Research Proposal I - UCF College of Education and Human

Research Proposal
Assessment in Visual Art
Laura Paulk
ARE 6905
April 19, 2011
• Look at assessment of art in schools and
investigate how it measures individual student
knowledge and abilities
• Review current assessment methods and
• Develop a test that will align assessment with
what is being taught in school visual art
• Look at the relationship between student ability
and attitudes
Research Questions
• What counts as knowledge in the visual arts?
• What is distinctive about student learning in
• Will use of contemporary art and social issues
in assessment better reflect student learning
that is occurring in the classroom?
• Is there a relationship between how important
students believe an art education is and how
well they do on the test?
Problem Statement
• There is a relationship between student art
ability and student attitude.
• Scores from individuals taking the assessment
will correlate with scores on an attitude
A Survey of Assessment and Evaluation Among US K-12
Teachers of Art
• 1998, David Burton
• Assessment methods tended to be informal,
subjective, and interactive
• “We need to develop additional methods that
are objective and systematic, and that will be
applied regularly and consistently to
determine when and to what degree student
learning takes place.”
Re-visioning NAEP
• Longfellow re-administered the NAEP collage block
with a smaller paper size for creating a collage and a
new scoring rubric
• Results from the new assessment & scoring rubric
indicated a unique cognitive contribution of art to the
general curriculum
• New rubric “leveled the playing field” when it came to
socio-economic status
• Revealed a gap between formal documents describing
art curriculum and learning objectives that teachers
bring to the classroom (Siegesmund, Diket, &
McCulloch, 2001)
The Teacher as Stakeholder in Student Art
Assessment and Art Program Evaluation
• Dorn (2002) suggests results of 1997 NAEP arts
assessment raise more questions than they answer
• National test that has a failure rate of 50% is not
testing what art teachers expect their students to know
and be able to do
• Arts in the future may face being left out of curriculum
if we don’t produce adequate tests and realistic district
assessment plans
• What needs to be assessed: expression, knowledge &
skill, and concept formation
• Tests should be used to identify how schools, students,
teachers can improve what they are doing
Use of Contemporary Art
• “Educators who are responsive to the needs of their current
students musts consider contemporary as well as traditional artistic
and critical practice and ask what students need to know to
successfully make and understand art and culture today” (Gude,
p.12, 2007).
• Cummings (2010) action research in her high school art classroom
• Redeveloped curriculum around social issues and concerns her
students expressed interest in using historical and contemporary
• This thematic, social, and visual culture-oriented art curriculum was
relevant, meaningful, and contributed to students’ behaviors &
• Created in environment of self-reflection, discovery, and
development of new understandings
Measuring Student Learning in Art
• Educational accountability requires the “need for
reliable assessment and evaluation to support
innovations in curriculum design, instructional
methods, program funding, and the appraisal of
student achievement” (Gruber, p.41, 2008).
• 4 assessment strategies necessary for a balanced
& accurate assessment plan in art: testing,
observation, finished product, and portfolios
• Written tests must be applicable to the goals and
objectives of the lessons
Scoring Rubrics
• Use of scoring rubrics to assess student
• “Scoring rubrics establish the criteria for
student performance at different levels of
achievement and can help clarify teaching
objectives and promote clarity and
consistency in the evaluation” (Popovich, p.38,
• Descriptive & correlational research
• Hypothesis: Scores from individuals taking the
assessment will correlate with scores on an attitude
• 8th grade students currently enrolled in a visual arts
class at public schools in Florida
• School teachers and administration would agree that
the assessment aligns with their visual art curriculum
• Authentic stimuli-quality reproduction of
contemporary art work
• Respond and create questions along with questions
about student attitudes toward art
Assessment Procedure
• Students will be encouraged to:
– Reflect about works of art
– Communicate ideas & feelings about works of art
– Use creative approach to solving artistic problems
• Multiple choice questions, short answer
response, essay response, create original work of
art based on art work shown to them
• Questions about how the student thinks they did:
How hard was this test? How hard did you try?
How important was it to you to do well? Have
you ever taken an art test before?
Modern Man Followed by
the Ghosts of his Meat,
1990, is characterized by:
A. Negative space
B. A lack of color
C. Simplification of form
D. A wide variety of
2. Which statement best describes the content of Sue Coe’s artwork Modern Man
Followed by the Ghosts of his Meat, 1990?
A. Support for eating at McDonald’s
B. An everyday street scene
C. A man and his domestic pets
D. Animal rights
3. Look closely at the painting The Farm, 2000 by Alexis
Rockman. Describe what leaps to your attention first, what you
think the artist wants you to notice. Draw arrows to three
features of the work to point out your observations. Write your
thoughtful descriptions next to your arrows (NCES, n.d.).
