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Report
Information Management
in the Age of Cloud computing
Disruptive Innovations Perspective
S. M. Shafi
Department of Library and Information Science
University of Kashmir, Hazratbal Srinagar
Jammu and Kashmir 190 006.
The Presentation

The Cloud

Disruptive Innovations

Problem

Objectives

Method

Analysis & Results : Possible solutions

Future: Planning & Implementation

Conclusion
Problem
o
An exploratory study
o
To understand the Potential of present opportunity
of Change Dynamics in ICT, here CC, for Information
and knowledge Management particularly for Library
and Information Professionals.
Objectives

To ascertain whether Professionals have begun
seriously consider the changes C.C brings

Impact of C.C on Traditional services of Library &
Information management visa-vis cost, speed etc
Method

The study
is based on the literature available and
scanned by the author on the theme primarily from
Emerald and Elsevier databases etc
and some
empirical study during my interaction with certain
tools.

The results are summed up to make my case about
the future of the cloud in IM and KM based on the
premise of Disruptive innovation Theory
The Cloud

Fuzzy,
Distant,
Diffuse
and
Immense

Environment
where
Remote
or
institution
Hosting
Arrangement
Relies
for
Automation Component.
on
major
The Cloud

Marketing Term more than Technical One

Highly Clustered and Distributed performance

Computing Tasks Across Many Devices

to Maximize Performance with High tolerance for
the Future of Individual Components
Desk to Cloud
Cloud computing
Grid computing
Client-server
Personal Stand alone
Cloud Computing
History : Most prominent 2007
Definitions: Authors differ
Some Technical
Some Simple
Cloud Computing

[. . .] a model for enabling convenient, on demand network access
to a shared pool

of configurable computing resources (e.g. network, servers,
storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned
and released with minimal management effort or service provider
interaction

(Han, 2010)
A Style of computing in which massively Scalable and Elastic IT
enable Capabilities are delivered as a service to external
customers using Internet technologies
(Gartner Group)
Others …

Any server usage or software application you can access
outside of your local server
(Wolf, 2010)

An emerging architecture by which data and applications
reside in cyberspace, allowing users to access them
through any web-connected device
(Murley, 2009)

The simplest and shortest definition
“a new technology model for IT services”
(Goldner, 2011)
Argue …!
Let us argue from the definitions and types:
It is not technology that is important but opportunities it
affords for
Efficiency,
Savings,
Cooperation &
Collaboration.
Example
Layers (3#4)

(1) Software as a service (SaaS),
Application as a service (AaaS)

(2) Hardware as a Service (HaaS) or
Platform as a Service (PaaS),

(3) Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).
&/or
and
The Cloud: features
o
Abstract technology platform
(Generalized Access to Remote Resources rather Local and Discrete
servers)
o
Utility model of computing
(Fees Charged of Use rather Capital investment In Hardware or
Software Licenses)
o

Computing on Demand rather Resources allocated on
Need
Elastic Quality & Power of Computing Resources
(INCREASE @ Peak use LOWER on Scale down)
The Cloud: Future
Separate Hype From Substance:
o
Ubiquitous Internet means uninterrupted access to
data/application
o
Library ‘s media Collection, movies and video streams on
your personal storage
o
Reshapes the way organization handle computing needs
continue…
The Cloud: Future
o Age of The CLOUD - Not quite arrived – obstacles remain
o Internet Commercially not become sufficiently pervasive
or cheap
o Supplements rather Replaces locally installed Software
o On small Scale done but Great deal depend upon
Planning more exclusively
Disruptive Innovation
*A term coined by Clayton Christensen
*A process by which a product or service takes root
initially in simple applications at the Bottom of a market
and then relentlessly Moves up market, eventually
displacing Established Competitors.
Disruptive Innovation
An innovation (ie disruptive) allows a whole new
population of consumers at the bottom of a market
access to a product or service that was historically only
accessible to consumers with a lot of money or a lot of
skill.
Disruptive Power
(from Telegraphy to Telephone)

Technologies (of radical nature) often looked upon initially,
with cynicism or dismissed - as useless inventions.

