Burkina Faso: Education By: Crystal Tseng and Choyeon Yoo Overview/Statistics • 14.75 million population (2010) • Completion of the sixth primary grade is the minimum required to make literacy irreversible • Only 3 out of 10 children complete the 6th grade • Only 25% of girls finish the last year of primary school • 41% gross primary school enrollment, 12% secondary school enrollment, and 1% university enrollment • Overall 22% adult literacy rate • Placed last in UNESCO’s EFA Development Index • EFA Development Index provides an assessment of a country’s education system Challenges • High cost of schooling • Distance of schools • Low school access rate (Only 66% for primary and 17% for secondary) • High opportunity costs for poor families – where they rather have their children work to contribute to family income • Language Barrier – Education is mainly conducted in French but only 15% of Burkinabe speak French. • The low completion rate is due to a high level of repeaters in primary public schools • many schools do not offer six grades of schooling Burkina Faso compared to the rest of Africa • The primary school completion rate rose from 19 percent to 31 percent between 1991 and 2003 but it also remains one of the lowest in African countries. • Before adopting the 10 Year Basic Education Development program, Burkina Faso had one of the weakest education systems in the world. Current education reform policies adopted by the government • Relies heavily on program-based approaches • 10-year Basic Education Development Plan, Education for All – Fast Track Initiative, non formal basic education program • 10-year Basic Education Development Plan • Aims to improve enrollment rate nationwide • Education for All – Fast Track Initiative • Aims to close financial gaps that prevent the success of education goals • Non formal basic education program • Aims to give vocational education to children who dropped out of school or never went to school 10-Year Basic Education Development Plan • Adopted by Burkina Faso’s government in 2001-2002 to develop/strengthen Burkina Faso’s educational system • 3 principal components • Greater access to basic education • Increasing the supply of basic education, including alternative education, and reducing socio-economic, regional and gender disparities • Greater quality and effectiveness of basic education • Improving the quality, relevance and effectiveness of basic education and developing coherence and integration between the various levels and styles of education • Build capacity of institutional and system management • Build capacity to lead, manage, and access education structures, as well as coordinate external assistance • Performance of program relies on: • • • • • Number of new contract teachers recruited within the last year Construction of new schools Pupil-teacher ratio in public schools Gender equality government/political support • Including education expenditure as a percentage of the GDP and government budget • Primary education expenditure as a percentage of total education budget • Results • Gross enrollment rate increased from 52.9%-78.3% from 2002-2008, the number of classes have been increased by 70% from 2002-2008 Non Formal Basic Education • Provides basic education and vocational apprenticeship training • Designed to ensure a better social/economic integration into society of young people who did not have a chance to complete school in a formal system • Targets out of school children aged 9-15. It is one of the strategies in Burkina Faso designed to increase the school enrollment rate to 70%, and literacy rate to 40% Fast Track Initiative • Global partnership of developing and donor countries, agencies, NGOs, and private/public foundations to support the education system in developing countries • Support country’s education plan with increased financial support and funding, closing financial gaps that prevent the goals. • Mobilize resources, and align with country’s development priorities Historical Education Trends Primary school enrollment (% gross) Data from World Bank Historical Education Trends Secondary school enrollment (% gross) Data from World Bank Historical Education Trends Tertiary school enrollment (% gross) Data from World Bank Historical Education Trends Ratio of female to male primary enrollment (%) Data from World Bank Historical Education Trends Ratio of female to male secondary enrollment (%) Data from World Bank Historical Education Trends Ratio of female to male tertiary enrollment (%) Data from World Bank Historical Education Trends Adult literacy rate (% of people ages 15 and above) Data from World Bank World Bank’s role in BF’s education development • The 1st Education Project (1973-1980) • support rural youth training programs • promote science education in secondary schools • The 2nd Education Project (1979 -1986) • train agricultural project managers and public works personnel • The Primary Education Development Project (1985-1994) • expanse of primary education • enable reduction of per pupil costs • The 4th Education Project( 1991 -1998 ) • increase school enrollment rates • The fifth project (since 1997) • assist the government in promoting secondary education World Bank’s role in BF’s education development • International Development Association (IDA) • Part of the World Bank, program that reduces poverty by providing loans to for programs boost economic and social growth, and reduce inequalities • Supports/funds the 10-year basic education reform program • Funded $32.6 mil out of the $110 mil program cost • This program enabled Burkina Faso to be eligible for the Fast Track Initiative (FTI) • Relies heavily on political support IDA’s Approach • 3 phase program to support government’s 10-Year Basic Education Program • 1) Establish a basket of coordinated funding for education reform from various donors. (Belgium, Canada, Denmark, the European Commision, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, and other NGOs) • 2) Improve access to primary education in rural areas – particularly in the 20 provinces with the lowest enrollment rate, by additional construction and rehabilitation of schools, and financing of equipment, teachers and facilities. • 3) Support curriculum development and teacher training, and focusing particularly to financial management, budgeting, and donor coordination. Results of IDA • Gross enrollment rate (2000-2006) nationwide increased from 42% (36% for girls) to 62% (55% for girls) • Within the the 20 provinces with the lowest enrollment rate, gross enrollment rose from 30% (24% for girls) to 47% (41% for girls) • Additional 550,000 kids have been enrolled in primary school • Additional 7000 classrooms were built (mostly in rural areas) • More than 5 mil textbooks were purchased and distributed to students and schools • Additional teacher recruitment and their assignment to rural areas, the number of public teachers have increased 8% since 2000 • Better allocation of resources within the education sector UNICEF’s role in Burkina Faso’s education reform • Support the Non Formal Basic Education (CEBNF) program • Aim to establish at least 5 of these centers in each the 45 provinces in the country • Results: Having completed the 4 year CEBNF course, students are able to read and write in French • Provides professional trainings, assists with construction of buildings for these centers, and provides equipment. • Local resource people are recruited as teachers and trained to use “learning by doing” techniques so the students can gain practical skills UNICEF’s role in Burkina Faso’s education reform • Support the Non Formal Basic Education (CEBNF) program • Targets out-of-school youths for a second chance for education • Aim to establish at least 5 of these centers in each the 45 provinces in the country • Results: Having completed the 4 year CEBNF course, students are able to read and write in French • Provides professional trainings, assists with construction of buildings for these centers, and provides equipment. • Local resource people are recruited as teachers and trained to use “learning by doing” techniques so the students can gain practical skills • Support the development of the cycle literacy/basic education • Students’ parents association • Mothers Educators Associations • Management Committees from schools and education centers. • Given through the state • Average of 200 members are trained every year in literacy. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kA5aLp4natw Work Cited • http://www.unicef.org/bfa/english/index.html • http://www.intervida.org/en/publications/solidary-news/thereality-of-education-in-burkina-faso • http://web.worldbank.org/ • http://www.mfdr.org/sourcebook/6-90BurkinaFaso-TenYear.pdf • http://data.worldbank.org/ • http://aadcice.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/e/publications/sosho4_102.pdf Thank you.