Strengthening PBIS in Your School: Tier II Interventions MiBLSi/Ingham ISD Focus Day Training Acknowledgements The material for this training day was developed with the efforts of… • Soraya Coccimiglio • Melissa Nantais Content was based on the work of… – George Sugai – Mickey Garrison – Randy Sprick – Rob Horner – Robert Marzano – Anita Archer Matt Phillips Coordinator, Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports (PBIS) Implementation – Ingham ISD Speech-Language Pathologist • Heartwood • Sparrow • Indiana • Private Practice • MSU - CSD Erin Rappuhn • • • • MTSS/School Psychology Intern for Ingham ISD MA, Doctoral Student in MSU School Psychology Program Background in Psychology and Elementary/Special Education Teaching, Clinical Work, Consultation Setting Group Expectations To make this day the best possible, we need your assistance and participation • Be Responsible – Attend to the “Come back together” signal – Active participation…Please ask questions • Be Respectful – Please allow others to listen • Please turn off cell phones and pagers • Please limit sidebar conversations – Share “air time” – Please refrain from email and Internet browsing • Be Safe – Take care of your own needs Participants will… • Understand the systematic framework for MultiTiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL students • Understand how classroom management and specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the necessary foundation for additional behavioral interventions • Develop an understanding of behavioral assessment and the function it serves Participants will… • Develop a working knowledge of multiple targeted behavioral interventions for individual students • Develop an understanding of the use of data in selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral interventions. 1. The MTSS Model for PBIS 2. The Organizational Framework for Tier II Behavioral Interventions 3. Prevention via Core Classroom Supports and Early Stage Interventions 4. “Practical” Functional Behavioral Assessment 5. Highly Structured Tier II Interventions 6. Other Resources Hey there, partner! For responses that are longer, you will be asked to share thoughts and ideas with a partner throughout the session today. Decide which person sitting next to you will be your partner today. Red/Yellow/Green Sheet As a result of today’s session, I plan to… Stop… Continue… Start… The MTSS Model for PBIS Transition To Tier 2 Implementation Supports Sustaining Tier 1 Keep It Going! • Question: • How can you move forward with Tier 2 supports while maintaining confidence that Tier 1 will be maintained or improved? • Answer: • By focusing on the Big Idea Basics! Tier 1 “Big Idea Basics” For continued accuracy, fluency, and durability! Big Idea Basics 1) 2) 3) 4) Foundations of PBIS Implementation Framework Effective Practice Account for Context and Culture Big Idea #1: Foundations • Prevention-Focused • Driven by Outcomes and Data • Labeling, Language, and Context Prevention Logic for All (Biglan, 1995; Mayer, 1995; Walker et al., 1996) Decrease development of new problem behaviors Prevent worsening & reduce intensity of existing problem behaviors Eliminate triggers & maintainers of problem behaviors Teach, monitor, & acknowledge pro-social behavior Redesign of teaching environments … not students! Driven by Outcomes and Data • A plan for intervention or implementing a change to our system without data is just a toss of the dice! • But collecting data that doesn’t help to inform our work can be a waste! Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior Activity 1. Can you remember recent programs, curricula, initiatives, etc. that have been implemented without data? 2. Were they off the mark? Or were they effective? 3. Are you collecting data that isn’t being used? 4. Could it be used for something useful? Or not? Labeling, Language, and Context • Language reflects and influences our thinking and our practices. • Paying attention to our language can help to change the way we think and the way we work for the benefit of our students! Classic Examples To Be Avoided • Let’s discuss our “Tier 2 Kids” • If this (plan) doesn’t work, she may become a “Tier 3 Kid” • There are some red flags here, he may need to “be in Tier 2” An Underlying Belief Must be Established: “…Faculty and staff must believe that any change in student behavior starts with the adults in the school changing their approach to behavior management.” (Sprick, 2009; p. 427) Activity 1.Identify common phrases or terms that are used in your building’s efforts 2.What message(s) does this language convey? Is it helpful or potentially harmful/misleading? 3.How might you adjust (or further encourage) this language as needed? Big Idea #2 Implementation Framework • Blueprint for success! • MTSS/RTI • Appropriate Pacing Team GENERAL IMPLEMENTATION PROCESS: “Getting Started” Agreements Data-based Action Plan Evaluation Implementation Essential Principles in All MTSS Trainings • Create systems, not just programs, to support each and every student • Earlier, rather than later • Evidence, not opinion Appropriate Pacing • Enthusiasm is priceless, and dragging our feet without reason is a tragedy… • But we must be careful to keep our implementation in-line with our preparation! Stages of Implementation Focus Should we do it! Stage Description Exploration/Ad option Decision regarding commitment to adopting the program/practices and supporting successful implementation. Installation Set up infrastructure so that successful implementation can take place and be supported. Establish team and data systems, conduct audit, develop plan. Work to do it right! Initial Try out the practices, work out details, Implementation learn and improve before expanding to other contexts. Elaboration Work to do it better! Expand the program/practices to other locations, individuals, times- adjust from learning in initial implementation. Continuous Make it easier, more efficient. Embed Improvement/R within current practices. egeneration Big Idea #3: Effective Practice • Fidelity • Work Smarter, Not Harder • Prioritize Measureable Goals • Data-based Decision Making