Tier II Interventions

Report
Strengthening PBIS in Your School:
Tier II Interventions
MiBLSi/Ingham ISD Focus Day Training
Acknowledgements
The material for this training day was developed with the
efforts of…
• Soraya Coccimiglio
• Melissa Nantais
Content was based on the work of…
– George Sugai
– Mickey Garrison
– Randy Sprick
– Rob Horner
– Robert Marzano
– Anita Archer
Matt Phillips
Coordinator, Positive Behavior
Interventions & Supports (PBIS)
Implementation – Ingham ISD
Speech-Language Pathologist
• Heartwood
• Sparrow
• Indiana
• Private Practice
• MSU - CSD
Erin Rappuhn
•
•
•
•
MTSS/School Psychology Intern for Ingham ISD
MA, Doctoral Student in MSU School Psychology Program
Background in Psychology and Elementary/Special Education
Teaching, Clinical Work, Consultation
Setting Group Expectations
To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and
participation
• Be Responsible
– Attend to the “Come back together” signal
– Active participation…Please ask questions
• Be Respectful
– Please allow others to listen
• Please turn off cell phones and pagers
• Please limit sidebar conversations
– Share “air time”
– Please refrain from email and Internet browsing
• Be Safe
– Take care of your own needs
Participants will…
• Understand the systematic framework for MultiTiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL
students
• Understand how classroom management and
specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the
necessary foundation for additional behavioral
interventions
• Develop an understanding of behavioral
assessment and the function it serves
Participants will…
• Develop a working knowledge of multiple
targeted behavioral interventions for individual
students
• Develop an understanding of the use of data in
selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral
interventions.
1. The MTSS Model for PBIS
2. The Organizational Framework for Tier II
Behavioral Interventions
3. Prevention via Core Classroom Supports
and Early Stage Interventions
4. “Practical” Functional Behavioral
Assessment
5. Highly Structured Tier II Interventions
6. Other Resources
Hey
there,
partner!
For responses that
are longer, you will
be asked to share
thoughts and ideas
with a partner
throughout the
session today.
Decide which person
sitting next to you
will be your partner
today.
Red/Yellow/Green Sheet
As a result of today’s session, I plan to…
Stop…
Continue…
Start…
The MTSS Model
for PBIS
Transition To Tier 2
Implementation Supports
Sustaining Tier 1
Keep It Going!
• Question:
• How can you move forward with Tier
2 supports while maintaining
confidence that Tier 1 will be
maintained or improved?
• Answer:
• By focusing on the Big Idea Basics!
Tier 1 “Big Idea Basics”
For continued accuracy, fluency,
and durability!
Big Idea Basics
1)
2)
3)
4)
Foundations of PBIS
Implementation Framework
Effective Practice
Account for Context and
Culture
Big Idea #1: Foundations
• Prevention-Focused
• Driven by Outcomes and Data
• Labeling, Language, and
Context
Prevention Logic for All
(Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996)
Decrease
development
of new
problem
behaviors
Prevent
worsening &
reduce
intensity of
existing
problem
behaviors
Eliminate
triggers &
maintainers
of problem
behaviors
Teach,
monitor, &
acknowledge
pro-social
behavior
Redesign of teaching environments … not students!
Driven by Outcomes and Data
• A plan for intervention or implementing a
change to our system without data is just a toss
of the dice!
• But collecting data that doesn’t help to inform
our work can be a waste!
Supporting Social Competence &
Academic Achievement
OUTCOMES
Supporting
Decision
Making
Supporting
Staff Behavior
PRACTICES
Supporting
Student Behavior
Activity
1. Can you remember recent programs,
curricula, initiatives, etc. that have been
implemented without data?
2. Were they off the mark? Or were they
effective?
3. Are you collecting data that isn’t being
used?
4. Could it be used for something useful? Or
not?
Labeling, Language, and Context
• Language reflects and influences our
thinking and our practices.
• Paying attention to our language can
help to change the way we think and the
way we work for the benefit of our
students!
Classic Examples To Be Avoided
• Let’s discuss our “Tier 2 Kids”
• If this (plan) doesn’t work, she may
become a “Tier 3 Kid”
• There are some red flags here, he may
need to “be in Tier 2”
An Underlying Belief
Must be Established:
“…Faculty and staff must believe that any
change in student behavior starts with
the adults in the school changing their
approach to behavior management.”
(Sprick, 2009; p. 427)
Activity
1.Identify common phrases or terms
that are used in your building’s
efforts
2.What message(s) does this
language convey? Is it helpful or
potentially harmful/misleading?
3.How might you adjust (or further
encourage) this language as
needed?
Big Idea #2 Implementation
Framework
• Blueprint for success!
• MTSS/RTI
• Appropriate Pacing
Team
GENERAL
IMPLEMENTATION
PROCESS:
“Getting Started”
Agreements
Data-based
Action Plan
Evaluation
Implementation
Essential Principles in All
MTSS Trainings
• Create systems, not just
programs, to support each and
every student
• Earlier, rather than later
• Evidence, not opinion
Appropriate Pacing
• Enthusiasm is priceless, and
dragging our feet without reason is
a tragedy…
• But we must be careful to keep our
implementation in-line with our
preparation!
Stages of Implementation
Focus
Should we
do it!
Stage
Description
Exploration/Ad
option
Decision regarding commitment to
adopting the program/practices and
supporting successful implementation.
Installation
Set up infrastructure so that successful
implementation can take place and be
supported. Establish team and data
systems, conduct audit, develop plan.
