Research Proposal Assessment in Visual Art Laura Paulk ARE 6905 April 19, 2011 Purpose • Look at assessment of art in schools and investigate how it measures individual student knowledge and abilities • Review current assessment methods and practices • Develop a test that will align assessment with what is being taught in school visual art classrooms • Look at the relationship between student ability and attitudes Research Questions • What counts as knowledge in the visual arts? • What is distinctive about student learning in art? • Will use of contemporary art and social issues in assessment better reflect student learning that is occurring in the classroom? • Is there a relationship between how important students believe an art education is and how well they do on the test? Problem Statement • There is a relationship between student art ability and student attitude. Hypothesis • Scores from individuals taking the assessment will correlate with scores on an attitude measure. A Survey of Assessment and Evaluation Among US K-12 Teachers of Art • 1998, David Burton • Assessment methods tended to be informal, subjective, and interactive • “We need to develop additional methods that are objective and systematic, and that will be applied regularly and consistently to determine when and to what degree student learning takes place.” Re-visioning NAEP • Longfellow re-administered the NAEP collage block with a smaller paper size for creating a collage and a new scoring rubric • Results from the new assessment & scoring rubric indicated a unique cognitive contribution of art to the general curriculum • New rubric “leveled the playing field” when it came to socio-economic status • Revealed a gap between formal documents describing art curriculum and learning objectives that teachers bring to the classroom (Siegesmund, Diket, & McCulloch, 2001) The Teacher as Stakeholder in Student Art Assessment and Art Program Evaluation • Dorn (2002) suggests results of 1997 NAEP arts assessment raise more questions than they answer • National test that has a failure rate of 50% is not testing what art teachers expect their students to know and be able to do • Arts in the future may face being left out of curriculum if we don’t produce adequate tests and realistic district assessment plans • What needs to be assessed: expression, knowledge & skill, and concept formation • Tests should be used to identify how schools, students, teachers can improve what they are doing Use of Contemporary Art • “Educators who are responsive to the needs of their current students musts consider contemporary as well as traditional artistic and critical practice and ask what students need to know to successfully make and understand art and culture today” (Gude, p.12, 2007). • Cummings (2010) action research in her high school art classroom • Redeveloped curriculum around social issues and concerns her students expressed interest in using historical and contemporary artists • This thematic, social, and visual culture-oriented art curriculum was relevant, meaningful, and contributed to students’ behaviors & attitudes • Created in environment of self-reflection, discovery, and development of new understandings Measuring Student Learning in Art Education • Educational accountability requires the “need for reliable assessment and evaluation to support innovations in curriculum design, instructional methods, program funding, and the appraisal of student achievement” (Gruber, p.41, 2008). • 4 assessment strategies necessary for a balanced & accurate assessment plan in art: testing, observation, finished product, and portfolios • Written tests must be applicable to the goals and objectives of the lessons Scoring Rubrics • Use of scoring rubrics to assess student responses • “Scoring rubrics establish the criteria for student performance at different levels of achievement and can help clarify teaching objectives and promote clarity and consistency in the evaluation” (Popovich, p.38, 2006). Methods • Descriptive & correlational research • Hypothesis: Scores from individuals taking the assessment will correlate with scores on an attitude measure. • 8th grade students currently enrolled in a visual arts class at public schools in Florida • School teachers and administration would agree that the assessment aligns with their visual art curriculum • Authentic stimuli-quality reproduction of contemporary art work • Respond and create questions along with questions about student attitudes toward art Assessment Procedure • Students will be encouraged to: – Reflect about works of art – Communicate ideas & feelings about works of art – Use creative approach to solving artistic problems • Multiple choice questions, short answer response, essay response, create original work of art based on art work shown to them • Questions about how the student thinks they did: How hard was this test? How hard did you try? How important was it to you to do well? Have you ever taken an art test before? 1. Modern Man Followed by the Ghosts of his Meat, 1990, is characterized by: A. Negative space B. A lack of color C. Simplification of form D. A wide variety of textures 2. Which statement best describes the content of Sue Coe’s artwork Modern Man Followed by the Ghosts of his Meat, 1990? A. Support for eating at McDonald’s B. An everyday street scene C. A man and his domestic pets D. Animal rights 3. Look closely at the painting The Farm, 2000 by Alexis Rockman. Describe what leaps to your attention first, what you think the artist wants you to notice. Draw arrows to three features of the work to point out your observations. Write your thoughtful descriptions next to your arrows (NCES, n.d.). 