Why Focus on Fidelity? • It is, after all, one more thing to measure!But it’s worth it! • Without ensuring fidelity, it is impossible to determine whether our efforts are promoting desired outcomes! • Effort required to measure fidelity > Effort required to evaluate our work without knowing! Work Smarter Not Harder OSEP Center on PBIS Guidelines for Implementation “Because we cannot do everything all at once!” 1)Do the smallest number of actions… 2)That are evidence based… 3)And will have the largest and most durable effect! Prioritize Measurable Goals • This all “hangs together” with our fidelity data, and our efforts to Work Smarter! • If we cannot measure and record the outcome, it moves further down the priority list. • If a goal sounds like a priority, but we don’t have a way to measure it – FIND ONE! Consider Sources of Data • ODR’s/SWIS? YES! • But what about… • Attendance? • “Local” classroom data? • Others? Measurable as written? Goals/Outcomes • Improve behavior in our school. • Increase attendance for Howard Elementary • Encourage students to arrive to class on time • Improve school climate • Decrease ODR’s • Increase staff morale Measurable as written? Goals/Outcomes • Improve behavior in our school. • Increase attendance for Howard Elementary • Encourage students to arrive to class on time • Improve school climate • Decrease ODR’s • Increase staff morale Follow-Up 1. Look back to your SW-PBIS Goals from last Spring 2. Are they measurable? 3. And measuring meaningful things? 4. Based on the Action Steps you wrote last Spring, evaluate your progress: a. Do you need to adjust the wording? b. Have you been able to collect the necessary data? Big Idea #4: Context & Culture • Your building culture is unique! • Dynamic group membership • Shared experience and shared behaviors • Shared goals and vision Dynamic Membership Build SYSTEMS in addition to expertise! Context & Culture 1. What unique issues need to be addressed or given time/attention in your building? 1. Utilize the Benchmarks of Quality and any prior knowledge/anecdotal data as necessary 1. Identify 1-2 possibilities you’d like to share with a nearby team The Organizational Framework for Tier II Behavioral Interventions Q: (How) is Your Tier 2 Team Organized? 43 Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide Systems & Tier 2/Tier 3 Systems Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide Systems Building Leadership Team Addresses Schoolwide Systems Tier 2/ Tier 3 Systems Membership Structure Should Include: • Administrator • Crossover member from Tier 1 Building Leadership Team • Faculty with expertise in behavioral assessment and intervention • Faculty with expertise in academic assessment and intervention 47 Quick Check Do you have a Tier 2/Behavior Response Team? How is your team organized? Does your team have the necessary membership structure for successful functioning? Tier 2 Team’s Role in Targeted Support • Establishing systems • Ensuring that students have access • Ensuring fidelity • Tracking effectiveness and making adjustments Barriers to Tier 2 Success Lack of: • Administrative Support and Leadership • Classroom System Implementation • Communication System 50 Q: How Does Staff Access Tier 2 Behavioral Supports Decision Rules: When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? • Entry Criteria allow for consistency among staff and students as we build our system of supports • Entry Criteria Considerations: • 2 major office discipline referrals in a quarter • > 5 absences within a quarter • 60 minutes “time out class” in a week Decision Rules: When Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? Entry Criteria should be specifically defined for each Tier 2 intervention offered Entry Criteria should be widely known among building faculty and staff, parents, and community agencies Decision Rules: What are the Exit Criteria for Tier 2 Interventions? Original data sources that lead to student identification • • • • • ODR Attendance Academics Time out of class” Teacher Perception Key is to frequently and regularly • Celebrate success • Adjust if student doesn’t respond (or problems start reappearing) Decision Rules: How Should Tier 2 Interventions be Accessed? • • • • Is there a formal referral form? What information should be on the referral? Where are referrals submitted? Who can refer a student for targeted behavioral intervention? – Teachers – Parents • What is the anticipated timeline from referral to next step? • How are parents informed? • How is parent permission obtained? Activity Team Task: Consider the current process of referring students to Tier 2 interventions that exists in your building Are there any additions or changes that are needed? Determine what information regarding the referral process for Tier 2 interventions needs to be communicated – record this information on your communication log Prevention: Core Classroom Supports & Early Stage Interventions Continuum of Positive Behavior Supports Process Data - Behavior pbisapps.org Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) • Completed annually by school • • • • leadership teams Tier 1 SWPBIS implementation fidelity check 53 benchmarks across 10 critical elements of implementation. Identifies areas of strength and need; informs problem analysis and action planning. 