Work to do
it right!
Initial
Try out the practices, work out details,
Implementation learn and improve before expanding to
other contexts.
Elaboration
Work to do
it better!
Expand the program/practices to other
locations, individuals, times- adjust from
learning in initial implementation.
Continuous
Make it easier, more efficient. Embed
Improvement/R within current practices.
egeneration
Big Idea #3: Effective Practice
• Fidelity
• Work Smarter, Not Harder
• Prioritize Measureable Goals
• Data-based Decision Making
Why Focus on Fidelity?
• It is, after all, one more thing to
measure!But it’s worth it!
• Without ensuring fidelity, it is impossible
to determine whether our efforts are
promoting desired outcomes!
• Effort required to measure fidelity > Effort
required to evaluate our work without
knowing!
Work Smarter Not Harder
OSEP Center on PBIS Guidelines for Implementation
“Because we cannot do everything all at once!”
1)Do the smallest number of actions…
2)That are evidence based…
3)And will have the largest and most durable
effect!
Prioritize Measurable Goals
• This all “hangs together” with our fidelity
data, and our efforts to Work Smarter!
• If we cannot measure and record the
outcome, it moves further down the priority
list.
• If a goal sounds like a priority, but we don’t
have a way to measure it – FIND ONE!
Consider Sources of Data
• ODR’s/SWIS? YES!
• But what about…
• Attendance?
• “Local” classroom data?
• Others?
Measurable as written?
Goals/Outcomes
• Improve behavior in our school.
• Increase attendance for Howard Elementary
• Encourage students to arrive to class on time
• Improve school climate
• Decrease ODR’s
• Increase staff morale
Measurable as written?
Goals/Outcomes
• Improve behavior in our school.
• Increase attendance for Howard Elementary
• Encourage students to arrive to class on time
• Improve school climate
• Decrease ODR’s
• Increase staff morale
Follow-Up
1. Look back to your SW-PBIS Goals from last
Spring
2. Are they measurable?
3. And measuring meaningful things?
4. Based on the Action Steps you wrote last Spring,
evaluate your progress:
a. Do you need to adjust the wording?
b. Have you been able to collect the necessary data?
Big Idea #4: Context & Culture
• Your building culture is unique!
• Dynamic group membership
• Shared experience and shared
behaviors
• Shared goals and vision
Dynamic Membership
Build SYSTEMS in addition to expertise!
Context & Culture
1. What unique issues need to be addressed or
given time/attention in your building?
1. Utilize the Benchmarks of Quality and any
prior knowledge/anecdotal data as necessary
1. Identify 1-2 possibilities you’d like to share
with a nearby team
The
Organizational
Framework for
Tier II Behavioral
Interventions
Q: (How) is Your Tier 2
Team Organized?
43
Building Leadership Team
Addresses
Schoolwide Systems &
Tier 2/Tier 3 Systems
Building Leadership Team
Addresses
Schoolwide Systems
Building Leadership
Team
Addresses
Schoolwide
Systems
Tier 2/ Tier 3
Systems
Membership Structure
Should Include:
• Administrator
• Crossover member from Tier 1 Building
Leadership Team
• Faculty with expertise in behavioral
assessment and intervention
• Faculty with expertise in academic
assessment and intervention
47
Quick Check
Do you have a Tier 2/Behavior Response
Team?
How is your team organized?
Does your team have the necessary
membership structure for successful
functioning?
Tier 2 Team’s Role in Targeted
Support
• Establishing systems
• Ensuring that students have access
• Ensuring fidelity
• Tracking effectiveness and making
adjustments
Barriers to Tier 2 Success
Lack of:
• Administrative Support and Leadership
• Classroom System Implementation
• Communication System
50
Q: How Does Staff
Access Tier 2
Behavioral Supports
Decision Rules:
When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed?
• Entry Criteria allow for consistency among staff
and students as we build our system of supports
• Entry Criteria Considerations:
• 2 major office discipline referrals in a quarter
• > 5 absences within a quarter
• 60 minutes “time out class” in a week
Decision Rules:
When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed?
Entry Criteria should be specifically defined
for each Tier 2 intervention offered
Entry Criteria should be widely known
among building faculty and staff, parents,
and community agencies
Decision Rules:
What are the Exit Criteria for Tier 2 Interventions?
Original data sources that lead to student
identification
•
•
•
•
•
ODR
Attendance
Academics
Time out of class”
Teacher Perception
Key is to frequently and regularly
• Celebrate success
• Adjust if student doesn’t respond (or problems start
reappearing)
Decision Rules:
How Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed?
•
•
•
•
Is there a formal referral form?
What information should be on the referral?
Where are referrals submitted?
Who can refer a student for targeted behavioral
intervention?
– Teachers
– Parents
• What is the anticipated timeline from referral to next
step?
• How are parents informed?
• How is parent permission obtained?
Activity
Team Task:
Consider the current process of referring students
to Tier 2 interventions that exists in your building
Are there any additions or changes that are
needed?
Determine what information regarding the
referral process for Tier 2 interventions needs to
be communicated – record this information on
your communication log
Prevention:
Core Classroom
Supports & Early
Stage Interventions
Continuum
of Positive
Behavior
Supports
Process Data - Behavior
pbisapps.org
Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)
• Completed annually by school
•
•
•
•
leadership teams
Tier 1 SWPBIS implementation fidelity
check
53 benchmarks across 10 critical
elements of implementation.
