Motivation and Leadership from Chinese Philosophy Perspective

Report
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• Motivation and Leadership from
Chinese Philosophy Perspective
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Liying Bai
Associate Profesor in Fuzhou University,China
Visiting scholar in University of Delaware, USA
[email protected]
Cultural differences
• Huge system, share a few points here…
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She, He
Hu, Who
Creative, Conformism
Made or created?
• Individual characters are influenced by group and
national characters,the deepest part is ……
Iceberg Model of McClelland
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Work Values Auction:
1, Do something for the public welfare
2, Pursuit beauty and an artistic atmosphere
3, Seek creative development of new things
4, Apply independent thinking and analysis
5, Sense of achievement
6, Independence, acting according to their own pleasure
7, Admired and respected by others
8, Supervisory or management others
9, A lot of money
10, Stable and secure life
11, Good and comfortable working environment
12, The relationship with your director is equal and harmony
13, Work together with like-minded partners
14, Be able to choose their favorite way of life
15, No boring work with full of change
Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory (I)
Creative & challenging work
Self
actualization
Praise & recognition
Esteem
Friendly coworkers
Social
Safety
Physiological
Safe working conditions
Rest & breaks
Ausubel’s Motivation Theory
• cognitive drive achievement motivation
• self improving internal driving force
• subsidiary internal driving composition
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Traditional View
Dissatisfaction
Satisfaction
Herzberg’s View
Hygiene factors
Dissatisfaction
No Dissatisfaction
- Quality of Supervision
- Pay
- Company policies
- Physical working conditions
Motivators
No satisfaction
- Personal growth
- Responsibility
- Achievement
Satisfaction
source: Herzberg, Frederick. One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? Harvard
Business Review, Jan2003, Vol. 81 Issue 1, p87-96
Comparison of the Three Theories of Needs
Alderfer
Maslow
Herzberg
Self-actualization
Growth
Esteem
Relatedness
Social (Belonging)
Safety
Existence
Motivator
Hygiene
factors
Physiological
Douglas McGregor
• “Behind every managerial decision or action
are assumptions about human nature and
human behavior.”
Chinese traditional assumption of human nature debate: people are
born good or evil?
Theo 1、性恶论 2、性善论 3、尽性主义 4、流水人性
ries
人之初, 人之初,
善恶不是天
个性中心论
性本恶
性本善
生,是后天
(法家) (儒家)
教育的结果
Cont
ents
目好色,
耳好声,
口好味,
心好利,
骨体肤里
好愉逸。
(荀子)
恻隐之心
羞恶之心
辞让之心
是非之心
(孟子)
把个人的天赋
良能发挥到十
分圆满,人人
可以自立。
(梁启超)
人性无善与不
善,犹水无分
东西,决诸东
方则东流,决
诸西方则西流。
(告子)
1、People are born evil
Xunzi
Legalism
• Xunzi (313 BC-238 BC) was a Chinese Confucian
philosopher who lived during the Warring States Period
and contributed to one of the Hundred Schools of
Thought. Xunzi believed man's inborn tendencies need
to be curbed through education and ritual, counter to
Mencius's view that man is innately good. He believed
that ethical norms had been invented to rectify mankind.
2、People are born good
• Mengzi (372 BC – 289 BC) Confucianism
• “The feeling of commiseration,the feeling of shame and
dislike,the feeling of modesty and complaisance,the
feeling of approving and disapproving are essential to
man. The feeling of commiseration is the principle of
benevolence. The feeling of shame and dislike is the
principle of righteousness. The feeling of modesty and
complaisance is the principle of propriety. The feeling of
approving and disapproving is the principle of
knowledge.”
Bauhinia flower petals
3、Good, and evil
• Liang Qichao (1873-1929),
• Liang Qichao, "personality-centered theory." "Best of the
doctrine": "best of doctrine, is to make everyone's talent
intuitive ability to play very successful.
4、No good, no evil
• Gaozi (420-350 BC), Mohists,
• 'Man's nature is like water whirling round in a corner.
Open a passage for it to the east, and it will flow to the
east; open a passage for it to the west, and it will flow to
the west. Man's nature is indifferent to good and evil, just
as the water is indifferent to the east and west.'
Compare
West
Economic
Man“X”
Social
Man
Chinese
性恶论
性善论
人之初,
性本恶
(法家)
Contents
目好色,
耳好声,
口好味,
心好利,
骨体肤里
好愉逸。
(荀子)
Selfrealization
Man“Y”
尽性主义
Complex
Man“Beyond
Y”
流水人性
人之初,
善恶不是天生,
个性中心论
性本善
是后天教育的
(儒家)
结果
恻隐之心、
羞恶之心,
辞让之心,
是非之心。
(孟子)
把各人的
天赋良能发
挥到十分圆
满,人人可
以自立。
(梁启超)
人性无善与不善,
犹水无分东西,决
诸东方则东流,决
诸西方则西流。
(告子)
East- West
• 1、Homo economicus, Rational-economic Man, Adam
Smith,X
• 2、Social Man, George Elton Mayo, Hawthorne effect,
• 3、Self-realization Man, Abraham Maslow, Y
• 4、Complex Man, John J. Morse, Jay William Lorsch.
Beyond Theory Y
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_X_and_Theory_Y
• http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_74.htm
• http://hbr.org/1970/05/beyond-theory-y/ar/1
Confucianism
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Confucianism
Zhongyong Daxue
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Learning
http://hugols.wordpress.com/2008/10/21/what-makes-aleader/
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Rén (仁, Humaneness)
Yì (義, Righteousness or Justice)
Lǐ (禮, Propriety or Etiquette)
Zhì (智, Knowledge)
Xìn (信, Integrity)
Daoism
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taoism
• Wuwei, the best of men is like water
• Naturalness – protection, hint,Suggestion,(Hongchong,
and Sushi)
• Dialectics
• Moon,spring, sweetest time
• Motivate, getting better slowly, life line
Example: Satisfaction with Life
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In most ways my life is close to my ideal.
The conditions of my life are excellent.
I am satisfied with my life. So far I have gotten the
important things I want in life.
• If I could live my life over, I would change almost
nothing.
Questions
• About Chinese philosophy
• About Motivation and Leadership
• About China
……
Thank you
[email protected]

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