70% Implementation Goal Self-Assessment Survey (SAS) • Completed annually by building staff • Fidelity check of PBIS implementation across (a) school wide, (b) nonclassroom, (c) classroom, and (d) individual students • Seven key elements of the Implementation Subsystems • Informs of areas of strength and need, including communication between leadership team and staff • 70% Implementation Goal Schoolwide Overview- Behavior District Process Data - Behavior Process Data Snapshots: PBIS Benchmarks of Quality (BoQ) Critical Features of Effective Classroom Management Classroom Structures Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Responding to Appropriate Behavior TeacherStudent Relationships Instructional Management (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011) The goal of classroom management is to develop a classroom of students who are: • respectful, • responsible, • motivated, • and highly engaged in meaningful tasks. Classroom Management Plan Developing a Classroom Management Plan will set the stage for dealing productively with a range of behaviors, both positive and negative. Historical Perspective BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT HAS TYPICALLY CONSISTED OF TRYING TO “MAKE” STUDENTS BEHAVE This attitude leads to an overdependence on REACTIVE PROCEDURES. An Increase in Emotional Intensity Dependence on Role-Bound Authority A Dependence on Punishment Wishing and Hoping The CHAMPs Acronym •C Conversation •H Help •A Activity •M Movement •P Participation •S Supplies Defining CHAMPS: • A guide to the decisions teachers can make to build and implement a proactive and positive approach to classroom management. • A process of continuous improvement • A common language among staff members Develop and Display Classroom Rules Your classroom rules should communicate your most important expectations and address most common misbehaviors. Management Plan An effective Classroom Management Plan is a framework that ensures students are academically engaged and emotionally thriving by supporting classroom: •Rituals •Routines •Rules •Consequences •Motivational techniques Management Plan The greater the level of structure needed in your classroom, the more DETAILED and PROLONGED you are going to have to be when teaching your expectations. Level of Classroom Structure • The level of structure should not be based on teacher preference or familiarity! • The level of structure should be based on student need! • When in doubt, start with a higher level of structure. “Survey says…” 0-30 LOW: Students can be successful with LOW, MEDIUM, or HIGH 31-60 MEDIUM: Students need MEDIUM or HIGH structure 61-120 HIGH: Students need HIGH structure Schoolwide Overview- Behavior 85 Outcome Data - Behavior Outcome Data - Behavior “Rule of Three”: If more than three students are demonstrating the same misbehavior, the management plan needs to be adjusted to address the misbehavior. Strengthen Classroom Management Classroom Structures Responding to Inappropriate Behavior Responding to Appropriate Behavior TeacherStudent Relationships Instructional Management (Reinke, Herman, & Sprick, 2011) Strengthen Classroom Management S = Structure for Success T = Teach Expectations O = Observe Behavior I = Interact Positively C = Correct Fluently Strengthen Classroom Management Strengthen Classroom Management Strengthen Classroom Management • Opportunities to Respond • Verbal Responses • Written Responses • Action Responses All Students Respond. When possible use response procedures that engage all students. (Archer, 2011) Strengthen Classroom Management • Ratio of Interactions • Positive Interaction: acknowledging a positive behavior • Negative Interaction: addressing a negative behavior; fluent correction 4:1 15:1 Strengthen Classroom Management Strengthen Classroom Management Precision Requests Strengthen Classroom Management Strengthen Classroom Management Strengthen Classroom Management Activity Team Task: Review examples from the Menu of Classwide Motivation Systems 1s Read – 2s Read – 3s Read – 4s Read – 100 Squares Mystery Motivators & Good Behavior Game Reinforcement Based on Reducing Misbehavior Dots for Motivation Share out a summary of the classwide system. Consider which system(s) may benefit classrooms in your building. Early Stage Interventions These are the interventions that ALL teachers should be trained to implement effectively and with fidelity. Early Stage Interventions Early Stage Interventions Activity Team Task: Review examples from the Menu of Early Stage Interventions 1s Read – 2s Read – 3s Read – 4s Read – A) Planned Discussion B) Academic Assistance C) Goal Setting D) Data Collecting and Debriefing Share out a summary of the intervention. Consider which intervention(s) may benefit particular students in your building. Practical Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) Based on work from Sprick (2011) and Steege & Watson (2008) Practical FBAs • Comprehensive Functional Behavior Assessments (FBAs) are often associated with Tier III interventions • However…more basic and practical FBAs are important to consider in order to determine an appropriate match between a presenting behavior problem and an appropriate Tier II Intervention Why Practical FBAs? • School resources (time, staff) are often limited and are certainly valuable • Many attempts to address problem behaviors: • Consume most of our resources • React to the problem after it occurs • Fade out because they are not working… • Problem of “premature implementation” • But this may be attributed to a lack of fit (or match) between the problem behavior and the intervention Work smarter, not harder! Problem-Solving Process Understand How To Shape Behavior Human Behavior : serves a purpose (functional) is predictable. is changeable. Understand How To Shape Behavior • Human behavior is learned and can also be unlearned, or shaped into a more desirable form. • Behaviors are performed for a reason, or to serve a specific function (whether we are aware of it or not) • Possible functions: • Gain something (attention, objects) • Escape/Avoid something (difficult work, negative or unpleasant experience) • Sensory stimulation (movement, texture) Understand How To Shape Behavior • Behavior can be taught and changed. • When students behave irresponsibly, it’s likely that they haven’t experienced the benefits of responsible behavior. 5 Components of the FBA Process When examining a particular behavior, consider the 5 essential components of the FBA process: 1. Define the target behavior 2. Consider the setting events (individual, home, classroom variables) 3. Consider the antecedents 4. Analyze the consequences 5. Hypothesize about the function of the behavior A “Practical” FBA: Tier II Interventions • Before considering a more comprehensive FBA for Tier III interventions, utilize a practical FBA to hypothesize the function of the given behavior: 1. 2. 3. 