Identifies areas of strength and need;
informs problem analysis and action
planning.
70% Implementation Goal
Self-Assessment Survey (SAS)
• Completed annually by building staff
• Fidelity check of PBIS implementation
across (a) school wide, (b) nonclassroom, (c) classroom, and (d)
individual students
• Seven key elements of the
Implementation Subsystems
• Informs of areas of strength and need,
including communication between
leadership team and staff
• 70% Implementation Goal
Schoolwide Overview- Behavior
District Process Data - Behavior
Process Data Snapshots:
PBIS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ)
Critical Features of
Effective Classroom Management
Classroom
Structures
Responding
to
Inappropriate
Behavior
Responding
to
Appropriate
Behavior
TeacherStudent
Relationships
Instructional
Management
(Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)
The goal of classroom management
is to develop a classroom of
students who are:
• respectful,
• responsible,
• motivated,
• and highly engaged in meaningful
tasks.
Classroom Management Plan
Developing a Classroom Management Plan will set the
stage for dealing productively with a range of behaviors, both
positive and negative.
Historical Perspective
BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT HAS
TYPICALLY CONSISTED OF TRYING TO
“MAKE” STUDENTS BEHAVE
This attitude leads to an
overdependence on
REACTIVE PROCEDURES.
An Increase in Emotional Intensity
Dependence on Role-Bound Authority
A Dependence on Punishment
Wishing and Hoping
The CHAMPs Acronym
•C Conversation
•H Help
•A Activity
•M Movement
•P Participation
•S Supplies
Defining CHAMPS:
• A guide to the decisions teachers can
make to build and implement a proactive
and positive approach to classroom
management.
• A process of continuous improvement
• A common language among staff
members
Develop and
Display Classroom Rules
Your classroom rules should
communicate your most
important expectations and
address most common
misbehaviors.
Management Plan
An effective Classroom Management
Plan is a framework that ensures
students are academically engaged
and emotionally thriving by supporting
classroom:
•Rituals
•Routines
•Rules
•Consequences
•Motivational techniques
Management Plan
The greater the level of structure
needed in your classroom, the more
DETAILED and PROLONGED you
are going to have to be when teaching
your expectations.
Level of Classroom Structure
• The level of structure should not be
based on teacher preference or
familiarity!
• The level of structure should be
based on student need!
• When in doubt, start with a higher
level of structure.
“Survey says…”
0-30
LOW: Students can be successful
with LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH
31-60
MEDIUM: Students need MEDIUM
or HIGH structure
61-120
HIGH: Students need HIGH
structure
Schoolwide Overview- Behavior
85
Outcome Data - Behavior
Outcome Data - Behavior
“Rule of Three”: If more than three students
are demonstrating the same misbehavior, the
management plan needs to be adjusted to
address the misbehavior.
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Classroom
Structures
Responding
to
Inappropriate
Behavior
Responding
to
Appropriate
Behavior
TeacherStudent
Relationships
Instructional
Management
(Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011)
Strengthen Classroom
Management
S = Structure for Success
T = Teach Expectations
O = Observe Behavior
I = Interact Positively
C = Correct Fluently
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Strengthen Classroom
Management
• Opportunities to Respond
• Verbal Responses
• Written Responses
• Action Responses
All Students Respond. When possible use
response procedures that engage all students.
(Archer, 2011)
Strengthen Classroom
Management
• Ratio of Interactions
• Positive Interaction: acknowledging a positive
behavior
• Negative Interaction: addressing a negative
behavior; fluent correction
4:1
15:1
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Precision Requests
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Strengthen Classroom
Management
Activity
Team Task:
Review examples from the Menu of Classwide Motivation
Systems
1s Read –
2s Read –
3s Read –
4s Read –
100 Squares
Mystery Motivators &
Good Behavior Game
Reinforcement Based
on Reducing Misbehavior
Dots for Motivation
Share out a summary of the classwide system.
Consider which system(s) may benefit classrooms in your
building.
Early Stage Interventions
These are the
interventions that ALL
teachers should be
trained to implement
effectively and with
fidelity.
Early Stage Interventions
Early Stage Interventions
Activity
Team Task:
Review examples from the Menu of Early Stage
Interventions
1s Read –
2s Read –
3s Read –
4s Read –
A) Planned Discussion
B) Academic Assistance
C) Goal Setting
D) Data Collecting and Debriefing
Share out a summary of the intervention.
Consider which intervention(s) may benefit particular
students in your building.
Practical
Functional Behavior
Assessment (FBA)
Based on work from Sprick (2011) and Steege & Watson (2008)
Practical FBAs
• Comprehensive Functional Behavior
Assessments (FBAs) are often associated with
Tier III interventions
• However…more basic and practical FBAs are
important to consider in order to determine an
appropriate match between a presenting
behavior problem and an appropriate Tier II
Intervention
Why Practical FBAs?
• School resources (time, staff) are often limited and are certainly
valuable
• Many attempts to address problem behaviors:
• Consume most of our resources
• React to the problem after it occurs
• Fade out because they are not working…
• Problem of “premature implementation”
• But this may be attributed to a lack of fit
(or match) between the problem behavior and
the intervention
Work smarter, not harder!
Problem-Solving Process
Understand How To
Shape Behavior
Human Behavior :
serves a purpose (functional)
is predictable.
is changeable.
Understand How To
Shape Behavior
• Human behavior is learned and can also be unlearned,
or shaped into a more desirable form.
