Intro-to-Case-Based-Learning-ASMCUE

Report
Getting Started with Cases
Deborah Allen
Steering Committee
The Science Case Network
[email protected]
ASMCUE: Twenty Years of Vision, Change and Leadership
May 16, 2013
Denver, CO
Problem-Based Learning & Case Study
Method: What’s the Difference?
The Early Models
Problem-Based Learning
Case Study Method
Student-centered

Instructor-centered
Small

Whole class

Cases as extension,
application of concepts
group
Problems
concepts
before
The Modern Synthesis
It starts with a story….. based on complex, real-world
situations
 Students work in groups.
 Students gain new information through self-directed
learning.
 Instructors act as facilitators and designers of learning
experiences and opportunities.
 Learning is active, integrated, cumulative, and connected.

Still a difference? Case as application versus case as means to launch
new learning?
Perceived ‘Problems’
with Medical Education
Problem-based learning was devised > 30 years ago
to address the following perceptions:
Medical students had difficulty transferring basic
science knowledge to clinical applications
Expanding knowledge base was leading to
‘information overload’
Solutions:
Learn content in context, and learn how to learn
Degradative Cycle (Futile Cycle?)
Energy and Raw Materials
hot air
Students
Forget
waste
cellulose
Students
Remember
Students Pass
Exam
midnight
oil
Source: E. J. Wood, Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology,
University of Leeds, Leeds, UK
What Is Case-Based Learning?
“The principal idea behind PBL [case-based
learning] is not new, indeed it is older than
formal education itself. It is that the starting
point for learning should be a problem, a
query, or a puzzle that the learner wishes to
solve.”
Boud, D. (1985) PBL in perspective. In “PBL in Education for the
Professions,” D. J. Boud (ed); p. 13.
Experience It Yourself: ELVIS Meltdown
1.
2.
Using light microscopy, you examine the soil samples and the
“goo” from the degraded polyurethane. Will this approach
allow you to observe all microorganisms present in the samples?
Why or why not? What are the limitations of this approach?
You use phase contrast microscopy to observe a wet mount of
a soil sample (the first picture) and a “goo” sample (the second
image below) from the ELVIS. In what ways are the potential
ET microbes similar to microbes previously characterized on
Earth? In what ways are they different? How could you
determine whether the microbes present in the soil or goo
samples are phylogenetically similar or distant from known
microorganisms on Earth?
More ELVIS
 Part
II—Suspicious Minds
 Culture methods and reconciling results
 Part III—All Shook Up
 Choosing the best media
 Part IV—A Little Less Conversation
 Decision-making - What physical and/or
chemical treatments should be required prior
to liftoff to minimize the opportunity for
contamination by Earth microbes?
What Students Do
Presentation or formulation
of problem
Resolution of problem;
(How did we do?)
Integrate new
Information;
Refine questions
Reconvene, report
on research;
Research questions;
summarize;
analyze findings
Next stage of
the problem
Organize ideas and
prior knowledge
(What do we know?)
Pose questions (What do
we need to know?)
Assign responsibility
for questions; discuss
resources
Medical School Model
Dedicated faculty tutor
Groups of 8-10
Very student-centered environment
Group discussion is primary class activity
A good choice for:
Motivated, experienced learners?
Small seminar classes?
Typical Medical School Case:
High Degree of Authenticity
Patient arrives at hospital, ER, physician’s
office presenting with symptoms X, Y, Z
What questions should you ask?
What tests should you order?
Physician interviews patient, receives results of
tests
Differential diagnosis
Preferred therapy
The Instructor As Facilitator
•
Questions/probes the thinking and reasoning process
•
Guides/directs/intervenes to keep the teams/ on track
Provides information when appropriate
Promotes the use of appropriate resources
Sets high standards for the group
Involves all students in the process
Supports good interpersonal relationships
Serves as a model for giving and receiving feedback
•
•
•
•
•
•
A Typical Day in an
Undergraduate PBL Course
PBL Models for Undergraduate
Courses
Floating Facilitator Model
Small to medium class, one instructor, up to
75 students
Peer Facilitator Model
Small to large class, one instructor and
several peer tutors
Large Class Models
Floating Facilitator Model
Instructor moves from group to group
 Asks questions
 Directs discussions
 Checks understanding
Group size: ~4
More structured format: greater degree of
instructor input into learning issues and resources
Floating Facilitator Model
Class activities besides group
discussions:
– Groups report out
– Whole class discussions
– Mini-lectures
Instructor roles
•
•
•
•
•
•
Establish learning goals
Create great cases
Keep teams on track
Present information as needed
Evaluate outcomes
Encourage reflective learning and transfer
“Hybrid” Case-Based Learning

Non-exclusive use of case-driven learning in a
class

May include separate lecture segments or
other active-learning components

Floating or peer facilitator models common
Often used as entry point into using cases
General Chemistry: Course Background
First-year students in life sciences,
engineering (non-majors): required course
2-4 lecture sections (20 max)
MWF 50-minute lecture schedule
5-7 TA-led weekly 3-hr. lab sections (12-16)
Four to six groups of 4  1 per section
…...Novice, less-motivated learners…….
General Chemistry: Course Format
Problem-based group work
Lecture/whole-class discussion
Demonstrations
Other (Exam, lab review)
40%
50%
7%
3%
How Class Time is Used
Class Time Allocation
fraction of class time
1
0.9
other
0.8
lect/disc
0.7
PBL
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
1
3
5
7
9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35 37 39
Class number
General Chemistry: PBL Sequence
•
•
•
•
•
•
Problems introduce concepts prior to any
discussion in class.
Guiding questions are used to focus learning.
Groups work in class (texts); meet to finish
outside before next class meeting.
Group report out via overheads.
Summary sheets prepared from/based on
reports
Problem followed by fuller discussion of related
issues, connections to earlier work
Factors in Choosing a Model
•
•
•
•
•
•
Class size
Intellectual maturity of students
Student motivation
Course learning objectives
Instructor’s preferences
Availability of peer facilitators
Effective PBL Cases…
•
•
•
•
•
relate to real world, motivate students
require decision-making or judgments
are designed for group-solving
pose questions that encourage discussion
incorporate course content objectives,
higher order thinking, other skills
But I have to cover content…
•
•
•
•
Good cases meet content and process learning
objectives.
Good cases require learning and applying
content.
Cases provide a meaningful context, making
concepts more memorable.
Deep understanding is preferable to wide
exposure.
Assessment of Learning
• Written exams,
quizzes
• Oral exams
• Term papers
• Reflective journals
• Projects
• Oral reports
• Lab reports
• Essays
• Group work
• Observation
• Peer or selfassessments
•
•
•
•
•
•
One-minute papers
Concept maps
Dialogues
Portfolio analyses
Letters
Reflective journals
In general, a shift towards more
opportunities for feedback,
particularly formative
Course Transformation: A Balancing Act

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