4. Target behavior Antecedents Consequences Hypothesis The ABC’s of Behavior 1 Conditions Set 2 An Individual’s the Stage for Behavior 3a Pleasant outcomes result in increasing behavior OR 3b Unpleasant outcomes result in decreasing behavior Antecedents Target Behavior Consequences Conditions most likely to occur One or more interfering behaviors Maintain the behavior Use your data • Use your data to inform your decisions about whether the consequences are increasing or decreasing the likelihood that the behavior occurs • Consequences that appear to be a punishment for adults (i.e., being sent to office) may actually be reinforcing for the student (i.e., avoid difficult classwork) Operationally defining the target behavior • When behaviors are specifically defined, it ensures that everyone understands the behavior • Behavior: “out of control” • Person 1: yelling, screaming, throwing things, hitting • Person 2: bumping into other people • Behavior: “doesn’t get along with others” • Person 1: name-calling, hitting • Person 2: excluded by peers Operationally defining the target behavior • Consider the following when defining the behavior • What does it look like? • What does it sound like? • Occurrence: • Frequency? • Intensity? • Duration? ABC’s of behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher instructs student to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a game at recess Student bumps into classmates and grabs ball Classmates get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Student sent into the hallway Examples based on Steege & Watson (2009). Conducting School-Based Functional Behavioral Assessments Activity • With your partner, examine the ABC’s presented and generate a list of possible hypothesized functions of the behavior on the next slide • Remember, the three most common function categories are: • Gain something • Escape/avoid something • Sensory need ABC’s of behavior Antecedent Behavior Consequence Teacher instructs students to begin assignment Student begins assignment Teacher provides verbal praise Student put on diet by parents Student takes food from classmates during lunch Student eats the food Teacher instructs students to read silently One student cracks a joke to classmates Classmates laugh Student comes to school with a headache Student engages in disruptive behavior Student is sent to the office Student wants to join a Student bumps into game at recess classmates Students get mad and tell teacher; student kept in from recess Teacher instructs students to complete math worksheet Student sent to office Student gets out of seat and argues with teacher when directed to do work Possible function? Your Turn • Using your own example of a student exhibiting challenging behavior (not a challenging student), walk through the Practical FBA process using the ABC model using your ABC Worksheet • Work with your partner to define the behavior in operational terms, list possible antecedents and consequences, and hypothesize about the function of the behavior Purpose: This hypothesis will help you to select a Tier II intervention that will be a good match Remember… When considering the target behavior, antecedents, and consequences, collect and analyze your data! Targeted Tier II Interventions Check-In, Check-Out (CICO) Also referred to as the Behavior Education Program (BEP) Content based on: Targeted Behavior Interventions, Check In/Check Out Introduction, (MiBLSi, 2009) Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools (Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010) Responding to Problem Behavior in Schools: The Behavior Education Program, Second Edition A comprehensive book by Deanne A. Crone, Robert H. Horner, and Leanne S. Hawken. Guilford Publishing, Inc., published in 2010 www.guilford.com CICO (BEP) as a Tier II Intervention • • • • • • • • Easy to implement for teachers (5-10 minutes per check-in) Flexible (if needed) Can support approximately 20-30 students at a time Check-in/out person can be anyone (BEP Coordinator, paraprofessional, etc) Regular feedback and progress monitoring Students can easily transfer in or out Parent participation Frequent data entry and review Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010 Components of CICO MiBlSi, 2009; Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010 Components of CICO Daily Progress Report Aligned to school-wide expectations Established goal criteria (i.e., 80%) Optional Reward System Component Components of CICO Cycle: 1. Check-in with adult in the morning (positive contact, make sure student is prepared for the day) • Teaching and prompting of skills and expectations 2. Feedback from the teacher during the day (after each period of the day) – earn 0, 1, 2 3. Check-out with adult at end of school day 4. Bring home for parent check-in & signature 5. Bring back to school for morning check-in Effectiveness of CICO • • • • • • • • Based on research-based strategies/principles Daily positive interactions with adults Helps to motivate/encourage student Frequent feedback Clear expectations Predictable pattern for students Supports behavior and academic performance Involves parents in intervention process • Addresses antecedents replaces negative antecedents with consistent positive antecedents Crone, Hawken, & Horner, 2010 Daily Progress Report Daily Progress Report Who is CICO appropriate for? • Students with minor behavior disruptions • Disruptive, interferes with learning • Out of seat, talking out, not sharing, off task, unprepared for class, defiant, refuse to do work, inappropriate language • Not dangerous, violent, or severe/chronic behavior • Students who respond well to adult attention • Behaviors occur throughout the day, not just in one setting (i.e., recess) • Behavior not primarily related to an escape function due to academic deficit (modification may be needed) When to Modify • Collect data for at least 2-3 weeks before modifying • Make sure that intervention was delivered consistently and with fidelity Modifications presented in BEP book: • goals – more academic driven • peer reinforcers • additional check-in • remove signature portion Activity Discuss with your partner or table: • How might you share this intervention with your