• Behaviors are performed for a reason, or to serve a
specific function (whether we are aware of it or not)
• Possible functions:
• Gain something (attention, objects)
• Escape/Avoid something (difficult work, negative or
unpleasant experience)
• Sensory stimulation (movement, texture)
Understand How To
Shape Behavior
• Behavior can be taught and changed.
• When students behave irresponsibly,
it’s likely that they haven’t
experienced the benefits of
responsible behavior.
5 Components of the FBA
Process
When examining a particular behavior, consider the
5 essential components of the FBA process:
1. Define the target behavior
2. Consider the setting events (individual, home, classroom
variables)
3. Consider the antecedents
4. Analyze the consequences
5. Hypothesize about the function of the behavior
A “Practical” FBA: Tier II
Interventions
• Before considering a more comprehensive FBA for Tier III
interventions, utilize a practical FBA to hypothesize the
function of the given behavior:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Target behavior
Antecedents
Consequences
Hypothesis
The ABC’s of
Behavior
1 Conditions Set
2 An Individual’s
the Stage for
Behavior
3a Pleasant
outcomes result in
increasing behavior
OR
3b Unpleasant
outcomes result in
decreasing behavior
Antecedents
Target Behavior
Consequences
Conditions most
likely to occur
One or more interfering
behaviors
Maintain the behavior
Use your data
• Use your data to inform your decisions about
whether the consequences are increasing or
decreasing the likelihood that the behavior
occurs
• Consequences that appear to be a punishment
for adults (i.e., being sent to office) may actually
be reinforcing for the student (i.e., avoid difficult
classwork)
Operationally defining
the target behavior
• When behaviors are specifically defined, it
ensures that everyone understands the behavior
• Behavior: “out of control”
• Person 1: yelling, screaming, throwing things, hitting
• Person 2: bumping into other people
• Behavior: “doesn’t get along with others”
• Person 1: name-calling, hitting
• Person 2: excluded by peers
Operationally defining
the target behavior
• Consider the following when defining
the behavior
• What does it look like?
• What does it sound like?
• Occurrence:
• Frequency?
• Intensity?
• Duration?
ABC’s of behavior
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Teacher instructs student
to begin assignment
Student begins assignment
Teacher provides verbal
praise
Student put on diet by
parents
Student takes food from
classmates during lunch
Student eats the food
Teacher instructs students
to read silently
One student cracks a joke
to classmates
Classmates laugh
Student comes to school
with a headache
Student engages in
disruptive behavior
Student is sent to the office
Student wants to join a
game at recess
Student bumps into
classmates and grabs ball
Classmates get mad and
tell teacher; student kept in
from recess
Teacher instructs students
to complete math
worksheet
Student gets out of seat
and argues with teacher
when directed to do work
Student sent into the
hallway
Examples based on Steege & Watson (2009). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments
Activity
• With your partner, examine the ABC’s presented and generate
a list of possible hypothesized functions of the behavior on
the next slide
• Remember, the three most common function categories are:
• Gain something
• Escape/avoid something
• Sensory need
ABC’s of behavior
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
Teacher instructs
students to begin
assignment
Student begins
assignment
Teacher provides
verbal praise
Student put on diet by
parents
Student takes food
from classmates
during lunch
Student eats the food
Teacher instructs
students to read
silently
One student cracks a
joke to classmates
Classmates laugh
Student comes to
school with a
headache
Student engages in
disruptive behavior
Student is sent to the
office
Student wants to join a Student bumps into
game at recess
classmates
Students get mad and
tell teacher; student
kept in from recess
Teacher instructs
students to complete
math worksheet
Student sent to office
Student gets out of
seat and argues with
teacher when directed
to do work
Possible function?
Your Turn
• Using your own example of a student exhibiting challenging
behavior (not a challenging student), walk through the
Practical FBA process using the ABC model using your ABC
Worksheet
• Work with your partner to define the behavior in operational
terms, list possible antecedents and consequences, and
hypothesize about the function of the behavior
Purpose: This hypothesis will help you to select a Tier II
intervention that will be a good match
Remember…
When considering the target behavior,
antecedents, and consequences, collect and
analyze your data!
Targeted Tier II
Interventions
Check-In, Check-Out
(CICO)
Also referred to as the Behavior Education Program (BEP)
Content based on:
Targeted Behavior Interventions, Check In/Check Out Introduction, (MiBLSi, 2009)
Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools (Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010)
Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools:
The Behavior Education Program, Second Edition
A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone,
Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken.
Guilford Publishing, Inc., published in 2010
www.guilford.com
CICO (BEP) as a
Tier II Intervention
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Easy to implement for teachers (5-10 minutes per check-in)
Flexible (if needed)
Can support approximately 20-30 students at a time
Check-in/out person can be anyone (BEP Coordinator,
paraprofessional, etc)
Regular feedback and progress monitoring
Students can easily transfer in or out
Parent participation
Frequent data entry and review
Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010
Components of CICO
MiBlSi, 2009; Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010
Components of CICO
Daily Progress Report
Aligned to school-wide expectations
Established goal criteria (i.e., 80%)
Optional Reward System Component
Components of CICO Cycle:
1.
Check-in with adult in the morning (positive contact, make sure student is prepared for
the day)
•
Teaching and prompting of skills and expectations
2.
Feedback from the teacher during the day (after each period of the day) – earn 0, 1, 2
3.
Check-out with adult at end of school day
4.
Bring home for parent check-in & signature
5.
