Clinical Coach Standardisation Meeting August 2011 Aims • • • • • Define Practical Skills How can practical skills be learnt? How can practical skills be taught Why is assessment important? How can this be done in a robust way? What are practical skills? • Doing! • BUT • Require underpinning knowledge & understanding • Require ability to perform a dextrous task • Can be simple or complex • May require fine or gross motor skills • Acquisition is a life long process: • child adult Practical Skills in Veterinary Nursing • Technical Professional Business • Animal care and welfare • First Aid • Preparation & administration of medication • Diagnostic procedures • Clinical Care Procedures • Equipment prep & maintenance Communication Team Working Teaching Conduct Staff Management Stock Control Reception Duties Payments Estimates Health & Safety How do we learn? Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle Concrete Experience (Doing) Active Experimentation (Putting into practice what has been learned) Reflective Observation Abstract Conceptualisation (Learning from experience) Blooms Taxonomy • Imitation • Manipulation Psychomotor • Precision (Practical Skills) • Articulation • Naturalisation Skill Aquisition • Dreyfus (1980) proposed a model of how to acquire skills • Applied to nursing by Benner (1984) • Progressive level of skill based on experience Novice Advanced Beginner Competent Proficient Expert Conscious Competence Model and its Professional Application Reflective Competence Unconsciously Incompetent Consciously Incompetent Consciously Competent Unconsciously Competent What Concepts can be used to guide our teaching? Behavioural Therapy • Activity aids learning • Repetition and practice aids learning • Small steps aid learning • Reinforcement aids learning Cognitive Theory • Learning comes from understanding • Organisation and structure of teaching aid learning • Perceptual features need attention • Cognitive feedback aids learning • Individual differences need to be taken into account Humanisation and Adult Learning Theory • Learning is a natural process • Motivation, purposes and goals are important • Choice, relevance and responsibility aid learning • Anxiety and emotion affect learning Teaching a skill • Stage 1 Demonstration of skill at normal speed with little/no explanation. Stage 2 Repetition with full explanation and encouraging learner to ask questions. Stage 3 Demonstration again with learner explaining each step and teacher questioning and correcting. May need to be repeated multiple times. Stage 4 Learner performs skill under close supervision describing each step before performing it. Acquisition of skills in Veterinary Nursing College Workbased Why is work based learning important? Workplace teaching & learning Limitations • Time and clinical constraints • Effect on smooth running of a business • Ability and willingness of staff whose main role is not teaching • Availability of teaching opportunities • Variability in technique • Non compliant patients Simulations • Allows learning to be in a safe & controlled environment • Lots of opportunities to practice • Standard techniques can be taught • Less time constrained • BUT • Experience NOT real • Not possible for all tasks • May result in poor application in practice Assessment – Why? • Have learning outcomes been met? • Are learners - Competent, Reliable, Safe. • Can knowledge and practical skills be used together in a problem solving context? • Important for public confidence and professional registration Assessment formats Does NPL Shows How (College & Practice) Practical exams Knows How (College) Written assessment assignments Knows (College) Written assessment – MCQ’s Assessment of practical skills must be……. • Feasible • Credible • Have educational impact • Defensible • Supported by body of evidence in the literature • Acceptable to all stakeholders Any Questions?