Peculiarities of Disaster Management in a High Altitude

Report
Ajay Bohtan,
ITM University,
Gurgaon
Prof Prem Vrat,
Vice Chancellor,
ITM University, Gurgaon
Prof A.K Vij,
HoD, Management,
ITM University, Gurgaon.
INDIA: TYPES OF TERRAINS
Desert
Plains
INDIA
Coast
Mountains
HIGH ALTITUDE AREA
Height > 9000 feet above sea level
Himalaya Belt in India
J & K, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand,
West Bengal, Arunachal Pradesh
HAA : LANDSCAPE
HAA
PLAINS
HAA : ROADS
HAA
DESERT
HAA : BUILDINGS
HAA
COAST
PECULIARITIES OF HIGH ALTITUDE
Rarified Atmosphere
Low temperature
High Ultra Violet Radiation
Harsh Terrain
Extreme Precipitation
PECULIARITIES OF HAA
RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE
Low Atmospheric pressure
Decreased density of air
Low pressure of oxygen
RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE: EFFECT ON
HUMANS
Reduced oxygen supply to body tissues
Headache / Nausea / Fatigue / Appetite loss
Muscular weakness / Loss of night vision
Loss of memory / Sleeping disorders
AMS / HAPO / HACO
Acclimatisation
RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE: EFFECT ON
AIRCRAFT
Change in aerodynamics
Reduction in power, thrust & lift
Reduced maneuverability
Lower climb rate / Longer take off
Hovering (helicopters) is difficult
Reduced load lifting capacity
AIRCRAFT CAPACITY
MI-17
IL-76
At Sea Level – 30 pers
At Sea Level- 400 pers
At Leh (350 C) - Nil
At Leh (250 C) - Nil
RARIFIED ATMOSPHERE: EFFECT ON
VEHICLES
Reduced efficiency
Loss of engine power
Excessive smoke in vehicular exhaust
Increase in fuel consumption
Reduced load carrying capacity
PECULIARITIES OF HAA
LOW TEMPERATURE
Temperature decreases with altitude
Temperatures as low as -300 C
Further deterioration by ‘wind-chill’ effect
LOW TEMPERATURE : EFFECT ON
HUMANS & ANIMALS
Physiological shock
Hypothermia
Frostbite
Need for special clothing / food
LOW TEMPERATURE : EFFECT ON
AIRCRAFT, VEHICLES & MACHINERY
Freezes Fuel Oil Lubricants
Makes metal parts brittle
Starting problems
Need for special additives / care
PECULIARITIES OF HAA
HIGH ULTRA-VIOLET RADIATION
Increases by 12 % for every 1000m height
Causes high ionisation
Polymers, paints & dyes: Degradation
Skin: Sunburn, Premature aging, Cancer
Eyes: Snow blindness, Cataract
Special protective gear required for humans
PECULIARITIES OF HAA
HARSH TERRAIN
Narrow valleys with high peaks
Ridgelines- far away
Rocky narrow roads
Fog / Changing winds
Choke points – bridges, passes, defiles
Distances calculated in time
TERRAIN: EFFECT ON MEN &
MACHINES
Few airstrips / helipads / dropping zones
Flying difficult in narrow valleys
Drastic reduction in vehicular speed
Limited approaches by road & air
Move on foot is extremely exhaustive
PECULIARITIES OF HAA
EXTREME PRECIPITATION
Rain
Snow
Fog
Thunderstorms
Either excessive / reduced
• Excessive – Uttarakhand, Kashmir, NE India
• Reduced - Ladakh
DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN HAA
POTENTIAL NATURAL DISASTERS
Earthquake
Melting of Permafrost
Heavy Precipitation
Landslides / Mudslides
Avalanche
Blizzard
Drought
DISASTER MANAGEMENT: HAA
Prevention
Development
Mitigation
Preparation
Recovery
Response
Event
Prevention
Construction Activity
• Takes time
• Only in summer months
Wooded areas at High reaches
• Fire Lanes
• Only when not under snow or heavy rain
Mitigation
Legal Aspect
• Disaster Management in Master plans
• Construction of houses as per specifications
• Proper Road Construction
Hazardous Material, Fuel, Chemicals
• Decentralised Stocking
Early Warning System
• Unattended
• Robust
• Reliable
Preparation
Advance Winter Stocking
• Annual road cut off period
• Potential cut off sites e.g bridges, crossing
points
Ab initio Construction
• Helipads, Airstrips, Communication, Power
Backup
• Adequate redundancy
Facility Locations
• Decentralised
• Locations chosen with due modeling
Updated Population & Tourists Records
Response
Pin point affected areas
• Helicopters / UAVs / Satellite Imagery
Collection of data
• Affected populace / Survivors
Restoration of Communication
• Road/ Air/Tele
Debris removal
• Low efficiency of machines
• Reduced human effort
Acclimatise Search & Rescue teams
Recovery
Restoration takes time
• Little construction period
• Food & medical priorities
Time only to raise temporary shelters
• Pre-fabricated
Supply Chain for Stores
• Stores as per priority
• Selected mode of transportation
• Stocking space pre-identified
Development
Master Plan- Regulated & controlled
Disaster Management aspects incorporated
ab-initio
Specially designed Infrastructure
Development Activities should not add to
potential disasters
DISASTER MANAGEMENT IN HAA
SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL
PHASE
PRE DISASTER
DISASTER
OPERATION Prevention
Mitigation
Preparation Response
MAJOR
ACTIVITIES
Evacuation
Pre
Positioning
Identify
potential
disaster
sites
• Evacuate
Casualty
• Distribute
Relief
POST DISASTER
Recovery Development
Road
Comn
• Build
houses
• Generate
employment
• Extricate
displaced
persons
TYPE OF
SUPPLY
CHAIN
Business Supply Chain
Disaster
Response
Supply
Chain
Business Supply Chain
SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL
Business supply chain – Minisum
•Time not a high priority
•Cost is paramount
•Aim - Minimise the sum of cost of logistics
Disaster supply chain - Minimax
•Relief supplied fastest
•Aim - Minimise the Maximum time for response
MEANS OF TRANSPORT : HAA
By
Air
By
Road
DISASTER RELIEF SUPPLY : AIR
Air infrastructure availability
Weather dependent
Less time
Exorbitant cost
Opportunity cost – RELATIVELY LOW
DISASTER RELIEF SUPPLY : ROAD
Condition of roads, bridges etc
Weather dependent
Long time
Low cost
Opportunity cost – CATASTROPHIC
AIR vs ROAD
Air
Road
Load of 3 Tons to be transported to a distance of 100 km
AIR vs ROAD
Air
Road
Cost of transportation α Kt2
Note: Calculations done as per Gravity Location Model
K – cost/time
t- time
AIR vs ROAD
PERT CHART: MOVEMENT OF DISASTER RELIEF MATERIAL
H
I
2/8
2/3
7
G
B
4/6
A
J
2/3
K
M
3/6
C
4/6
2/4
E
3
6/24
F
2/3
Completion Time
D
3/4
Most
Likely
Pessimistic
Time
Road
23 hrs
53 hrs
Air
22 hrs
42 hrs
L
2/3
N
2/5
O
2/4
P
3/4
Assumptions
Intact Road Communication
CONCLUSION
Supply Chain by MiniMax model
Facility Location by Gravity Model
Relief material by air / road
Pre-positioning of relief material
‘One size fits all’ – does not apply
HAA Peculiarities: Planning Imperatives

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