Spelling Rules

Report
Spelling Rules
Adding –s, -es, -ing and -ed
Vowels:
a, e, i, o, u
Consonants: all other
letters
Vowels and Consonants
 1.
For most third-person singular
(he, she, it) verbs and for plural
nouns, add –s to the simple
form:
◦ Verb: swim
 swims
◦ Noun: lake
 lakes
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 2.
If the simple form ends with
the letters s, z, sh, ch, or x,
add –es.
◦ Verb: miss
 misses
◦ Noun: box
 boxes
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 3.
If the simple form ends with a
consonant + y, change y to I
and add –es:
◦ Verb: try
 tries
◦ Noun: baby
 babies

Vowel + Y, add -s: toytoys
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 4.
If the simple form ends with a
consonant + o, add –s or –es.
Some words take –s:
◦
◦
◦
◦
autoautos
photophotos
pianopianos
solosolos
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 4.
If the simple form ends with a
consonant + o, add –s or –es.
Some words take –es:
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
◦
dodoes
echoechoes
gogoes
heroheroes
potatopotatoes
tomatotomatoes
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 4.
If the simple form ends with a
consonant + o, add –s or –es.
Some words take both –s or
–es:
◦ tornado tornados or tornadoes
◦ volcano volcanos or volcanoes
◦ zero zeros or zeroes

Vowel + o: radioradios, zoozoos
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 5.
If the simple form ends in a single
f or fe, change the f or fe to v and
add-es.
◦ knife
 knives
◦ shelf
 shelves
 Exceptions:
beliefbeliefs,
chiefchiefs, roofroofs,
hoofhooves, scarfscarfs or scarves
Spelling of Verbs and Nouns
in –s and -es
 1.
For most verbs, add –ing to
the simple form of the verb.
◦ sleep
 sleeping
◦ talk
 talking
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ing
 2.
If the simple form ends in a
single e, drop the e and add –
ing.
◦ live
 living
◦ write
 writing
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ing
 3.
If the simple form ends in ie,
change the ie to y and add –
ing.
◦ die
 dying
◦ lie
 lying
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ing
 4.
If the simple form of a onesyllable verb ends in a single
vowel + consonant, double the
final consonant and add –ing.
◦ hit
 hitting
◦ stop
 stopping

Compare to two vowels +
consonant: eatingeating
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ing

5. If the simple form of a verb with two or more syllables ends
in a single vowel + consonant, double the final consonant if
the stress is on the final syllable. Do not double the final
consonant if the stress is not on the final syllable:
◦ admit
 admitting
◦ begin
 beginning
◦ develop
 developing
◦ listen
 listening

NOTE: the final l is always doubled in British English, but not in
American English.
traveltravelling or traveling
Spelling of Verbs ending in -ing
 6.
Do not double the final
consonants x, w, and y:
◦ fix
 fixing
◦ obey
 obeying
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ing
 1.
To form the simple past and
V3 of most regular verbs, add –
ed to the simple form.
◦ brush
 brushed
◦ play
 played
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ed
 2.
If the simple form ends with
–e, just add d.
◦ race
 raced
◦ trade
 traded
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ed
 3.
If the simple form ends with a
consonant + y, change the y to
I and add -ed.
◦ bury
 buried
◦ dry
 dried

Compare with vowel + y:
play/played, enjoy/enjoyed
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ed
 4.
If the simple form of a onesyllable verb ends with a single
vowel + consonant, double the
final consonant and add -ed.
◦ plan
 planned
◦ shop
 shopped
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ed


5. If the simple form of a verb with two or more
syllables ends in a single vowel + consonant,
double the final consonant and add –ed only
when the stress is on the final syllable. Do not
double the final consonant if the stress is not
on the final syllable.
◦ prefer
 preferred
◦ enter
 entered
The final l is always doubled in British English, but
not in American English:
◦ travel travel or travelled
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ed
 6.
Do not double the final
consonants x, w and y.
◦ coax
 coaxed
◦ snow
 snowed
◦ stay
 stayed
Spelling of Verbs ending in
-ed

similar documents