Bring back to school for morning check-in
Effectiveness of CICO
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Based on research-based strategies/principles
Daily positive interactions with adults
Helps to motivate/encourage student
Frequent feedback
Clear expectations
Predictable pattern for students
Supports behavior and academic performance
Involves parents in intervention process
• Addresses antecedents  replaces negative antecedents with
consistent positive antecedents
Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010
Daily Progress Report
Daily Progress Report
Who is CICO appropriate for?
• Students with minor behavior disruptions
• Disruptive, interferes with learning
• Out of seat, talking out, not sharing, off task, unprepared for class,
defiant, refuse to do work, inappropriate language
• Not dangerous, violent, or severe/chronic behavior
• Students who respond well to adult attention
• Behaviors occur throughout the day, not just in one setting
(i.e., recess)
• Behavior not primarily related to an escape function due to
academic deficit (modification may be needed)
When to Modify
• Collect data for at least 2-3 weeks before modifying
• Make sure that intervention was delivered consistently and with
fidelity
Modifications presented in
BEP book:
• goals – more academic
driven
• peer reinforcers
• additional check-in
• remove signature portion
Activity
Discuss with your partner or table:
• How might you share this intervention with your school
staff?
• What might need to be in place in order to support this
intervention? (i.e., solid Universal PBIS, referral process,
CICO forms, personnel)
• How will you monitor if the intervention is working and
when to modify or exit?
https://www.pbisapps.org/Resources/Pages/S
WIS-5-Preview-CICO-SWIS.aspx
Highly Structured
Tier II Interventions
So, what are Highly Structured
Interventions?
• Powerful group of tools that may need to be used after Early
Stage Interventions have been implemented and behaviors
continue
• More time intensive to plan and more time consuming to
implement than Early Stage Interventions
• Intervention design and implementation should be a
collaborative effort (school psychs, school social workers,
behavior team, counselors) with the classroom teacher
Tier II Interventions
• Structured Reinforcement Systems
• Planned Discussion
• Data Collection and Debriefing
• Goal Setting and Contracting
• Cueing and Precorrecting
• Teaching Replacement Behaviors
• Functional Communication
• Teaching Social Skills
• Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation
Structured
Reinforcement
Systems
Classroom Reward Systems
“Individualized”
Targeted & Systematic
Reinforcement Systems
Reinforcer Menus
Mystery Motivators
Points for Grumpy
Yes/No Program
Classroom Behavior Bingo
Dots for Motivation
Motivation
• A student’s ability or proficiency to perform a
responsible behavior affects motivation.
• A student who experiences much success at
learning lots of new skills, is more likely to be
intrinsically (or internally) motivated to learn
something new.
• A student who frequently experiences failure
is less likely to be intrinsically motivated.
Rationale for Reinforcement
Systems
• You get more of what you pay attention to!
• Behaviors that are recognized and reinforced are more likely
to be repeated (Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis, 1994)
• For some students, intrinsic motivation to follow the behavior
expectations are enough…
• For other students, additional teacher attention is enough…
• For other students, they will need more tangible, planned, and
frequent recognition to find success and recognize the
benefits of appropriate behavior
Classwide Reinforcement Systems
Tips for effectively choosing, designing and implementing a
reward-based system:
• Make sure the rewards are highly motivating by using a reinforcer
menu or survey.
• Set the system up to make student success likely.
• Make sure your expectations are clear.
• Teach the students how the system works.
• Be consistent.
• Start with immediate reinforcers, gradually increase to intermittent
schedule.
Partner Jigsaw!
• Each partner reads their designated slide and summarizes the
information for the other partner
• Partner 1: Reinforcer Menu, Mystery Motivator, Points for
Grumpy
• Partner 2: Yes/No Program, Classroom Behavior Bingo, Dots for
Motivation
• Select two systems and generate a list of:
• the types of behaviors you would use this with
• which students may not benefit from this program
Reinforcer/Reward Menus
Systematic Reinforcement Programs will not be effective
if the reinforcer is not motivating for that student
• Use a predetermined list/menu of possible rewards from which
the student can choose
• Have the student help to develop a list
• Develop a general list to use with students, have student select
which are motivating for them
• Use Spinners or Charts
Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box
Mystery Motivators
• Random reinforcement for desired behaviors
• Individuals, groups/teams, classwide
• Steps:
1. Create reward menu
2. Visual tool, squares for each day of the week, invisible pen
with M for days with motivator
3. Reward written on piece of paper in sealed envelope
4. If points/criteria met for behavior for that day, color square to
see if reward received
5. Optional bonus square, include positive comments
Hint: Start with 2-3 M’s per week, then space out as students get
used to the program
Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box
XX
MON.
TUES.
X X
WED.
THURS.
FRI.
X X
CHAMPS
Points for Grumpy
• Response-cost system
• Appropriate for younger students, can be modified for older
students
• 2 Coffee cans/jars, tokens, chart
• Combines visual/auditory reminders
interventioncentral.org
Points for Grumpy
Steps:
1. Create a reward list/menu
2. Determine/define behavior (ex: politely following adult
directions)
- teach, provide examples, practice
3. 2 jars used (1 labeled Grumpy, 1 with student’s/team’s
name)
4. Teacher starts day with 10 tokens in pocket
5. If misbehavior (noncompliance) occurs, one token put
into Grumpy jar/can
6. At end of period/time, student can put any tokens left
over into their own jar
7. Tokens traded for points towards reward
8. Use chart to record points earned per day
Yes/No Program
• Individuals or small groups
• Use tickets with faces (smiley, frowny) or words (Yes, No)
1. Steps:
2. Define behavior
3. Create reward menu
4. Explain system and practice Yes/No behaviors
5. When target behavior occurs, mark appropriate ticket, write name, and
deposit into container
6. Give specific feedback when earning Yes or No tickets
7. Drawing at the end of class period or day
• Select a few tickets
• Yes tickets drawn receive reward
• No tickets drawn do not receive reward
8.
