Presentation - Selah Educational Services

Report
HOW WILL WE LEARN ALL
THESE WORDS?
ETYMOLOGY AND VOCABULARY ACROSS
THE CONTENT AREAS
B.Selah Lee-Bey
What is Etymology

The key to developing ones’
vocabulary is etymology.


Etymology consists of

Etymology: The study of the
origins of words.

Etym (true sense; origin) + ology
(the study of)



Word Parts (Affixes and
Roots)
Word Origins (Latin; Greek;
German; etc…)
How words change over time
Word cognates in various
languages within a language
family.
Why Etymology

Students are able to
learn up to 50 words
per week by studying
4 word parts.
Word Parts: Prefix

A prefix is a word part
that is placed at the
beginning of a word.

Other Examples:
 Review
 React
 Interview
 Pre
(before) + fix (to
fasten)
 Interact
Word Parts: Prefix

A prefix changes the meaning of a word
 Examples:
 Struct



construct; reconstruct; deconstruct
(the root) means to build
Con + struct: to build together/with
Re + con + struct: to build together again
De + con + struct: to build down
Prefix Rules

A prefix can function as an
intensifier.

Example:

Confirm: con + firm (to make
more firm). Firm is a root
indicating strength.

Obtain: ob + tain (a stronger
version of attain). The root tain
means to stretch and hold.
Word Parts: Suffix

A suffix is a word part
that is placed at the end
of a word.
 Suff
(after) + fix (to
fasten)
 hopeful
 goodness
Word Parts: Suffix

A suffix can change the part of speech of a word

Noun Suffix Endings



-age: mileage; postage; damage
-ship: fellowship; friendship; sportsmanship
Verb Suffix Endings


-ate (calculate; meditate; evaporate)
- ize/ise (memorize; sympathize; comprise)
Word Parts: Suffix

A suffix can change the part of speech of a word

Adjective Suffix Ending
- able (capable; lovable)
 -al (national; natural; seasonal)


Adverb Endings
-ly (nationally; naturally; swiftly)
 - where (somewhere; anywhere)

Suffix Rules
A
word can have as many as three suffixes
 Example:
Root: sti: to stand
Con (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion
Con (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion + al
Con (prefix) + sti(tu) + tion + al + ity




constitution; constitutional; constitutionality
Suffix Rules
Suffixes have meanings

Like



Musical; comical; classical
Fantastic; realistic; Slavic
State of/Condition/Quality


Appointment; retirement
Insistence; patience;
inheritance
 One
who:
 Physician;
musician;
politician
 Teacher; barber;
carpenter
 Artist; pianist;
astrologist
Word Parts: Roots


The root is the main part of a word.
It is the part of the word which the
prefix and suffix are fastened.

Remember:



What is the Root?
pre (before) + fix (fasten)
suf (after) + fix (fasten)
Think of the roots as the anchor that
carries the basic meaning of a word.

The root word part is like the root of a plant. It carries
meaning or nutrients to allow a word to blossom and grow.
Word Parts: Roots

Cred: to believe

Incredible:

In (not) + cred (believe) +
ible (able)


Definition: not able to
believe
Creditor:

Cred(it) + or (a person
who)

Definition: a person that
determines whether you
can be trusted or believed
Word Parts: Roots

Ject: to throw

Reject:

Re (back) + ject (throw):


Project:

Pro (forward) + ject (throw)


Definition: to throw back
Definition: to throw forward
Interject:

Prefix: Inter

Definition: to throw between
Word Parts: All Together
Prefix-Suffix-Root Line
Prefix
Root
Suffix
3P
2P 1P 0
1S 2S 3S
___________________________________________
____
What’s the Root of this Word?
Conspicuous
con + spic + uous:
visible, open to view, striking
Resist
Re + sist
To stand against
What’s the Root of this Word?
Respect
Re + spect
To look back (and see someone); to regard
Institute
In + stit + ut(e) + ion
To cause to stand (i.e. establish)
What’s the Root of this Word?
Establish
E + stabl(e) + ish
To make stable
What’s the Root of this Word?
Regard
Re + gard (as in guard)
To look or to heed
Speculative
Spec + (ul) + at(e) +ive
Describing something that has been looked at or examined intellectually

Semantic Discussions
1.
Which words have similar meanings
 Speculative;
conspicuous
 Establish; institute
 Respect; regard
Semantic Discussions (con…)
3.
The word resist has the same root form as consist,
insist, and assist. Based on the change in prefix,
what is the meaning of the each of the three words
mentioned above?
The Matrix Map (Beginner)
The Matrix Map (Advanced)
The Matrix Map (Beginner)
The Matrix Map (Advanced)
Denotation vs Connotation

Denotation:


This is the literal meaning of a word. It translates as from the
letters/markings. That is, the meaning is from the original
markings (see etymology).
Connotation:

This is the shaded/colored meaning. It translates as added
letters/markings
What is the Connotation?
Scent
Stench


Definition: a smell, a scent, an
odor.
Etymology: O.E. stenc; Old
Saxon stanc; Old German
stank- to emit a smell. Evil
odor meaning applied in
1200 c.