school staff? • What might need to be in place in order to support this intervention? (i.e., solid Universal PBIS, referral process, CICO forms, personnel) • How will you monitor if the intervention is working and when to modify or exit? https://www.pbisapps.org/Resources/Pages/S WIS-5-Preview-CICO-SWIS.aspx Highly Structured Tier II Interventions So, what are Highly Structured Interventions? • Powerful group of tools that may need to be used after Early Stage Interventions have been implemented and behaviors continue • More time intensive to plan and more time consuming to implement than Early Stage Interventions • Intervention design and implementation should be a collaborative effort (school psychs, school social workers, behavior team, counselors) with the classroom teacher Tier II Interventions • Structured Reinforcement Systems • Planned Discussion • Data Collection and Debriefing • Goal Setting and Contracting • Cueing and Precorrecting • Teaching Replacement Behaviors • Functional Communication • Teaching Social Skills • Self-Monitoring and Self-Evaluation Structured Reinforcement Systems Classroom Reward Systems “Individualized” Targeted & Systematic Reinforcement Systems Reinforcer Menus Mystery Motivators Points for Grumpy Yes/No Program Classroom Behavior Bingo Dots for Motivation Motivation • A student’s ability or proficiency to perform a responsible behavior affects motivation. • A student who experiences much success at learning lots of new skills, is more likely to be intrinsically (or internally) motivated to learn something new. • A student who frequently experiences failure is less likely to be intrinsically motivated. Rationale for Reinforcement Systems • You get more of what you pay attention to! • Behaviors that are recognized and reinforced are more likely to be repeated (Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis, 1994) • For some students, intrinsic motivation to follow the behavior expectations are enough… • For other students, additional teacher attention is enough… • For other students, they will need more tangible, planned, and frequent recognition to find success and recognize the benefits of appropriate behavior Classwide Reinforcement Systems Tips for effectively choosing, designing and implementing a reward-based system: • Make sure the rewards are highly motivating by using a reinforcer menu or survey. • Set the system up to make student success likely. • Make sure your expectations are clear. • Teach the students how the system works. • Be consistent. • Start with immediate reinforcers, gradually increase to intermittent schedule. Partner Jigsaw! • Each partner reads their designated slide and summarizes the information for the other partner • Partner 1: Reinforcer Menu, Mystery Motivator, Points for Grumpy • Partner 2: Yes/No Program, Classroom Behavior Bingo, Dots for Motivation • Select two systems and generate a list of: • the types of behaviors you would use this with • which students may not benefit from this program Reinforcer/Reward Menus Systematic Reinforcement Programs will not be effective if the reinforcer is not motivating for that student • Use a predetermined list/menu of possible rewards from which the student can choose • Have the student help to develop a list • Develop a general list to use with students, have student select which are motivating for them • Use Spinners or Charts Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box Mystery Motivators • Random reinforcement for desired behaviors • Individuals, groups/teams, classwide • Steps: 1. Create reward menu 2. Visual tool, squares for each day of the week, invisible pen with M for days with motivator 3. Reward written on piece of paper in sealed envelope 4. If points/criteria met for behavior for that day, color square to see if reward received 5. Optional bonus square, include positive comments Hint: Start with 2-3 M’s per week, then space out as students get used to the program Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box XX MON. TUES. X X WED. THURS. FRI. X X CHAMPS Points for Grumpy • Response-cost system • Appropriate for younger students, can be modified for older students • 2 Coffee cans/jars, tokens, chart • Combines visual/auditory reminders interventioncentral.org Points for Grumpy Steps: 1. Create a reward list/menu 2. Determine/define behavior (ex: politely following adult directions) - teach, provide examples, practice 3. 2 jars used (1 labeled Grumpy, 1 with student’s/team’s name) 4. Teacher starts day with 10 tokens in pocket 5. If misbehavior (noncompliance) occurs, one token put into Grumpy jar/can 6. At end of period/time, student can put any tokens left over into their own jar 7. Tokens traded for points towards reward 8. Use chart to record points earned per day Yes/No Program • Individuals or small groups • Use tickets with faces (smiley, frowny) or words (Yes, No) 1. Steps: 2. Define behavior 3. Create reward menu 4. Explain system and practice Yes/No behaviors 5. When target behavior occurs, mark appropriate ticket, write name, and deposit into container 6. Give specific feedback when earning Yes or No tickets 7. Drawing at the end of class period or day • Select a few tickets • Yes tickets drawn receive reward • No tickets drawn do not receive reward 8. Monitor if behaviors are increasing/decreasing Hints: - maintain 3:1 ratio (3 Yes tokens to 1 No token) - do not share the name on No tickets pulled to avoid embarrassment and to increase motivation Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box Classroom Behavior Bingo (similar to 100 Squares) Components: • Individuals, teams/groups, Steps: whole class • Materials: • Define behavior • Classroom Behavior • Raise your hand Bingo Matrix/Squares • Turn in completed homework (or 80% of • Container with numbers homework for team) • Reinforcer list/menu • Define system (frequency of behavior to earn bingo square, time period, etc) • Practice and role play • When student(s) meet criteria, they can select a number from a container • Student(s) mark that number on bingo card • When entire row, column, or diagonal is filled, earn reward Jenson, Rhode, & Reavis (1993). The