Eishenhower before Kennedy

Report
‘Imperial
Presidency’
Changes in
Industrial
geography
Changing power balance
between President and
congress
Military-Industrial
complex
ECONOMY
THE IMPACT
OF THE COLD
WAR ON THE
USA 1945-63
POLITICS
Garrison State
Causes?
Red Scare
McCarthyism
Consequences?
SOCIETY
Fear of
Nuclear War
Eisenhower & Vietnam
•
•
•
•
Introduction to Eisenhower/context
French failure at Dienbienphu
Geneva Accords 1954
Eisenhower’s legacy
Dwight D. Eisenhower
• 20th Jan 1953 – 20th Jan 1961
• Inherits Truman’s commitment to the French
in Vietnam.
• As a result supports ‘puppet’ emperor Bao
Dai. UNPOPULAR.
• Continued to fund the French and their
involvement in Vietnam.
• Nov 1946 Vietminh (Communist) declare war
on the French and Bao Dai.
Failure at Dienbienphu
• Vietminh – smaller army, Vo Nguyen Giap trained
the army in guerrilla tactics. By 1952 army of
nearly 2 million.
• Vietminh strategies exasperated the French.
Losing support at home.
• Great military struggle at Dienbienphu – French
and USA believe this is the end of the war leading
to a victory for the French.
• USA provided $385 million of armaments to the
French. JUST HOW IMPORTANT WAS VIETNAM
TO USA? Should they get involved?
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Was south east Asia vital to US security?
Should the US get involved?
What form should this involvement take?
Did the US army have enough troops?
Was victory possible alongside the French?
Were the US willing to clash with China?
How much was US willing to do without allied
support?
How might the USA react to
the crisis at Dienbienphu?
• Eisenhower believed south east Asia was vital to US
security.
• Communism threatened the USA – French were fighting
Communism and it was easier to fund the French that send
in American troops.
• Dienbienphu – French request US involvement. Eisenhower
concerned as he needs the French to stay strong.
• 1954 – Sends 200 American technicians.
• FIRST USA PERSONNEL PUT INTO VIETNAM.
• Why get involved?.. ‘rollback’ policy – complete eradication
of Communism (as opposed to containment)
• Did not want to ‘lose’ in Vietnam.
• Loss of Vietnam would impact upon the global balance of
power – domino theory.
• HOWEVER – decided to not offer support. French doomed
to failure.
• Vietminh attacked and the French suffered a
humiliating defeat.
•
•
•
•
GENEVA CONFERENCE ON INDOCHINA 1954
Trying to end the fighting in Indochina.
Stalin died – resolve Cold War tension.
Included: France, Bao Dai, Vietminh,
Cambodia, Laos, US, USSR, People’s Republic
of China and GB.
• DIFFERING INTERESTS! Nobody could agree!
Geneva Accords 1954
• New French government. Determined to settle
situation.
• Agreed by Vietminh and France = Communist
rule in North (Vietminh) and Bao Dai and
Diem in South.
• 17th parallel = divide. 10km demilitarised zone.
• Democratic elections in 1956 where Vietnam
would be reunited.
Eisenhower – A recap
• Inherited a limited involvement in Vietnam.
• Truman = financial aid as important to the Cold
War.
• Eisenhower administration agreed that Vietnam
was important.
• Greater importance of Vietnam – expanded.
• Offered great deal of support to French.
• USA gave diem billions of dollars worth of aid and
1500 military advisors = obligation to see it
through?
• A short step away from putting soldiers into
Vietnam.
What problems did Eisenhower leave
behind for Kennedy?
• What can we predict will be the initial issues
for Kennedy?
• How might he react to these?
Beat that loser!!!
It’s YOUR problem
now 

similar documents