National 4/5 Modern Studies

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National 4/5 Modern Studies
• What you need to revise for the exam:
1. All topics in preparation for KNOWLEDGE
QUESTIONS (PEEL)
2. The 3 SKILLS QUESTIONS…
CONLUSION QUESTIONS, SELECTIVE IN
THE USE OF FACTS, OPTIONS
QUESTIONS
KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS
• Three topics:
1. Democracy in Scotland
2. Social issues in the UK
3. International issues (the USA)
DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND
• Background knowledge…
• Structure of Government in Britain – UK
Parliament (House of Lords and House of
Commons), Scottish Parliament, the
monarchy, Prime Minister, First Minister,
UK and Scottish Cabinets, Local
Government, relationship between UK and
Scottish Government, what councillors can
make decisions on
DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND
Representation
1. Role of MSPs and Councillors, how constituents
can contact representatives
2. Role, function and areas of the Scottish
Parliament
3. How MSPs represent constituents in constituency
and in Scottish Parliament
4. First Minister’s Question Time, Debates, voting,
committees, Members’ Bills
5. Work of a local councillor, how councillors can
represent their wards, how councillors can resolve
local conflicts (e.g. budgets, road by-passes)
DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND
Participation
1. Political Parties – know main parties and basic
policies
2. Purpose of political parties
3. Standing as a candidate – qualities needed
4. Election campaigns – purpose, process and
outcomes
5. Why it is important to use right to vote
6. Voting systems – advantages and disadvantages of
the Single Transferable Vote (STV) and the
Additional Member System (AMS)
DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND
Influence – Pressure Groups
1. Purpose
2. Aims
3. Methods used
4. Examples of pressure group action
SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK
Social Inequality
1. Poverty – what is poverty, relative and
absolute poverty, social exclusion, groups most
at risk from social exclusion
2. Causes of poverty – unemployment, low pay,
benefits system, family structure, gender,
race
3. Consequences of poverty - lack of necessities,
ill health – mental and physical, inequality in
education, social exclusion, poor housing,
addiction problems, homelessness
SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK
Groups that tackle poverty
1. Central Government – benefits system, support
for children and families, attracting jobs to UK,
training and education, welfare to work, minimum
wage, heating allowances, Big Society
2. Scottish Parliament – social inclusion, education,
inclusion and equality policy
3. Local Authorities – Housing and Council Tax
Benefit
4. Voluntary Sector – groups that tackle child
poverty
5. Private Sector – job creation, greater role for
private sector
SOCIAL ISSUES IN THE UK
Health Inequalities
1. Lifestyle, social and economic disadvantages,
geography, environment, age, gender, race
2. Groups that tackle health inequalities – The
Scottish Parliament, NHS Scotland , Health
Promotion and Education, the voluntary sector,
local authorities- free school meals, private
sector – private health insurance, PPP
3. Social inequality – focus on one of the
following: race, gender, social class, gender,
age, disability
INTERNATIONAL ISSUES –
THE USA
The USA
1. Background – powerful country, relevance to
Scotland
2. Political issues – type of government, parts of
government, participation
3. How democratic is the USA?
4. Social and Economic issues –
population/immigration, employment, wealth and
health inequalities, education, housing, crime and
law (Focus on 2 or 3 of these)
5. Government response to social and economic issues
6. Rights and Responsibilities of citizens
SKILLS QUESTIONS
1. SELECTIVE IN THE USE OF FACTS
2. OPTIONS QUESTION
3. CONCLUSION QUESTION
KNOWLEDGE QUESTIONS
International Issues –
USA KU Advice
Questions will not be specific to the USA…instead they will be
worded as below:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Describe, in detail, two ways citizens from a world power you
have studied can participate in politics
Explain, in detail, why social and economic inequalities exists in
a world power you have studied.
Describe, in detail, at least two main political institutions of
the government of a world power you have studied.
Choose one of the following – poor education, health
inequalities, fear of crime, or poor housing. Explain, in detail,
why this issue continues to be a problem in a world power you
have studied.
Describe, in detail, the rights and responsibilities of citizens
from a world power you have studied.
Explain, in detail, why some groups from a world power you
have studied experience social and economic inequality.