Tough Kid Tool Box Dots for Motivation • Goal: to increase academic work completion • Immediate feedback and reinforcer • Materials: dots (stickers) • Dots given to student when on-task and working • Student could use dots to skip a problem they did not know how to do or did not want to do • Transition to dots earned for number of problems completed • Gradually extend criteria dots earned for number of completed assignments (use dots as homework pass) Hint: as student completes more work in this system, cut dots into halves or quarters (more time to earn reward) Dr. Ginger Gates, The Texas School Psychologist, article written by Jenson, Andrews, & Reavis (1998) Rationale • A student’s behavior may result from a lack of information. • Planned Discussion is an easy, quick, and efficient intervention. • As an intervention, Planned Discussion is a respectful and potentially empowering way to address problem behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Planned Discussion Purpose: To help students understand and address concerns associated with: • Minor but potentially annoying misbehavior • Moderate misbehavior in the early stages • Chronic or severe concerns, as one part of a comprehensive plan (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Planned Discussion Planned Discussion has the potential to have a positive impact on just about any behavior. Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. **Note: Planned Discussion will only be effective for students with sufficient language skills. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Discussing A One-Time Event vs. Planned Discussion One-Time Event • Does not address a repeated behavior • Brief correction provided that does not interrupt the flow of instruction • Immediately set a time to follow up with student • Does not include other individuals Planned Discussion • Does address repeated behavior • Conducted outside of classroom instruction • Conducted during a neutral and scheduled time • May include other individuals (i.e., other teacher or parents) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRFFBQlV6A Positive Characteristics of Planned Discussion • Demonstrates concern so that the student truly understands the issues at hand. • Involves student in brainstorming solutions. • Lets student know you are there to help him/her learn & grow and that you care. • Action plan for behavioral change is developed with the student. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 1: Prepare to Meet with the Student • • • • • • Identify the Central Concern Establish a Focus Determine Who Should Participate in the Discussion Schedule the Discussion for a Neutral Time Make an Appointment to Discuss the Concern with the Student Plan to keep a written record of the discussion (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 2: Meet with the Student • • • • • • Work with the Student to Define Concerns Brainstorm Actions Set up an Informal Action Plan Schedule a Follow-Up Meeting Conclude the Meeting with Words of Encouragement Share a Written Record (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 3: Follow Up with the Student • • • • Encourage Student Efforts Meet Once a Week with the Student Determine Whether More Structured Interventions are Needed Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Think-Pair-Share Identify the advantages to EVERY classroom teacher in your building knowing how to implement Planned Discussions with fidelity. Intervention D: DATA COLLECTION AND DEBRIEFING Rationale • Gathering data often solves the problem all by itself • Because of the powerful effects of a planned discussion, it should be an integral part of every intervention plan. • Effective teachers collect data that defines the problem in measurable terms • Use of data is the only way to determine objectively whether interventions are working • Data will form the basis for assessing fidelity and/or the need for a different intervention (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Purpose To increase positive behavior or decrease negative behavior with any behavioral goal through observation, as well as to use a systematic approach of recording data to gauge the effectiveness of subsequent interventions. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 1: Choose an Objective but Simple Data Collection Method Either use an existing form or record marks on an index card. Some choices include: • Basic Frequency Count of Misbehavior • Duration Recording • Latency Recording • Rating Scale (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Minutes of Non-Participation 120 > 100 minutes of non-participation 90 60 30 After 8 weeks, about 70% improvement 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 2: Meet with the Student (and parents, if appropriate) • Explain the data you plan to collect before starting and how you will inform the student of the data as you are collecting it. • Meet regularly (at least one a week) with the student to share and discuss the one-page visual summary of the data, review trends, set improvement targets, discuss ideas for improving the situation, and CELEBRATE progress (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Partner Activity Partner 1: Review Data Collection Forms: • Behavior Counting Forms • Interval Scatterplot Partner 2: Review Data Collection Forms: • Rating Scale • Participation Evaluation Record Share Any Insights With Your Partner Intervention C: GOAL SETTING Rationale • Students who have experienced repeated failure have difficulty setting realistic goals • Goal setting • increases clarity of expectations, • helps set attainable goals, and • can increase the student’s motivation • Learning to set and achieve realistic goals is a lifelong skill (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Purpose Goal setting helps students identify what they hope to accomplish and actions they can take to reach their goals. