues that Impact
Performance & Equipment Lifecycle Cost
4. Continual Commissioning of Plant & Operations
5. Continual Staff Education
6. Plant Reliability v. Plant Performance
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Brute Force Optimization strategy or BFO for short:
An optimization method termed “Brute Force Optimization” that is equipment
model driven.
Customized to each plant and operations.
At the heart of the software is an algorithm that is computing all possible chiller,
pump and cooling tower sequencing permutations, modified flows, set points and
load limits.
These calculations find the combination of equipment and speeds that result in the
lowest kW input and/or the lowest instantaneous cost of production (driven by a
cost of operation goal seek algorithm as an electric device minimal kW search).
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
Brute Force Optimization strategy or BFO for short:
All major pieces of equipment are fully modeled and calibrated.
BFO is customized to your plant, can be deployed in phases by simply changing
details of model file (example VFD is added to a condenser water pump the drive
tag=VFD instead of DOL).
Full set of simulations “dry run” performed prior to site deployment and reviewed
with operators and engineering staff.
BFO tool can be driven to seek for lowest kW/Ton or lowest instantaneous cost
Since the BFO holds all of the plant equipment models, forecasted (or day ahead)
performance is available and is based on the learned occupancy and weather
forecast. This enables peak demand alerts and avoidance.
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Brute Force – Combines all the Equipment Models
Brute Force
Cooling Towers
Chw & Cw Pumps
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Continual Data Feedback Loops / Self Calibrating & Self Learning Logic
Real Time Data
Optimized &
Operational Points
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Brute Force - Outputs
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Project Approach
Step 1 Modeling and initial estimation of hourly/annual performance
Each project starts with a process of modeling all the pumps, chillers and towers onsite
(creation of our coefficient file or equipment data file).
Once the initial coefficient file has been set we select the most appropriate optimization
routine to pair the equipment data file with, different routines exist for primary only,
primary/ secondary, dedicated pumps Vs headered pumps and so on.
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Project Approach
Step 1 Example load model used in initial
Logistic Growth
equation: a / (1 + exp(-(b + c*x1 + d*x2 + f*x1*x2))) + g
\frac{a}{1 + e^{- \left( b + c x_1 + d x_2 + f x_1 x_2 \right ) }} + g
indep. variables:
Standard Error:
Coefficient of Determination (r^2):
Correlation Coefficient (r):
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Project Approach
Model calibration
• M&V / Trend Data
• Interview the operators and review the service records of the major pieces of
central plant equipment.
• At this point in time we also get a good idea of equipment condition and any
obstacles the potential project might face like the tower fill needs to be
replaced, 6 out of 24 tower fan motors are down to ground or the VFD’s on the
chilled water pumps have been in bypass for two years since that lightning
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Project Approach
Step 2 Identifying and quantifying possible plant modifications
•Once the initial data runs have been created we may start to modify the “equipment data
file” to identify the impact of various EEM’s (energy efficiency measures) such as adding
variable speed drives to chilled water pumps, condenser water pumps and cooling tower
fans or replacing chillers with higher efficiency machines.
•Additional performance runs are made for each EEM and the results tabulated, a
discussion with the owner, contract and engineer typically takes place at this point to review
the costs, installed ROI and cap rate impact of each additional measure (see example
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Project Approach
EXAMPLE EEM ROI Analysis: Addition of plate and frame economizer
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Project Approach
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
Project Approach
Step 3 (Assumes project purchase ordered)
Once purchase ordered the custom graphics, reporting and optimization service
created and installed to a server in our shop to be shipped to the partner controls
contractor for installation and point integration into the existing BMS or PLC system.
Once all the points have been integrated and any mechanical work is completed team
will arrange to be present for site commissioning (1 to 4weeks onsite).
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Hardware & Software
All optimization, reporting and condition monitoring services takes place on an onsite server which is
purchased and maintained by the owner – 100% ON SITE
The optimization software/ hardware consists of the following components:
Complete Automation Panel & Controls Overlay
Optimization Service (Runs as a windows service or web service).
Enterprise SQL Database used for data storage and analytics.
AX Supervisor or Struxureware with appropriate drivers to exchange information with the BMS or
PLC system (we often integrate with PLC’s on the larger industrial plants).
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
Benefits & Key Features
Real-time baseline performance model included with every project – owner can see the savings
Display of the target total plant performance such an operator can tell it is working (calculated by
optimization service).
Brute force optimization checks for all possible conditions and auto corrects should any equipment be
offline or performance deviates excessively. BFO is the only method that can achieve this result.
Modeled approach allows “equipment energy performance tracking”. Chiller and pump “as
manufactured” performance is calculated and each minute and displayed using simple dial/ target
indicators (see image below). The target and alarm limits are non-static and move with equipment
conditions such as changes in temperatures, flows and loads.
Open platform – we only use OPEN license tridium supervisors such the code can be supported by our
No Annual fees
Automated Reporting
Performance Guarantee, Performance Contracts and/or Project Financing
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
M&V: Continual Commissioning
• Most buildings continuously evolve in terms of use and function  The HVAC systems tend to become outdated over time.
• Consequently, while commissioning an existing HVAC system to the design intent generally improves comfort and efficiency significantly,
it is still likely to result in a sub-optimal system set-up.
• Continuous commissioning addresses these problems by explicitly considering current functions and uses of the building and
requirements on its systems and attempts to optimize the efficiency of the systems for the current application, to the point that design
intent is not addressed.
• Application of this approach to commissioning of existing HVAC systems has been found to typically result in 20% reductions in building
energy use, with typical paybacks of one to three years
• In a study of 60 new buildings, conducted by the Berkeley, CA-based Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)
• 50% suffered controls problems,
• 40% suffered HVAC problems
• 15% had missing equipment
• 25% of the economizers and VFDs didn't function.
• In addition, 60% of all insurance claims were HVAC related; the No. 1 source of complaints was HVAC.
• Six buildings on the Texas Tech University campus, several buildings at Penn State University, the major buildings on the Texas A&M
University campus, the Texas A&M International campus at Laredo, Brooke Army Medical Center, and others  15 to 25% annual
energy savings from retrofitted buildings, from newer buildings, or from older, existing buildings.
• On the Texas A&M International campus at Laredo, for example, all six buildings were less than five years old, had a modern EMCS, yet
the CC efforts produced 20% savings from the prior year’s utility bill baseline.
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
M&V: Preventative Maintenance – Jones Lang LaSalle Study
JLL surveyed approximately 12 percent of the company’s entire portfolio of 119 million square feet. For this 14 million
square feet of mixed property types:
Source: Jones Lang LaSalle. ‘Determining the Economic Value of Preventative Maintenance’
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.
M&V: Preventative Maintenance – Jones Lang LaSalle Study
Source: Jones Lang LaSalle. ‘Determining the Economic Value of Preventative Maintenance’
©2013 | Proprietary to Kiltech Inc.

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