International Issues –
USA Skills Advice
• The skills question in this section may
not be specific to the USA
• Remember though, you simply use the
correct technique and no background
knowledge is required
Revision Topics
• Scottish Parliament – voting systems,
local councils, SP basics, pressure
groups, qualities needed for standing as
a candidate
• Social Inequality – Groups that tackle
inequalities
• USA – how democratic
Voting Systems
• Just remember the pros and cons of the
following:
• FPTP
• AMS
• STV
FPTP Advantages
Very easy to understand – whoever
gets the most votes wins
FPTP Disadvantages
Smaller parties such as Green Party
have little chance of being elected
Usually leads to strong majority
Leads to a two party system where
governments – e.g. Labour 1997-2010 Labour and Conservatives dominate
One representative per constituency – Majority governments can be bad as
no confusion. E.g. Glasgow East MP is other party’s views are ignored Margaret Curran – people know who to undemocratic
go to
AMS Advantages
AMS Disadvantages
It is fairer - there is a more
proportional link between votes and
elected representatives
It tends to produce coalition
governments, which would have to
involve compromise. This means it is
difficult to pass bills.
There still is a link between the MSP
and the constituents as voters vote
directly for their constituency MSP
(paper 1)
There are two types of MSPs constituency MSPs and list MSPs – can
be conflict between them
Smaller parties can get representation It is a confusing system – people fill
(e.g. Green Party, Scottish Socialist
in ballot papers wrongly
Party)
Some people feel their vote is less
likely to be wasted as they get two
votes. If their constituency choice is
not elected then they will be
represented through their regional
MSPs. In total 8 MSPs to represent
you.
Small parties, or even individuals, can
arguably have too much power because
their votes are needed by more
popular parties
STV Advantages
STV Disadvantages
This is fairer for voters as they have more
choice in approaching representatives if they
have an issue. This is because there is more
than one councillor in each ward
A candidate who has a achieved a low
percentage of the vote may be elected and
this is unfair as the representative will
have the same status and power as an
elected representative with a higher vote
STV is very proportional: the percentage of
votes a party gets is roughly the same as
the percentage of councillors they get
The process of counting the results takes
longer under STV, meaning that results
cannot usually be declared on the same
night as the vote took place.
Smaller parties and independent candidates
It is a confusing system – people don’t
have a realistic chance of being elected, e.g. understand it and fill in ballot papers
the Green Party or BNP
wrongly
In STV voters have more than one vote. This
is fair as voters may like more than one
candidate and they can express their views
more accurately
Local Councils – Funding
• How are councils funded?
1. Revenue Grant from Scottish Parliament – a
lump sum of money (80% of council money)
2. Council tax – people who live in council areas
pay council tax to council. Varies depending on
size and value of property
3. Non-domestic rates – businesses pay a council
tax so that they can trade in the council area
4. Charges for services – e.g. swimming pool or
gym charges, late fees at library
Miss Firth
Mr Canning
Mr Scollin
1
USA Knowledge
Scottish
Parliament
Knowledge
Social Issues
Knowledge
2
USA Knowledge
Scottish
Parliament
Knowledge
Social Issues
Knowledge
3
USA Knowledge
Scottish
Parliament
Knowledge
Social Issues
Knowledge
4
Options Questions
SITUOF
Questions
Conclusion
Questions
5
Options Questions
SITUOF
Questions
Conclusion
Questions
BBC Revision Website
• http://www.bbc.co.uk/education/subjec
ts/zxsnb9q
Local Councils – Resolving
conflicts
• How can councils resolve conflicts?
1.
If there is traffic congestion in an area then councils can
resolve this. For example, Glasgow City Council has
introduced bus lanes in city centre – fine car drivers for
using these – cuts congestion
2. If a resident of a council house has issues with a noisy
neighbour they can contact the council and raise a
complaint. Council can then resolve the issue possibly in
collaboration with police
3. If local residents in an area have concerns about pollution
caused by heavy traffic the council could create a bypass road meaning that traffic is diverted from the area
4. If there is a concern about cars speeding in an area then
the council is able to use measures such as introducing
speed bumps, traffic lights or zebra crossings to tackle
the issue and resolve the conflict.
Scottish Parliament Basics
• Difference between Scottish Parliament
and Scottish Government
• Who meets in SP?
• How many MSPs are there? Types of MSP?
• Who do MSPs represent?
• How can MSPs represent us in
constituency and parliament?
• What does the Scottish Government
consist of?
• How are laws made?
Pressure groups
•
•
•
•
What are they?
Methods?
Examples?
Why are some methods better than
others?
Standing as a candidate
• Qualities needed?
• Confident – public speaking, addressing
constituents and rest of MSPs in parliament
• Hardworking – demanding job, long hours, working
between constituency and Scottish Parliament
• Approachable – constituents have to be
comfortable with asking representative for help
with issues
• Reliable – have to get the job done, represent
constituents effectively…otherwise will not be reelected
• Use common sense for this kind of question

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