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 1: Develop a Plan • Review the problem and overall student goals by identifying • strengths, • desired outcomes, and • collected information. • Select the goal setting format • Set up the goal-setting conference (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 2: Meet with the Student • Help the student establish long-range goals and short-range goals. • Brainstorm actions to avoid and actions to take. • Help the student identify specific actions he or she is willing to take in order to reach the short-term goals. • Identify ways that adults could help the student reach his or her goals. • If using rewards, a structured reinforcement system, or corrective consequences, make sure the student understands all of the contingencies • Set up regular times for follow-up • Review responsibilities and sign appropriate goal setting form (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 3: Provide Ongoing Support and Encouragement • Provide frequent positive feedback; encourage the student to keep striving towards his or her goals. • Correct calmly. Avoid sounding disappointed or reproachful. • Evaluate the impact of the plan and make needed revisions. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Partner Activity Review the Goal Setting Forms. Discuss with your partner • How these Goal Setting Forms differ from each other, • The type of student needs they might meet, and • How they are similar to and different from goal setting you’ve done with a student in the past. Intervention J: Cueing & Precorrecting Rationale • To help students control impulsive, excessive, habitual, or off-task behavior. • Children are sometimes unaware of their own behaviors. • Behaviors can interfere with peer relationships or success in school. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) What exactly is CUEING? Cueing is used to interrupt an inappropriate behavior that is already taking place. Cueing takes the place of reprimands or corrections that would be more verbose and that the teacher would end up repeating many times What exactly is PRECORRECTING? Precorrecting is an attempt to anticipate and prevent an inappropriate behavior before it occurs. Precorrection: • a prompt for appropriate behavior • sets the stage for positive feedback Cueing or Precorrecting? Nosepicking Cueing Skipping items on tests Precorrecting Pencil tapping Disrespectful tone of voice Chronic pencil sharpening Cueing and Precorrecting will fade as the student becomes successful— the more successful the student is, the less signaling used Step 1: Develop A Plan A. Identify possible signals that might be used B. Identify what adults will do when the student either responds or fails to respond to a signal C. Identify other settings/adults to include in the plan D. Decide whether the student needs to be taught a replacement behavior E. Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal Step 2: Meet with the Student to Discuss & Finalize the Plan A. Review the problem and goals B. Help the student select a signal C. explain any consequences that will be used if the student fails to respond D. Briefly demonstrate and practice using role-playing E. Set up regular meeting times to debrief with the student F. Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement Step 3: Implement the Plan A. Begin using the precorrection or cue anytime the student exhibits the inappropriate behavior B. Reinforce the student for responding to the signal and/or for not needing the signal C. Implement evaluation & debriefing procedures D. Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary E. Provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement Team Activity Think about a student who may engage in annoying or inappropriate behaviors. Would Cueing and Precorrecting be an appropriate intervention for the student? Intervention M: Teaching Replacement Behavior Purpose To modify any recurring minor or major misbehavior (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Rationale • Students with behavior problems may have never learned the appropriate behavior • Adults frequently take appropriate behavior for granted • Some students will need to be taught how to replace misbehaviors with appropriate behaviors (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) If a child doesn’t know how to read…….we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to swim…...we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to multiply……we teach. If a child doesn’t know how to behave….. we punish? John Herner Fundamental Rule! “You should not propose to reduce a problem behavior without also identifying alternative, desired behaviors the person should perform instead of problem behavior” (O’Neill et al., 1997, p. 71). Replacement Behavior? Kelly runs into the middle of groups of students on the playground and gets upset and cries when they walk away from her or tell the playground aide that she ran into them. Possible function of her behavior?? Is there a skill deficit present? What is “Positive Opposite” of her behavior? Will the positive opposite fulfill the function of her behavior? What should the replacement behavior to teach Kelly be then? A-B-C Defined Antecedent Behavior Consequence When ___ happens… the student does (what) _________ … because (why) _________ Competing Pathways Competing Pathways 2 2 1 3 1 3 4 COMPETING PATHWAYS On Mondays and/or when up all of the night before. Daily nongraded quiz on previous night’s homework BEHAVIOR SUPPORT PLANNING + Give time to review homework. + Give quiet time before starting. + Give easy “warmup” task before doing quiz. + Precorrect behavior options & consequences. Do quiz without complaints. Verbal protests, slump in chair, walks out of room. Discussion about answers & homework. Avoids doing quiz & homework discussion. Turn in with name & sit quietly w/o interrupting. Teach options to problem behavior: 1. Turn in blank 2. Turn in w/ name 3. Turn in w/ name & first item done. 4. Turn in w/ name & 50% of items done. + With first sign of problem behaviors, remove task, or request completion of task next period. + Remove task based on step in task analysis (STO). + Provide effective verbal praise & other reinforcers. Initial Considerations A. Review the problem and overall goals for the student B. Determine behaviors or strategies the