Monitor if behaviors are increasing/decreasing
Hints:
- maintain 3:1 ratio (3 Yes tokens to 1 No token)
- do not share the name on No tickets pulled to avoid embarrassment and to
increase motivation
Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box
Classroom Behavior Bingo
(similar to 100 Squares)
Components:
• Individuals, teams/groups,
Steps:
whole class
• Materials:
• Define behavior
• Classroom Behavior
• Raise your hand
Bingo Matrix/Squares
• Turn in completed homework (or 80% of
• Container with numbers
homework for team)
• Reinforcer list/menu
• Define system (frequency of behavior to earn
bingo square, time period, etc)
• Practice and role play
• When student(s) meet criteria, they can
select a number from a container
• Student(s) mark that number on bingo card
• When entire row, column, or diagonal is
filled, earn reward
Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box
Dots for Motivation
• Goal: to increase academic work completion
• Immediate feedback and reinforcer
• Materials: dots (stickers)
• Dots given to student when on-task and working
• Student could use dots to skip a problem they did not know how
to do or did not want to do
• Transition to dots earned for number of problems completed
• Gradually extend criteria  dots earned for number of
completed assignments (use dots as homework pass)
Hint: as student completes more work in this system, cut dots into
halves or quarters (more time to earn reward)
Dr. Ginger Gates, The Texas School Psychologist, article written by Jenson, Andrews, & Reavis (1998)
Rationale
• A student’s behavior may result from a lack of information.
• Planned Discussion is an easy, quick, and efficient intervention.
• As an intervention, Planned Discussion is a respectful and
potentially empowering way to address problem behavior.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Planned Discussion
Purpose: To help students understand and address concerns
associated with:
• Minor but potentially annoying misbehavior
• Moderate misbehavior in the early stages
• Chronic or severe concerns, as one part of a comprehensive
plan
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Planned Discussion
Planned Discussion has the potential to have a positive impact on just
about any behavior.
Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be
an integral part of every intervention plan.
**Note: Planned Discussion will
only be effective for students with sufficient language
skills.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Discussing A One-Time Event vs.
Planned Discussion
One-Time Event
• Does not address a
repeated behavior
• Brief correction provided
that does not interrupt the
flow of instruction
• Immediately set a time to
follow up with student
• Does not include other
individuals
Planned Discussion
• Does address repeated
behavior
• Conducted outside of
classroom instruction
• Conducted during a
neutral and scheduled
time
• May include other
individuals (i.e., other
teacher or parents)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRFFBQlV6A
Positive Characteristics of
Planned Discussion
• Demonstrates concern so that the student truly understands
the issues at hand.
• Involves student in brainstorming solutions.
• Lets student know you are there to help him/her learn &
grow and that you care.
• Action plan for behavioral change is developed with the
student.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Prepare to Meet with the
Student
•
•
•
•
•
•
Identify the Central Concern
Establish a Focus
Determine Who Should Participate in the Discussion
Schedule the Discussion for a Neutral Time
Make an Appointment to Discuss the Concern with the Student
Plan to keep a written record of the discussion
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 2: Meet with the Student
•
•
•
•
•
•
Work with the Student to Define Concerns
Brainstorm Actions
Set up an Informal Action Plan
Schedule a Follow-Up Meeting
Conclude the Meeting with Words of Encouragement
Share a Written Record
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 3: Follow Up with the Student
•
•
•
•
Encourage Student Efforts
Meet Once a Week with the Student
Determine Whether More Structured Interventions are Needed
Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Think-Pair-Share
Identify the advantages to EVERY
classroom teacher in your building
knowing how to implement Planned
Discussions with fidelity.
Intervention D:
DATA COLLECTION AND
DEBRIEFING
Rationale
• Gathering data often solves the problem all by itself
• Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it
should be an integral part of every intervention plan.
• Effective teachers collect data that defines the problem in
measurable terms
• Use of data is the only way to determine objectively whether
interventions are working
• Data will form the basis for assessing fidelity and/or the need
for a different intervention
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Purpose
To increase positive behavior or decrease
negative behavior with any behavioral goal
through observation, as well as to use a
systematic approach of recording data to
gauge the effectiveness of subsequent
interventions.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Choose an Objective but
Simple Data Collection Method
Either use an existing form or record marks on an index card. Some
choices include:
• Basic Frequency Count of Misbehavior
• Duration Recording
• Latency Recording
• Rating Scale
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Minutes of Non-Participation
120
> 100 minutes of non-participation
90
60
30
After 8 weeks, about 70% improvement
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 2: Meet with the Student
(and parents, if appropriate)
• Explain the data you plan to collect before starting
and how you will inform the student of the data as
you are collecting it.