Definition: what can be
smelled.
Etymology: O.F. sentir; Latin
sentire- to feel, perceive,
sense, discern, hear, see
Liberal Arts: Music

Music
 Old
French: musique
(12 c.)
 Latin: musica
 Greek: mousikos,
pertaining to the Muses
 Same root as mind
Liberal Arts: Music
Forte and Fortissimo
strong
Liberal Arts: Music
Crescendo and Descrescendo
to grow loudly or quietly in sound
Liberal Arts: Music
Remember, Latinbased or Romance
languages (from
Rome) have cognates
that follow a similar
spelling format as in
English. Thus, dolce
means to play
sweetly, similarly to
dulce, which is sweet
in Spanish.
Dolce
sweetly
Liberal Arts: Music
Grave
heavily
Similar to the words gravity; gravitate; and gravitas- all of these refer to weight
Biological Sciences: Botany
Etymology can help
students to recall the
scientific names of
various plant families,
genera, and species.
Biological Sciences: Botany

Using the system of scientific
classification, botanists identify
plants by their family, genus,
and species.

Today, plants scientific names are
based on binomial nomenclature
system using the generic and the
specific epithets.
Biological Sciences: Botany
 This
flower is called the
Rosa canina.
 It is classified as follows:
 Family:
Rosae
 Genus: Rosa
 Species: Canina
This is a dog rose (canina refers to the dog)
Biological Sciences: Botany
 Most
plant names are
Latin or Greek in origin.
 The
family names have
the suffix –aceae, which
means “belonging to,
having the nature of”
Examples
Asteraceae
Fabaceae
Apiaceae
Solanaceae
Zingiberaceae
Biological Sciences: Botany
 Most
plant names are
Latin or Greek in origin.
 The
family names have
the suffix –aceae, which
means “belonging to,
having the nature of”
Family Name
Derivational
Meaning
Asteraceae
Star-shaped
Fabaceae
bean
Apiaceae/Umbellif
eraceae
Celery
“bearing umbells”
Solanaceae
Night-shade;
“soothing effect”
Zingiberaceae
Ginger
Biological Sciences: Botany

Asteraceae:
 Aster=star
 Star-shaped
flowers,
such as sunflowers,
dandelions, etc…

Fabaceae:
 Faba=bean
 Family
of beans, peas,
and legumes
Biological Sciences: Botany

Genus
 Latin

in form
 Ends
 Seven
in –a, -um, or –us
classes of
distinction
Species

Latin in form
Descriptive: albus (white),
bellus (pretty), odoratus
(scented)
 Geographical: anglicus
(English), hispanicus
(Spanish)
 Personal names: davidii
(A.David)

Biological Sciences: Anatomy and
Physiology

Anatomical
terminology is rooted
in Indo-European
languages; thus,
etymology will help
students readily define
given terms.
Biological Sciences: Anatomy and
Physiology

Anterior
 Ante=before

Posterior
 Post=after
Biological Sciences: Anatomy and
Physiology
Anatomical Roots
Blood
hem, angi
Brain
cereb, encephal
Hair
tricho, tricha
Examples
Hemorrhoid
Angioplasty
Cerebellum
Encephalology
Trichopterous
Biological Sciences: Anatomy and
Physiology
Surgical Procedures

 Angioplasty
-ectomy (remove part
of the body)
 Rhinoplasty

-plasty (surgical repair)
 Palatoplasty

Craniectomy
 Iridectomy
 Hysterectomy
Biological Sciences: Anatomy and
Physiology
Diseases

 Gingivitis
- algia (sensitivity to
pain)
 Arthritis

-itis (inflammation)
 Chondritis

Fibromyalgia
 Arthralgia
 Cardialgia
Social Sciences: Psychology

Psychology
 Psych:
the mind
 ology: the study of
Social Sciences: Psychology
Bipolar: two poles
bi (two) + pol (poles) + ar
Insomnia: not able to sleep
in (not) + som (sleep)
Schizophrenia
schizo (split) + phren (mind) + ia
Social Sciences: Psychology

Mania
 mind
of passion, fury,
and rage

Kleptomania


Pyromania


pyro: fire
Trichotillomania



klepto: thief
tricho: hair
till: pull
Dermatillonmania


derma: skin
till: pull
Social Sciences: Psychology

Phobias
 Phobia
fear

is Greek for
claustraphobia
 claus:

closed
arachnophobia
 arachno:

spider
algophobia
 fear
of pain
Mathematics

Etymology can assist
students in
understanding
mathematical concepts.
Mathematics

Bisector




Bi means 2
sect means cut
or refers to a thing or person
(noun)
Bi + sect + or

something that cuts a shape into
two parts.
Mathematics
Prefix
Number
Prefix
Number
mono/uni
1
hex
6
bi/di/du
2
sept
7
tri
3
octo
8
quad/quart
4
nov
9
pent/quint
5
dec
10
Mathematics
Hexagon
Pentagon
Mathematics
Mathematics