4. Think about how the parts and composition of this painting
work together. What do you think the artist is trying to
communicate (NCES, n.d.)?
A. The benefits of organic gardening to farmers
B. The cycle of life
C. Questioning how far science should go to change nature
D. How to run a farm
5. Some artists express their views on
particular issues in their paintings.
Look carefully at Frank Moore’s
Stretch, 1996. Write an essay to
describe the subject matter, analyze
the formal qualities, interpret the
meaning, and judge the success of the
painting (Brewer, 2008).
6. After studying the artwork by contemporary artists you
are familiar with the idea that contemporary artists use
their artwork to communicate their thoughts and ideas
about social and political issues they see around them.
Create a drawing that you will use to communicate a social
observation or commentary. Suggestions for a topic range
from something you have seen on the news to the
meaningful activities of your life (family activities,
celebrations or traditions, or work related activities). Make
notes about your thoughts and ideas and then make a
small planning sketch before you begin your final drawing
(Brewer, 2008).
Which of the following best describes you? Circle one or more
Black or African American
American Indian or Alaska Native
Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander
Circle one letter.
A. Male
B. Female
How hard did you try on this test compared to how hard you tried on most
other tests you have taken this year in school?
A. Not as hard as on other tests
B. About as hard as on other tests
C. Harder than on other tests
D. Much harder than on other tests
How important was it to you to do well on this test?
A. Not very important
B. Somewhat important
C. Important
D. Very Important
How well do you think you performed on this test?
A. Bad
B. Good
C. Excellent
How much do you agree with each of the following statements? Circle one
answer on each line.
I like to look at art
Not Sure
I like to do artwork
Not Sure
I think I have a talent for art
Not Sure
People tell me I am a good artist
Not Sure
I like to show my art to others
Not Sure
I would like to be an artist when I
grow up
Not Sure
What is your favorite subject in school?
A. Science
B. Music
C. Math
D. Language Arts
E. Art
F. Social Studies
G. None of the above
of Timed Assessments
• In a classroom setting teachers evaluate
student arts knowledge & skills through
prolonged observation (NCES). Students can:
– Ask questions & discuss ideas & processes with
peers and teachers
– Explore/experiment with different strategies for
creating art
– Work on projects over a period of time
• Author’s from the review of literature are calling for
relevant and authentic assessments to measure what
students know and can do in the visual arts
• Art teachers’ attitudes and behaviors will affect their
students attitudes and behaviors
• Getting student input on their interests and concerns
with social issues will increase student interaction and
improve their attitudes
• Assessment should be occurring in the classroom before
a written test is administered
• NAEP is probably not testing students on what they are
being taught in their visual arts classes (Dorn, 2002)
• Assessment in the art classroom is a constant
• Creating an authentic and meaningful testing
instrument to accurately measure student
knowledge and ability in visual art is a time
consuming and challenging task
• If students are consistently discussing and writing
about the artwork of others and their own artwork,
as well as creating meaningful artwork of their own
they should have no problems with a test asking
them to respond to art and create their own artwork
Brewer, T.M. (2008). Developing a bundled visual art assessment model. Visual Arts Research,
34(1), 63-74.
Cummings, K.L. (2010). “So what.” “Who cares?” “Whatever.” Changing adolescents’ attitudes in
the art classroom. Visual Arts Research, 36(1),
Dorn, C.M. (2002). The teacher as stakeholder in student art assesment and art program
evaluation. Art Education, 55(4), 40-45.
Gude, O. (2007). Principles of possibility: Considerations for a 21st-century art & culture
curriculum. Art Education, 60(1), 6-17.
Gruber, D.D. (2008). Measuring student learning in art education. Art Education, 61(5), 40-45.
Hausman, J. (1998). Status report the NAEA task force on research into art education
evaluation, Reston, VA: National Art Education Association.
National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2008). Sample questions: Music and visual arts. U.S.
Department of Education.
National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from nces.ed.gove/nationsreportcard/pubs/
McCollister, S. (2002). Developing criteria rubrics in the art classroom. Art Education, 55(4), 46-52.
Popovich, K. (2006). Designing and implementing exemplary content, curriculum, and assessment
in art education. Art Education, 59(6), 33-39.
Siegesmund, R., Diket, R., & McCulloch, S. (2001). Re-visioning NAEP: Amending a performance
assessment for middle school art students. Studies in Art Education, 43(1), 45-56.

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