• Meet regularly (at least one a week) with the student
to share and discuss the one-page visual summary of
the data, review trends, set improvement targets,
discuss ideas for improving the situation, and
CELEBRATE progress
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Partner Activity
Partner 1:
Review Data Collection Forms:
• Behavior Counting Forms
• Interval Scatterplot
Partner 2:
Review Data Collection Forms:
• Rating Scale
• Participation Evaluation Record
Share Any Insights With Your Partner
Intervention C:
GOAL SETTING
Rationale
• Students who have experienced repeated
failure have difficulty setting realistic goals
• Goal setting
• increases clarity of expectations,
• helps set attainable goals, and
• can increase the student’s motivation
• Learning to set and achieve realistic goals is
a lifelong skill
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Purpose
Goal setting helps students identify
what they hope to accomplish
and
actions they can take
to reach their goals.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Develop a Plan
• Review the problem and overall student goals by identifying
• strengths,
• desired outcomes, and
• collected information.
• Select the goal setting format
• Set up the goal-setting conference
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 2: Meet with the Student
• Help the student establish long-range goals and short-range goals.
• Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take.
• Help the student identify specific actions he or she is willing to take
in order to reach the short-term goals.
• Identify ways that adults could help the student reach his or her
goals.
• If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective
consequences, make sure the student understands all of the
contingencies
• Set up regular times for follow-up
• Review responsibilities and sign appropriate goal setting form
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 3: Provide Ongoing Support
and Encouragement
• Provide frequent positive feedback; encourage
the student to keep striving towards his or her
goals.
• Correct calmly. Avoid sounding disappointed or
reproachful.
• Evaluate the impact of the plan and make
needed revisions.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Partner Activity
Review the Goal Setting Forms.
Discuss with your partner
• How these Goal Setting Forms differ from each
other,
• The type of student needs they might meet, and
• How they are similar to and different from goal
setting you’ve done with a student in the past.
Intervention J:
Cueing & Precorrecting
Rationale
• To help students control impulsive,
excessive, habitual, or off-task behavior.
• Children are sometimes unaware of their
own behaviors.
• Behaviors can interfere with peer
relationships or success in school.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
What exactly is CUEING?
Cueing is used to interrupt an
inappropriate behavior that is already
taking place.
Cueing takes the place of reprimands or
corrections that would be more verbose and
that the teacher would end up repeating
many times
What exactly is
PRECORRECTING?
Precorrecting is an attempt to anticipate
and prevent an inappropriate behavior
before it occurs.
Precorrection:
• a prompt for appropriate behavior
• sets the stage for positive feedback
Cueing or Precorrecting?
Nosepicking
Cueing
Skipping items on tests
Precorrecting
Pencil tapping
Disrespectful tone of voice
Chronic pencil sharpening
Cueing and
Precorrecting will fade
as the student
becomes successful—
the more successful
the student is, the less
signaling used
Step 1: Develop A Plan
A. Identify possible signals that might be used
B. Identify what adults will do when the student
either responds or fails to respond to a signal
C. Identify other settings/adults to include in the
plan
D. Decide whether the student needs to be taught a
replacement behavior
E. Identify ways to determine whether the
intervention is helping the student reach the goal
Step 2: Meet with the Student to
Discuss & Finalize the Plan
A. Review the problem and goals
B. Help the student select a signal
C. explain any consequences that will be used if the
student fails to respond
D. Briefly demonstrate and practice using role-playing
E. Set up regular meeting times to debrief with the
student
F. Conclude the meeting with words of
encouragement
Step 3: Implement the Plan
A.
Begin using the precorrection or cue anytime the student exhibits
the inappropriate behavior
B. Reinforce the student for responding to the signal and/or for not
needing the signal
C. Implement evaluation & debriefing procedures
D. Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary
E. Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement
Team Activity
Think about a student who may engage
in annoying or inappropriate behaviors.
Would Cueing and Precorrecting be an
appropriate intervention for the
student?
Intervention M:
Teaching Replacement
Behavior
Purpose
To modify any recurring minor or
major misbehavior
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Rationale
• Students with behavior problems may have
never learned the appropriate behavior
• Adults frequently take appropriate behavior
for granted
• Some students will need to be taught how
to replace misbehaviors with appropriate
behaviors
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
If a child doesn’t know how to
read…….we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to
swim…...we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to
multiply……we teach.
If a child doesn’t know how to behave…..
we punish?
John Herner
Fundamental Rule!
“You should not propose to reduce a
problem behavior without also
identifying alternative, desired
behaviors the person should perform
instead of problem behavior”
(O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71).
Replacement Behavior?
Kelly runs into the middle of groups of students
on the playground and gets upset and cries
when they walk away from her or tell the
playground aide that she ran into them.
Possible function of her behavior??
Is there a skill deficit present?
What is “Positive Opposite” of her behavior?
Will the positive opposite fulfill the function of her behavior?
What should the replacement behavior to teach Kelly be then?
A-B-C Defined
Antecedent
Behavior
Consequence
When ___
happens…
the student
does (what)
_________
… because (why)
_________
Competing Pathways
Competing Pathways
2
2
1
3
1
3
4
COMPETING PATHWAYS
On Mondays and/or
when up all of the
night before.
Daily nongraded quiz
on previous night’s
homework
BEHAVIOR SUPPORT
PLANNING
+ Give time to
review
homework.
+ Give quiet time
before starting.
+ Give easy “warmup” task before
doing quiz.
+ Precorrect
behavior options &
consequences.
Do quiz without
complaints.
Verbal protests, slump
in chair, walks out of
room.
Discussion about
answers & homework.
Avoids doing quiz &
homework discussion.
Turn in with name &
sit quietly w/o
interrupting.
Teach options to
problem behavior:
1. Turn in blank
2. Turn in w/ name
3. Turn in w/ name
& first item done.
4. Turn in w/ name
& 50% of items
done.
+ With first sign of
problem behaviors,
remove task, or
request completion
of task next period.