William
Orton : (the president of Western Union.)
Alexander Graham Bell’s telephone invention as “an electric
toy ”when his company declined inventors’ patent for US $
100.000………

The telephone eventually killed Telegraph and led to demise
of Western Union
Disruptive Power (Social Networking)
Only a few yrs ago online social networking was regarded as
a diversion for young Adults & is now a part of Retail
Companies
Strategic
and
critical
component
of
organizations larger Marketing Efforts
Online social Network was further catapulted into mass fame
(2011) following Arab uprisings (resulted)
Dictatorial regimes.
fall of
Example
DISRUPTOR
DISRUPTEE
Cell phone
Landline
P. C’s
Mainframe
Cloud
Client- server
Disruptive innovation: Types

New Market Disruption: Customers prevented due to
cost/complexity issues
Example: Canon’s photocopier; printers etc

Low End Disution: Affects low end of the original business,
Not create new market they attract least attractive customers:
Example: Cheap Airlines in USA, India

Hybrid: Both above .
Example: American Southwest Airlines
Cloud Computing: Disruptive Innovation Attribute

Potential to
destabilize ICT Markets relying on providing
Traditional on premises ICT Solutions.

Create other Business opportunities that didn’t exist before
consuming ICT ,both soft and Hard

The penetration of the cloud and Social Networking into IM lend
support to this theory

The theory also suggests that it initially have performance
problems---characteristics of DI. (loss of service by S. Networks etc)
Library & Information Management: Analysis
Status: What is happening?
Possible solutions:
o
Data
o
Library services
o
Digital library
o
Information services
o
Web services
OCLC survey
(March 2011)
*Sample: 300 librarians out of 2700

5% have started CC (AmazonEC2; VMWare; Vcloud Express)

13% use CC as Stage and Backup (Dropboxetc)

55% used CC Applications ( with leaders being Google Docs,
Google Calendar & Gmail)

66% using C based sharing Applications with leader being
Facebook; Twitter, Flicker and You tube.

19% had created Library related Applications' using Cloud
service
Possible solutions: Data Silos?

Silos are generally associated with large chambers
for storage and preservation of Grain — keeping it
free from spoilage by isolating from potential
interference from external bodies.

On similar pattern, organizations have created
‘Data silos’
Many Eyes
Allows to upload data, enables to
create visualizations for sharing /
embedding.
Google Docs
Used to make data publicly available
Yahoo Pipes
Helps to create mashups through GUI
Twapper Keeper
Service to create archives of Twitter- comments of
a particular weightage.
(http://twapperkeeper.com)
Webometric Analyst
Application of API’s to create
network diagrams----in webometrics
NodeXL
A virtualization &Networking
tool/template in EXCEL 2007/10
Possible Solutions
o
Departmental Computing vs. Cloud Model
(DC offers several advantages: responsibility and highest
cost, personnel whereas Many factors Go in favor of CC)
o
Hosting Option
Choices
Many
(Remote website Hosting; Server
collocation; Dedicated server hosting ; Virtual Server
Hosting-less Expensive
Possible Solutions (Iaas)
o
Infrastructure-as- a- Service(IaaS)
( TO

MOVE IN REALM OF the Cloud ACTUALLY)
More Legtimately considered as CC,
As an abstract approach to gaining the right level of capacity for an
organizational infrastructure;

Subscribes to computing and storage
Capabilities on need basis, Elastic characteristics . Example: EC2
Possible Solutions (Iaas)
o
Data Storage in the Cloud

Data Devices incredibly inexpensive and flexible.(USB
Disk drives, Flash Drives) But Misplaced and inherently
insecure.

A Major Component of IaaS
Example: Amazons: S3
Possible Solutions (Storage)

PERSONAL PORTABLE STORAGE
Offer modest space @ Little or NO COST
SERVICES:

Dropbox (http://www.dropbox.com) Free 2GB

Wind Live SkyDrive (http://explore.live.com/windowslive-skydrive) Free 25GB
Possible Solutions (Storage)
o
Amazon Cloud Drive
(http://www.amazon.com/clouddrive/learnmore) Free 5GB

Box.net
(http://box.net) business oriented offer 5GB

Adrive
(http://www.adrive.com) 5o GB free
Possible solutions (SaaS)

Software-as-a- Service(SaaS)
(Access to software Applications over the web rather than
using individual instances on local workstation)
Multitenant Architecture
(involves ability for a single instance of the Application
shareable among many simultaneously)

Possible solutions (SaaS)
Recent Products Designed and Deployed (through SaaS
NEW Generation Library Automation Products include :
Primo Central & Alma from Ex Libris

Many & Most popular Productivity and Communication
Applications
(personal or Business use):
Gmail and Google Docs.
Possible solutions - ASP

Application Service Provider (asp)
Not Recent (1990)

Traditional Model (Client –Server) Server
Installed In Library/Organisation

ASP –Client Server Same - server Reside In Data
Centre/Client Access Server Through Internet
Possible solutions - ASP

Provides – Many Characteristics For Legacy Applicationsnot Specifically developed for Multitenant Access

LIBRARY PERSPECTIVE ---MOST
APPILICATION

Provider Perspective more effort than SaaS

One Instance VS All Organisational Users

Subset of SaaS
BENEFITS
OF SaaS
Possible Solutions: Platform as a service

PaaS

Offers a complete technology stack (including Support
for programming.