Algebra

1550s, from Medieval
Latin algebra, from
Arabic al jabr ("in vulgar
pronunciation, al-jebr"
[Klein]) "reunion of
broken parts”, as in
computation
Mathematics

Trigonometry




tri: three
gon: angle (shape)
metry: measure
the relationship between
lengths and angle
measurements of triangles
Mathematics

Algorithm and
Arithmetic have the
same root. Can you
guess what it is?

rit, meaning number
Social Sciences: Political Science

Etymology can help
students identify
various forms of
government in political
science classes.
Social Sciences: Political Science

-cracy
 From
Latin kratos
meaning “rule”

-archy
 From
Greek arkhos,
meaning “rule”
Social Sciences: Political Science

Oligarchy:
 Oligos
(rule)
(few) + cracy

Anarchy:
 An
(no) + archy (rule)
Social Sciences: Political Science

Aristocracy:
 Aristo
(rule)
(rich) + cracy

Democracy:
 Demo
(people) +
cracy(rule)
Social Sciences: Political Science

Theocracy:
 Theo
(rule)
(God ) + cracy

Monarchy:
 Mon(o)
(one) +
cracy(rule)
Social Sciences: Political Science

Kleptocracy:
 Klepto
(theives) +
cracy (rule)

Meritoctacy:
 Merit
(earned/assigned) +
cracy(rule)
Social Sciences: Political Science and
Sociology

Patriarchy:
 Patri
(father/male) +
cracy (rule)

Matriarchy:
 Martri
(mother/female) +
cracy(rule)
Social Sciences: Economics

Oligopoly
 trade
with a few

Monopoly
 trade
with one
Social Science: Philosophy and Religion
Philosophy
“Lover of Wisdom”
(philos: love; soph:
wisdom)
Social Science: Philosophy and Religion

God
 Latin:
divinus
 Greek: theos
theology; divinity;
atheist; polytheism;
monotheism; deity
Social Science: Philosophy and Religion

-ology: study of…
Doxology: beliefs
 Epistemology:
knowledge from
experience
 Cosmology: the world
 Mythology: myths or
stories

ology comes from logos, which
means the word
Social Science: Philosophy and Religion

Paradox
 Para:
contrary
 dox: belief

Orthadox
 Ortha:
straight
 dox: belief
Social Science: Philosophy and Religion

Dogma
that which one things is
true
 This word has a similar
root as doxology. They
share a Proto-Indo
European root, thus
sharing meaning as well.

Social Science: Philosophy and Religion

Utilitarian
 look
within the word
and see util
 utilize; utility
 something
you use
Social Science: Philosophy and Religion

Nihilism
 nihilim:
no small thing
 nil: none
Have students think of
annihilate (to reduce to
nothing)
refers to the language and people that
historically range from Europe to present day India. Indo
Europeans existed during Bronze Age and yet had to split into
sub-families, such as Armenian, Albanian, Anatolian, , Baltics,
Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic (Greek), Indo-Iranian
/Aryan, Italic, and Tocharian. There are 439 languages and
dialects amongst these sub-families, which further break down
into several hundred languages families.

Note: Baltic and Slavic are often combined into one sub-family group,
called the Balto-Slavic language family.


English is a Western Germanic language that follows a
Latin spelling pattern; thus, it appears to be a Romance
language, which is linguistically classified as Italic.
We often look Proto-Indo-European roots of words
because their cognates in various languages hold the
same meaning. For example:

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is not a language, but a reconstruction of a
language said to be the ancestor of modern Indo-European
Languages. It was spoken in an (as of yet) unidentified area
between eastern Europe and the Aral Sea around the fifth millennium
B.C°.


American Heritage Dictionary
PIE roots are the most basic form of the root of a word to which it
can be traced back to throughout the Indo European family of
languages. The map provides a good indication of how this works.
[Looking in the Brackets]
[Looking in the Brackets]
[Looking in the Brackets]

The roots gen, nat, nasc, and kin all share a PIE root. The PIE for the above
root is
genwhich means Birth, Source, or Origin


The roots sti, sta, stat, sis, sist, and syst all share a PIE root.
The PIE root for the above roots is

Hint: look up words with the roots named above.

Constitute; Station; Statistic; System; Consistent
StaWhich means to stand or remain in place


The roots fac, fec, fic, and –fy all share a PIE root.
The PIE root for the above roots is

Hint: look up words with the roots named above.

factory; perfection; efficient; clarity
DheWhich means to make, place, or do
Works Cited
 Pierson,
H. “Using Etymology
in the Classroom”. ELT J
(1989) 43 (1): 57-63
 Rasinski,
Tim. Greek & Latin
Roots: Keys to Building
Vocabulary. Shell Education
(2008)

similar documents