+ Remove task
based on step in task
analysis (STO).
+ Provide effective
verbal praise &
other reinforcers.
Initial Considerations
A. Review the problem and overall goals for the student
B. Determine behaviors or strategies the student can
learn to replace the inappropriate behaviors
C. Design lessons to teach the replacement behavior
D. Determine who will provide the lessons, how much
time will be needed, and when and where they will be
held
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Initial Considerations
E. Consider ways to support that will not embarrass
the student
F. Identify ways to determine whether the
intervention is helping the student reach the goal
G. Determine whether a reinforcement system and
consequences need to be integrated into the plan
H. Identify criteria and procedures for fading the
intervention
I. Determine who will meet with the student to
discuss and finalize the plan
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
e.g., Paying Attention in Class
I’m Feeling Confused
I should…
Watch other students
to see what they are
doing, or…
I know what I should be
doing.
Pay Attention.
Raise my hand and ask
my teacher to repeat
the directions, or…
e.g., Managing Frustration
• First take a deep breath
• Count to 10
• Raise my hand
• Ask Mrs. M. for help
Team Activity
Think about a student who may need to
be taught a replacement behavior.
What might be a “positive opposite”
behavior that would serve the same
function as the inappropriate behavior?
Intervention N:
FUNCTIONAL
COMMUNICATION
Purpose
To improve communication/social skills of
students whose deficits in this area may be
leading to misbehaviors.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Rationale
• Students with limited communication/ social skills may engage
in inappropriate behaviors in an attempt to get their needs met.
• Poor interactions with peers may trigger conflict or lead to
isolation
• Behavior is communication. Need to teach a prosocial
replacement behavior.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Increased Frequency of Occurrence
• Autism Spectrum Disorders
• Trauma
• Special Education
• Need to engage speech-language pathologists ,
occupational therapists, school psychs
Step 1: Determine Need
A. Identify the misbehavior objectively;
B. Consider antecedents and consequences
to determine if behavior is related to
communication/social skills
Step 2: Multidisciplinary Team
Meeting
A. Discuss alternative means of communication
or replacement behaviors.
B. Determine who will teach prosocial
communication skills
C. Include all relevant parties
Step 3: Implement the Plan
A. Teach in context
B. Model and role-play
C. Reinforce student when performing
appropriate behavior; withhold
reinforcement otherwise
D. Measure performance and revise as
needed; fade
A nonprofit working globally to promote
children’s social and academic success
http://www.cfchildren.org/second
-step/kindergarten-grade-5.aspx
http://www.cfchildren.org/secondstep/middle-school.aspx
Intervention K:
Self-Monitoring &
Self-Evaluation
Purpose
To increase student awareness of a
particular behavior so they can learn
to take responsibility for their own
behavior and control what they do
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Develop a Plan
A. Determine the behavior to be monitored and
evaluated.
B. If necessary, identify examples of student behavior
that set boundaries between responsible and
irresponsible behavior.
C. Determine when the student will record behaviors.
D. Develop a recording system for the student.
E. Design a cueing system to prompt the student to
record if needed.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 1: Develop a Plan
F. Plan to have an adult monitor the student’s
behavior initially (and occasionally
thereafter) and compare results with the
student’s record.
G. Identify ways to determine if the
intervention is helping
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
B. Set Boundaries Between Responsible and
Irresponsible Behaviors
Responsible Behavior:
The teacher asks Joan to sit
down:
-Joan nods and sits down.
-Joan says, “Okay,” and sits
down.
-Joan does not respond to
the teacher but immediately
sits down.
-Joan asks in a respectful
tone, “I need to sharpen my
pencil. Is that OK?”
Irresponsible Behavior:
The teacher asks Joan to sit
down:
-Joan sits down but calls the
teacher a name or says
“Why should I?”
-Joan sits down, but in a
sarcastic tone says, “Okay,
whatever you say.”
-Joan does not sit down or
respond.
-Joan goes to sit down in an
exaggerated slow motion.
D. Develop a Recording System for the
Student
• Tally marks
• Symbols, such as +
and –
• Circling a symbol
or number
• Rating scales
• Rubrics
• Others?
Step 2: Meet with the Student to
Discuss and Finalize the Plan
• Review the problem and the goal.
• Introduce the procedures that will be
followed.
• Review everyone’s roles and responsibilities.
• Conclude the meeting with words of
encouragement.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Step 3: Implement the Plan
• Encourage student efforts
• Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the
plan as necessary.
• When the student demonstrates consistent
success, fade the intervention.
• Once the intervention has been faded, provide
continued follow-up, support, and
encouragement.
(Sprick & Garrison, 2008)
Team Activity
Think about a student who may need to
become more empowered to increase
awareness of and take control of
inappropriate behaviors.
Would Self-Monitoring be an appropriate
intervention for the student?
Behavior
Intervention
Resources
Intervention Central
(interventioncentral.org)
• Academic and Behavior Interventions
• Behavior Categories:
•
•
•
•
•
•
Apps
Challenging Students
Motivation
Rewards
Schoolwide Classroom Management
Bully Prevention
PBIS World
Participants will…
• Understand the systematic framework for MultiTiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL
students
• Understand how classroom management and
specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the
necessary foundation for additional behavioral
interventions
• Develop an understanding of behavioral
assessment and the function it serves
Participants will…
• Develop a working knowledge of multiple
targeted behavioral interventions for individual
students
• Develop an understanding of the use of data in
selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral
interventions.

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