Global Health Security presentation

Report
Global Health Security:
Opportunities and Challenges
Claire Standley & Erin Casey
Biosecurity Engagement Program
U.S. Department of State
5th annual AFENET Conference,
Addis Ababa, November 2013
Roadmap for Discussion
Claire Standley:
• Historical perspective of Global Health Security
• Modern GHS landscape
• Examples from outside Africa
Erin Casey
• Linking veterinary education with epidemiology
• One Health and GHS
• Examples from within Africa
What is Health Security?
“The activities required…to minimize vulnerability to acute public
health events that endanger the collective health of populations living
across…international boundaries”. (WHO)
Focus on health
problems that
transcend national
borders
Chronic
disease
Human B
and
E Security
Animal
P
Health
Emerging
disease
Dual use
technologies
Focus on elimination
or dismantlement of
biological weapons
infrastructure
Bio
terrorism
BEP: Shared priorities
FOCUS EFFORTS HERE
BEP
Partner
Country
SUSTAINABILITY
BEP GOALS:
• Institutionalize biorisk
management
• Promote compliance
with international
frameworks
• Decrease opportunity
for misuse of
pathogens
Lessons From History
• Tularemia used as weapon by Hittites in 1300s
• “Black Death” in Europe (Yersinia pestis) caused
socio-economic chaos
• Smallpox introduced into Americas by early
European colonists destroyed whole societies.
• Better understanding of transmission in 19th
century
More recent examples
• First UN Security Council Resolution on health
adopted in 2000, recognizing the destabilization
threat of HIV/AIDS.
• Anthrax attacks in U.S. in 2001 – threat of
biological agents in hands of non-state actors.
• Global pandemics: SARS, H1N1
The Modern Health Security
Landscape
• Greater global connectivity than ever before
“An outbreak in Indonesia can reach Indiana within days,
and public health crises abroad can cause widespread
suffering, conflict, and economic contraction….”
-President Obama, May 2009
The Modern Health Security
Landscape
• Greater global connectivity than ever before
• Internet as a resource for responsible research
but also nefarious purposes
The Modern Health Security
Landscape
• Greater global connectivity than ever before
• Internet as a resource for responsible research
but also nefarious purposes
• Mobile, capable, and organized trans-national
terrorist groups around the world
The Modern Health Security
Landscape
• Greater global connectivity than ever before
• Internet as a resource for responsible research
but also nefarious purposes
• Mobile, capable, and organized trans-national
terrorist groups around the world
• Emerging infectious diseases and diffusion of
advanced biotechnologies
Emerging Infections: The last
30 years
??
Source: Nature 430, 242-249(8 July 2004)
“We must come together to
prevent, and detect, and fight every
kind of biological danger—whether
it’s a pandemic like H1N1, or a
terrorist threat, or a treatable
disease.”
President Obama, United Nations General
Assembly Address, September 22, 2011
International Frameworks
Related to Health Security
• Biological Weapons Convention (1972)
– Recent emphasis on responsible conduct/dual-use
• International Health Regulations (2005)
• Lots of national policies and guidelines
States report meeting all
core capacity
requirements
Adopted by 194
States Parties
Entered
into force
2005
2007
States assess
core capacities
States report meeting all
core capacity
requirements
OR
OR
Request
extension
Request 2nd
extension
2012
2014
2009
Plan/implement capacity
building
Examples from outside Africa
• Support for national bodies that promote health
security
– Iraq National Biorisk Management Committee
• Multisectoral coordination for outbreak response
– Training of MoH first responders and law enforcement
in Middle East to respond to CBW event
Global Health Security
And One Health
Africa
Erin Casey, MS, DVM
Program Officer
Biosecurity Engagement Program
Cooperative Threat Reduction
5th annual AFENET Conference,
Addis Ababa, November 2013
Epidemiology
and Veterinary Medicine
• Education curriculum
– Global issue
• Importance of partnering the fields
– Better understanding of disease
– Maximize training
http://trialx.com
www.phrei.org
Veterinary Medicine
and
Epidemiology / Environment
and
Human Medicine
www.onehealthinitiative.com
One Health
Synergistic Effect
http://bio-risk.org/html/biosecurity.html
Definitions
cvm.msu.edu
• Biorisk: risk associated with biological materials
• Biosafety: containment principles, technologies, and
practices implemented to prevent unintentional
exposure to pathogens and toxins, or their
unintentional release
• Biosecurity: measures designed to prevent the loss,
theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release of
pathogens and toxins
Health Security:
From collection to containment
FOCUS EFFORTS HERE
• Sample collection
• Sample transport
• Laboratory analysis
• Communication
Health
Security
 security
MULTI-SECTORAL APPROACH
International Health Regulations
• Development and history
• Management plan in the event of an outbreak
• Success stories
Integrated Disease Surveillance and
Response
• Adopted in 1998
• Framework for strengthening national public
health surveillance and response systems
http://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/11943
http://www.who.int/csr/labepidemiology/projects/
surveillance/en/
Case study
• Ebola Virus (Uganda)
July – August 2012
• Quick, organized response
– Contained outbreak
– Minimized impact
www.brettrussell.com
• National and international partnerships
• Veterinary / One Health
Continued Success Stories
in Africa
• Field epidemiology capacity development
• Public health laboratory capacity development
• Public health disease surveillance and
effective response
• Networking and collaboration
Health Security:
An integrated approach
FOCUS EFFORTS HERE
www.healthypeople.gov
Regional
Global
Thank you!
Erin Casey, MS, DVM
Program Officer
Biosecurity Engagement
Program
US Department of State
[email protected]
Claire Standley, PhD
Program Officer
Biosecurity Engagement
Program
US Department of State
[email protected]

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