student can learn to replace the inappropriate behaviors C. Design lessons to teach the replacement behavior D. Determine who will provide the lessons, how much time will be needed, and when and where they will be held (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Initial Considerations E. Consider ways to support that will not embarrass the student F. Identify ways to determine whether the intervention is helping the student reach the goal G. Determine whether a reinforcement system and consequences need to be integrated into the plan H. Identify criteria and procedures for fading the intervention I. Determine who will meet with the student to discuss and finalize the plan (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) e.g., Paying Attention in Class I’m Feeling Confused I should… Watch other students to see what they are doing, or… I know what I should be doing. Pay Attention. Raise my hand and ask my teacher to repeat the directions, or… e.g., Managing Frustration • First take a deep breath • Count to 10 • Raise my hand • Ask Mrs. M. for help Team Activity Think about a student who may need to be taught a replacement behavior. What might be a “positive opposite” behavior that would serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior? Intervention N: FUNCTIONAL COMMUNICATION Purpose To improve communication/social skills of students whose deficits in this area may be leading to misbehaviors. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Rationale • Students with limited communication/ social skills may engage in inappropriate behaviors in an attempt to get their needs met. • Poor interactions with peers may trigger conflict or lead to isolation • Behavior is communication. Need to teach a prosocial replacement behavior. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Increased Frequency of Occurrence • Autism Spectrum Disorders • Trauma • Special Education • Need to engage speech-language pathologists , occupational therapists, school psychs Step 1: Determine Need A. Identify the misbehavior objectively; B. Consider antecedents and consequences to determine if behavior is related to communication/social skills Step 2: Multidisciplinary Team Meeting A. Discuss alternative means of communication or replacement behaviors. B. Determine who will teach prosocial communication skills C. Include all relevant parties Step 3: Implement the Plan A. Teach in context B. Model and role-play C. Reinforce student when performing appropriate behavior; withhold reinforcement otherwise D. Measure performance and revise as needed; fade A nonprofit working globally to promote children’s social and academic success http://www.cfchildren.org/second -step/kindergarten-grade-5.aspx http://www.cfchildren.org/secondstep/middle-school.aspx Intervention K: Self-Monitoring & Self-Evaluation Purpose To increase student awareness of a particular behavior so they can learn to take responsibility for their own behavior and control what they do (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 1: Develop a Plan A. Determine the behavior to be monitored and evaluated. B. If necessary, identify examples of student behavior that set boundaries between responsible and irresponsible behavior. C. Determine when the student will record behaviors. D. Develop a recording system for the student. E. Design a cueing system to prompt the student to record if needed. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 1: Develop a Plan F. Plan to have an adult monitor the student’s behavior initially (and occasionally thereafter) and compare results with the student’s record. G. Identify ways to determine if the intervention is helping (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) B. Set Boundaries Between Responsible and Irresponsible Behaviors Responsible Behavior: The teacher asks Joan to sit down: -Joan nods and sits down. -Joan says, “Okay,” and sits down. -Joan does not respond to the teacher but immediately sits down. -Joan asks in a respectful tone, “I need to sharpen my pencil. Is that OK?” Irresponsible Behavior: The teacher asks Joan to sit down: -Joan sits down but calls the teacher a name or says “Why should I?” -Joan sits down, but in a sarcastic tone says, “Okay, whatever you say.” -Joan does not sit down or respond. -Joan goes to sit down in an exaggerated slow motion. D. Develop a Recording System for the Student • Tally marks • Symbols, such as + and – • Circling a symbol or number • Rating scales • Rubrics • Others? Step 2: Meet with the Student to Discuss and Finalize the Plan • Review the problem and the goal. • Introduce the procedures that will be followed. • Review everyone’s roles and responsibilities. • Conclude the meeting with words of encouragement. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Step 3: Implement the Plan • Encourage student efforts • Make periodic revisions and adjustments to the plan as necessary. • When the student demonstrates consistent success, fade the intervention. • Once the intervention has been faded, provide continued follow-up, support, and encouragement. (Sprick & Garrison, 2008) Team Activity Think about a student who may need to become more empowered to increase awareness of and take control of inappropriate behaviors. Would Self-Monitoring be an appropriate intervention for the student? Behavior Intervention Resources Intervention Central (interventioncentral.org) • Academic and Behavior Interventions • Behavior Categories: • • • • • • Apps Challenging Students Motivation Rewards Schoolwide Classroom Management Bully Prevention PBIS World Participants will… • Understand the systematic framework for MultiTiered System of Behavioral Supports for ALL students • Understand how classroom management and specific “Early Stage Interventions” provide the necessary foundation for additional behavioral interventions • Develop an understanding of behavioral assessment and the function it serves Participants will… • Develop a working knowledge of multiple targeted behavioral interventions for individual students • Develop an understanding of the use of data in selecting, monitoring, and revising behavioral interventions.