4. Think about how the parts and composition of this painting work together. What do you think the artist is trying to communicate (NCES, n.d.)? A. The benefits of organic gardening to farmers B. The cycle of life C. Questioning how far science should go to change nature D. How to run a farm 5. Some artists express their views on particular issues in their paintings. Look carefully at Frank Moore’s Stretch, 1996. Write an essay to describe the subject matter, analyze the formal qualities, interpret the meaning, and judge the success of the painting (Brewer, 2008). 6. After studying the artwork by contemporary artists you are familiar with the idea that contemporary artists use their artwork to communicate their thoughts and ideas about social and political issues they see around them. Create a drawing that you will use to communicate a social observation or commentary. Suggestions for a topic range from something you have seen on the news to the meaningful activities of your life (family activities, celebrations or traditions, or work related activities). Make notes about your thoughts and ideas and then make a small planning sketch before you begin your final drawing (Brewer, 2008). Which of the following best describes you? Circle one or more letter. A. B. C. D. E. White Black or African American Asian American Indian or Alaska Native Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander Circle one letter. A. Male B. Female How hard did you try on this test compared to how hard you tried on most other tests you have taken this year in school? A. Not as hard as on other tests B. About as hard as on other tests C. Harder than on other tests D. Much harder than on other tests How important was it to you to do well on this test? A. Not very important B. Somewhat important C. Important D. Very Important How well do you think you performed on this test? A. Bad B. Good C. Excellent How much do you agree with each of the following statements? Circle one answer on each line. I like to look at art Agree Not Sure Disagree I like to do artwork Agree Not Sure Disagree I think I have a talent for art Agree Not Sure Disagree People tell me I am a good artist Agree Not Sure Disagree I like to show my art to others Agree Not Sure Disagree I would like to be an artist when I grow up Agree Not Sure Disagree What is your favorite subject in school? A. Science B. Music C. Math D. Language Arts E. Art F. Social Studies G. None of the above Challenges/Limitations of Timed Assessments • In a classroom setting teachers evaluate student arts knowledge & skills through prolonged observation (NCES). Students can: – Ask questions & discuss ideas & processes with peers and teachers – Explore/experiment with different strategies for creating art – Work on projects over a period of time Conclusion • Author’s from the review of literature are calling for relevant and authentic assessments to measure what students know and can do in the visual arts • Art teachers’ attitudes and behaviors will affect their students attitudes and behaviors • Getting student input on their interests and concerns with social issues will increase student interaction and improve their attitudes • Assessment should be occurring in the classroom before a written test is administered • NAEP is probably not testing students on what they are being taught in their visual arts classes (Dorn, 2002) Reflection • Assessment in the art classroom is a constant process • Creating an authentic and meaningful testing instrument to accurately measure student knowledge and ability in visual art is a time consuming and challenging task • If students are consistently discussing and writing about the artwork of others and their own artwork, as well as creating meaningful artwork of their own they should have no problems with a test asking them to respond to art and create their own artwork References Brewer, T.M. (2008). Developing a bundled visual art assessment model. Visual Arts Research, 34(1), 63-74. Cummings, K.L. (2010). “So what.” “Who cares?” “Whatever.” Changing adolescents’ attitudes in the art classroom. Visual Arts Research, 36(1), 55-67. Dorn, C.M. (2002). The teacher as stakeholder in student art assesment and art program evaluation. Art Education, 55(4), 40-45. Gude, O. (2007). Principles of possibility: Considerations for a 21st-century art & culture curriculum. Art Education, 60(1), 6-17. Gruber, D.D. (2008). Measuring student learning in art education. Art Education, 61(5), 40-45. Hausman, J. (1998). Status report the NAEA task force on research into art education evaluation, Reston, VA: National Art Education Association. National Assessment of Educational Progress. (2008). Sample questions: Music and visual arts. U.S. Department of Education. National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved from nces.ed.gove/nationsreportcard/pubs/ strategies/ McCollister, S. (2002). Developing criteria rubrics in the art classroom. Art Education, 55(4), 46-52. Popovich, K. (2006). Designing and implementing exemplary content, curriculum, and assessment in art education. Art Education, 59(6), 33-39. Siegesmund, R., Diket, R., & McCulloch, S. (2001). Re-visioning NAEP: Amending a performance assessment for middle school art students. Studies in Art Education, 43(1), 45-56.