Language/appilication programming interfcae; Database
functionality; Data store
Platform as a service (Examples)

Google Appilication Engine
(http://code.Google.com/appengine)
supportsprogramming languages such as jav,python,Go

Amazon Web Service(http://aws.amazon.com)---a complex
set of products Spanning g both Iaas /PaaS

Force.com (http://www.forcr.com) is an underlying
platform for Salesforce.com
Possible Solutions: Platform as a service
o
Bungee Connect (http://www.bungee.com) –a platform
for development of Cloud based Applications.

Heronku (http:// www.heronku.com) is a PaaS for the
Ruby Programming Language.
o
Others: Many Library developers have written Utilities
&Extensions making use of OCLC’s ‘WorldShare platform
‘as a Development platform
Planning for the future
AN INEVITABLE FUTURE?

Technology Budgets
services
drift towards subscription Based

Hence libraries Need to PLAN 4 the changes Associted with
Major Shift

Swithching to an ILS delivered through SaaS Need More
PLANNING Compared to Free Use of Services such as:
Dropbox Or Google Apps
Planning for the future
REBALANCE BUDGETS FOR TECHNOLOGY

Consider costs (Best value offer local vs. cloud)

Negotiate service –level Agreements (Guarantees with
services) ?

Recognize cloud computing implications for internet
Bandwidth
Planning for the future
SHIFT TO LIBRARY AUTOMATION
 (make Major Investment in Core Automation Systems
to manage operations and provide access to
collection/Services)
CONSIDER ASP offerings:
SirsiDynix- Largest Library Automation vendors
Globally
(In 2011 it reports 700 of its customers deploy either
Horizon or Symphony through SaaS.
Planning for the future
CONSIDER ASP OFFERINGS

EX-libris(www.exlibrisgroup.com)

Alma
(http://www.exlibrisgroup.com/categor/Almaoverview)(ExLibris Next Generation Library AutomationPlatform (2012))

Biblionix(http://www.biblionix.com) provides product
called apollo to small public libraries through SaaS
Planning for the future
CONSIDER ASP OFFERINGS
Bibliocommons ( http://www.bibliocommons.com) --A new
Generation Catalogue Interface for public libraries Basd on
Social Networking Conceptsdeliverd through (SaaS)
Open Sorce Automation Systems (use IaaS/SaaS)
LibLime Academic Koha using Amazon EC2
Planning for the future
CONSIDER MULTITENNANT SaaS
Libray Automation Products that Embrace More modern
understanding of Saas ie Beyond vendor hosting of
Traditional software
Serials solutions (http://www.serialssolutions.com)offers
products related to Management of and Access to
Electronic resources
Planning for the future
REPOSITORIES MOVE TO CLOUD
Libraries can implement I.R/D.C/ D.preservation activities
through the Cloud.
o
Merge of Dspace and Fedora Commons ie Common
Governance Duraspace(http:// www.duraspace.org)
o
DuraCloud (http://duracloud.org)(2011(pilot2009) to
deliver flexble service for Storage, Long term preservation
& Access in Digital repositories
Planning for the future

iOCLC EMBRACES CLOUD

From World Cat to “ World share Management Services”

World share Management Services fits in Several Aspects
of Cloud computing.

Operates in Computing Infrastructure it owns/maintains.

More than 2o Libraries use by 2011
Planning for the future: implementation

Determine the cost of library automation in the cloud

Problem: Absence of price List for Software/Related
services

Some Factors:
i) User Population
ii) No of Personnel operating the Software;
iii) Size of Collection
iv) Modules /options selected.
Planning for the future: implementation

Leverage the cloud for supplemental storage;
(big data– terabytes, petabytes,May be exabytes,zetta,yettabytes

use Google apps

use cloud based e_mail on a large scale

power a static website (use S3)

power your dynamic website (use amazon EC2)
More:Research Use
Ex Libris’s bX combines usage data from millions of researchers to
create a scholarly recommender service. Ex Libris soon plans to offer
Hot Articles, a free service employing bX data that shows what articles
are trending in a particular subject.
http://www.thedigitalshift.com/2012/03/software/the-library-cloud-pros-and-cons/
More:Catalogue Application
CATALOGUE USE
Mobile phone apps can add value to cloud-based library data.
OCLC’s WorldCat mobile site aims to direct patrons to the closest
library owning a certain book by mashing-up data from WorldCat
holdings, library locations, and user locations.
More:Stacks Mapping
LIBRARY USE
Stack Map shelf-mapping software is a new service that allows libraries
to show users a map of the book’s physical location in the library based
on
a
pre-recorded
call
number
range.
Unlike
radio-frequency
identification (RFID) chips, which potentially allow for real-time search of
a book via location tracking, this service is less dynamic but nonetheless
useful.
Further:Web Collaboration
 Web collaboration is only partially enabled by the underlying concept
of cloud computing.
 Modern information and communication technology (ICT) enables
collaboration to take place “on a virtual dimension, regardless of
time and location” thereby creating the “virtual organization” – in
which a group of persons are able to share and access available
resources regardless of location (Fong, 2005).
Examples of Cloud Services in Web collaboration

