Before We Get Started 3 Islamic empires were formed during the early modern period and you should concentrate on the Ottomans and Mughals more than the Safavids. Don’t confuse the Mongols of Asia with the Mughals of India. The earlier Mongols controlled a larger expanse of Asia, not including India; the later Mughals controlled only India. Ottomans controlled Anatolia. Safavids controlled Persia. Formation of the Islamic Empires All three Islamic states began as warrior societies in frontier regions. They expanded into neighboring lands and as they grew, so did their administrative apparatuses. With talented rulers, each society prospered and dominated its region politically, economically, and militarily. Formation of the Islamic Empires The Ottoman Empire Osman Bey – Lead a Turkish-speaking group from central Asia into regions of Anatolia in the thirteenth century to form the beginnings of the Ottoman Empire. Ottomans used their formidable military to expand and build their empire. Eventually controlled the Balkans, Byzantine Empire, Syria, Egypt, modern-day Iraq, and Hungary. Constantinople was renamed Istanbul Enslaved Christians were forced into the military. The Islamic Empires The Safavid Empire At their height, controlled the regions of Mesopotamia and the Caucuses. Had constant conflict with the Ottomans Adopted the Twelver Shiism branch of Islam Key Leaders Ismail Shah Abbas the Great Formation of Islamic Empires The Mughal Empire Zahir al-Din Muhammad, a Chagatai Turk – known as Babur, “the tiger,” was the founder of the Mughals. Claimed descent from Chingghis Khan and Tamarlane Claimed no connection between conquest and religion, simply a conqueror Mughal – Persian term for Mongol Empire encompassed the Indian subcontinent, except for the southernmost tip. Successive rulers (Akbar and Aurangzeb) Taxed and persecuted Hindus in India, leading to further hostility between Hindus and Muslims. Imperial Islamic Society All Islamic dynasties descended from the same steppe traditions, embraced the same Islamic religion, and adopted similar economic and religious policies. All involved themselves with public welfare, literature, and the arts. Imperial Islamic Society The dynastic state The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal emperors all took personal control of their militaries and administrations In theory, they owned all land which they divided among their peasant populations. Experiences many problems in succession (just as the Mongols before them did) as potential heirs violently competed for rule Women Expected to have no role in public affairs of the Islamic empires due to religious constraints, but women in all 3 dynasties played significant roles. Served as advisors, etc. Imperial Islamic Society Agriculture and Trade Agriculture Foundation of the Islamic empires was a strong agricultural base from which they could finance armies and bureaucracies. Relied heavily on crops of rice and wheat to stabilize and grow populations Trade Prominent in world trade on both land and at sea. Ottomans were the access point of the silk roads and controlled access to the Black Sea, and dominated the Eastern Mediterranean. Mughals did not actively promote trade but gained large revenues from their central position in the Indian Ocean trade system. Imperial Islamic Society Religious Affairs in the Islamic Empires Maintaining harmony among populations of diverse religions was a common challenge for the Islamic Empires. Ottomans – Muslims, Christians, Jews Safavids – Muslims, Christians, Jews Mughals – Muslims and Hindus Mughal policies of Aurangzeb caused permanent tension and conflict between Hindus and Muslims in India. Imperial Islamic Society Cultural Patronage of the Islamic Empires Islamic emperors devoted much attention and resources to public welfare and the arts by building magnificent buildings, hospitals, and soup kitchens. Placed high value on scholars and artists and undertook large building and architectural projects. The Empires in Transition None of the Islamic empires lasted past the eighteenth century without significant changes. In 1722, the Safavids were completely defeated by Afghan tribesmen and disappeared completely The Mughals suffered enormous reversals with provincial rebellions and foreign invasions. Ottomans lost control over Egypt and Lebanon while Russian and European states chipped away at their economic, political, and military spheres. The Empires in Transition The Deterioration of Imperial Leadership Islamic empires were heavily reliant on strong leadership and by the eighteenth century they had fallen into the hands of weak and incapable rulers. Conservative Muslim movements caused constant internal disruptions Economic and Military Decline Decreased trade, and the cost of expensive administration, military maintenance, and war weakened the Islamic economies Could not keep up with military technology Cultural Conservatism Muslim conservatism hampered exploration and technology. While Europe surged forward, the Islamic empires grew backward and weak, much like the Chinese and Japanese. Chose temporary stability over growth.