WIKIS
Wikis is one such service that exemplifies a Web tool or
service enabling collaborative work and cloud computing.

Collaborative Website Development
A tool for collaborative website development is Google Sites.

Google
Sites
(http://sites.google.com)
is
a
“content
management system that includes wiki-like features”.

Google Sites is a “Web-based page-creation tool … [with]
buttons for formatting text, creating links, including images …
several different layouts … from which you can choose … ”

Google Sites serves an example of a service for hosting
websites outside of the library's servers, and allowing for
multiple editors to access the site from varied locations.

Collaborative Web Documents
 Librarians can collaborate using the Web to work on online
documents. This can be done through the use of Web services that
permit online document collaboration and sharing.
 Google Docs includes “traditional business programs (word
processor, spreadsheet, and presentation software) …used
through a browser that connects to the data on Google's
machines” (Hosch, 2009).
 Google Docs is also described as a Web-based Document
Management System “for storage and management of a
company's documents, such as word processing documents,
presentations, and spreadsheets”.


Collaborative Customizable Search Engines
Today, search engines are considered the primary tools for “the
most important web services in cyberspace” (Chuang and Wu,
2007).

This may be changing due to the new ideas of social search and
social media search (Bradley, 2008; Scale, 2008), and

librarians have the opportunity to improve search engine
retrieval for better results.
continue …
 This is possible with tools for building customized search engines
like Google Custom Search Engine (GCSE). GCSE allows the builder
“to focus on selecting valuable content and tuning the ranking
criteria, while Google does all the ‘heavy lifting’ of crawling,
indexing, ranking, and displaying results” (Enge and Biundo,
2008).
 With Google doing the technical work, librarians can do what they
are best at, the selection of quality content for the GCSE to index.
Thus “reference librarians and digital bibliographers …can crank
out their bookmarks and favorites and convert them into focused
search engines”.
Others include :

Blogs,

Social networking sites, and

Social bookmarking sites.
Pros/Cons
SECURITY ISSUES
Neutral compared with Local Systems (same tools/
techniques for ensuring Security)
o
provider lacks responsibility 4 software /Operating Sytem
o
Libraries Have Responsibility to Safeguard the privacy of
Data
o
May follow Standard practices like SSL (Secure Socket
layer) for any log-in
Pros/Cons
Reliability Issues

Cloud Based services offer Higher levels of Reliability than
Organizations themselves

Large Sclae Providers (Amazon,Google & Rackspace base
their services on Architecture to withstand failures
Pros/Cons
Large Scale Data
o
Library is a growing Organism (Hence increasing Data)
o
Hold Large Terabytes/Petabytes of Content (SaaS) (S3) (vedio,
scientific data,c ollections,d igitized Books, MSS)
o
BUT Cost Advantages between Local/Cloud Change dramatically
(Exceeds to purchase Cost ?)
o
TIME/COST OF BANDWITH; Hence presently Less viable for
present cost
Pros/Cons
Environmental Issues
The Cloud Results in
Reduced
Environmental impact
through:
o
Reduced amounts of energy consumed relative to use
of Discrete Equipment
o
Hundreds of Servers in an institution/ localities-Increase
daily
Pros/Cons
Version control

Locally: A Major Challenge

SaaS shifts the Burden from
Local LIBRARY
to
Vendor
Pros/Cons
Flexible Environment For Library Developers
CC provides Many Benefits: Avoid Maintenance of Local
Computers
for
Development
(procurement
to
maintenance like:
Replacement; Overheads; Time investment; Server purchase
and set up. (IaaS EC2 can be done in minutes).
Quite Expensive
Service.
for
Projects within Threshold
of Free
Conclusion
I.M/KM
is
entering
a
new era making significant
contribution to knowledge generation, creation and
management
helped by new thinking, tools and
Disruptive innovations web 2.0 and cloud computing
Past technologies and approaches often proved expensive
to implement and difficult o use
The new approach is expected to herald a new knowledge
and information rich world.
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