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第一次世界大战百年回望2
费凡
安城文化沙龙
2014-10-4
(两次总)大纲
• 一战的规模和死伤人数
• 一战的爆发
• 一战爆发没有根本原因;直接原因;关键人物:德皇威廉二世
• 一战的总体走势和重要事件
• 西线最初的进攻和马恩河战役;坦能堡战役;加里波利战役;凡尔登战
役;索姆河战役;日德兰海战;俄国十月革命;美国参战;1918年西线
最后的疯狂
• 一战后世界版图的重划
• 战争对于后方的影响:以英国和美国为例
• 英美影视和文学艺术作品中的一战
• 小专题:一战中的华工
Joseph Conrad said, “The belief in a supernatural source of
evil is not necessary. Men alone are quite capable of every
wickedness.”
一
战
之
后
的
欧
洲
版
图
“Of all the enemies to public liberty war is, perhaps, the
most to be dreaded, because it comprises and develops
the germ of every other. War is the parent of armies;
from these proceed debts and taxes; and armies, and
debts, and taxes are the known instruments for bringing
the many under the domination of the few.
--James Madison
一战前后的英国
• 普选权 (suffrage)
• Representation of People Act of 1918, all men 21+, all women 30+.
• Representation of People Act of 1928, all women 21+.
• 爱尔兰危机
• 乘人之危 Easter Rising of 1916
• 1918年征兵危机。爱尔兰内战(1919-21)。爱尔兰独立(1921)。
• 英国政治经济“现代化”改革在两次世界大战期间缓慢进展
• Parliament Act of 1911, People’s Budget (1909/10), UK general election, 1945
• Growth in public spending in health care and welfare spending in 1920s
• 两次世界大战期间英国经济和经济政策
• 英国经济在1920年代持续衰退,失业率高。原因传统产业的竞争力下降,
除造船之外原因不详。
• 作为债务国坚持金本位,英镑不贬值是大错误。
一战前后的英国
Why did British monarchy survive?
• 二十世纪初的王室并非现在一样是花架子。
• Edward VII 1903年出访法国,径自签署Entente Cordiale,扭转了英国的孤立。
• George V 识时务
• 与德国划清界限:House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha House of Windsor
• 与沙皇划清界限:对尼古拉二世“爱莫能助”
• 做人民的国王:放下身段,探访民间,握手拍照;注重文宣,满足民众的好奇
心,直播广播讲话。
• 不干政。只是协调而不做决定,顺应House of Commons的要求。
• 2012 BBC documentary: King George and Queen Mary: Royals who Rescued the
Monarchy.
• 伟大的国王George VI
• PR campaign continued in QEII.
• Royal Family (1969), Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work (2007), BBC programs
• 继续勤跑基层,削减开支,作风亲民化。
一战前后的英国
Why did British monarchy survive?
一战前后
的英国
文化遗产:
经典宣传海
报
一战前后的英国
文化遗产
• 一些宣传海报成为永远的经典
• 11/11 Armistice Day/Remembrance Day
每人胸前带罂粟花缅怀阵亡将士
• 为什么罂粟花成为了一战甚至是老兵的象征?
• 因为一首加拿大军医写的伟大诗篇
一战前后的英国
文化遗产
• 宣传海报
• 11/11 Armistice Day/Remembrance Day
• 罂粟花
• John McCrae’s poem “In Flanders Fields”
• Puppy installation at the London Tower
• 爱国歌曲 Patriotic hymns
• I Vow To Thee My County 回环结构,地上的祖国,天上的祖国
• Jerusalem
And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England‘s mountains green:
And was the holy Lamb of God,
On England’s pleasant pastures seen!
And did the Countenance Divine,
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here,
Among these dark Satanic Mills?
Bring
Bring
Bring
Bring
me
me
me
me
my
my
my
my
Bow of burning gold;
Arrows of desire:
Spear: O clouds unfold!
Chariot of fire!
I will not cease from Mental Fight,
Nor shall my Sword sleep in my hand:
Till we have built Jerusalem,
In England‘s green & pleasant Land.
Milton (1804), William Blake
And did those feet in ancient time
Walk upon England‘s mountains green:
And was the holy Lamb of God,
On England’s pleasant pastures seen!
And did the Countenance Divine,
Shine forth upon our clouded hills?
And was Jerusalem builded here,
Among these dark Satanic Mills?
Bring
Bring
Bring
Bring
me
me
me
me
my
my
my
my
Bow of burning gold;
Arrows of desire:
Spear: O clouds unfold!
Chariot of fire!
I will not cease from Mental Fight,
Nor shall my Sword sleep in my hand:
Till we have built Jerusalem,
In England‘s green & pleasant Land.
Jerusalem (1916), Sir Hubery Parry
美国:一战与二战的比较
WWI
WWII
1917.4.2—1918.11.11
Active: 1918.3—1918.11
1941.12.8—1945.8.15
Active: 1941.12—1945.8.15
4,734,991
4.45% of 1920 pop
16,112,566
10.69% of 1950 pop
116,516
405,399
1916: 174,000
1918: 2,968,000
1940: 458,365
1945: 12,209,238
12.808
(1917-1918, in 1918$)
193.51
(1942-1945, in 1940$)
Total Defense Spending, as % of Federal Budget
52.23%
(weighted avg, 1917-1918)
81.14%
(weighted avg, 1942-1945)
Total Defense Spending, as % of GDP
7.59%
(weighted avg, 1917-1918)
31.02%
(weighted avg, 1942-1945)
46% of 1918 GNP
175% of 1945 GDP
Length
Total # of Veterans
Total # of Military Deaths
Size of Military before and after
Total Defense Spending (in billions)
Estimated total “economic” cost
Source: US Department of VA, via CNN; eh.net and presenter’s own calculation.
一战前后的美国
• 所有战争的必然结果就是在后方(home front)都有对人民自由(civil
liberty)的践踏
• 对“敌方”和“少数”族裔的歧视:hamburger变身liberty sandwich
• 言论自由的收窄:
Oliver Wendell Holmes Jr. in Schenck v. United States (1919):
The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man falsely
shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic. [...] The question in every case is
whether the words used are used in such circumstances and are of such a
nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the
substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.
一战前后的美国
• 一战之后通过了宪法第十九修正
案(1920)给予妇女普选权
Text:
The right of citizens of the United
States to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by
any State on account of sex.
Congress shall have power to enforce
this article by appropriate legislation。
• Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony
• 简单回顾美国普选的历史,妇女平
权法案
一战前后的美国
• 一战开始了联邦政府膨胀和收入结构的巨大改变
• Ratchet theory
• 个人所得税 1913
• IRS (1918) 的建立。联邦政府在二十世纪收入结构的巨大变化
• 美国1920年代的经济发展
• 和英国一样实行laissez-faire的经济政策
• 和英国没有“新的经济增长点”不同,美国蓬勃发展。The Roaring
twenties. 工业电气化,汽车,铁路公路,public utility。
• 美国1920年代的繁荣是不是发战争财?我认为不是的。
美国联邦政府收入构成历史变化
Year
1900
1910
1913
1915
1916
1917
1918
1920
1925
1928
1930
1935
1940
1942
1944
1946
Tariff ($ mils,
Tariff % of
Tariff rate
nominal)
budget
$233.20
$233.70
$318.80
$209.80
$213.70
$225.90
$947.00
$886.00
$547.60
$566.00
$587.00
$318.80
$331.00
$369.00
$417.00
$424.00
27.40%
15.00%
17.60%
12.50%
8.90%
7.70%
31.20%
16.80%
13.00%
13.80%
19.20%
15.60%
12.60%
13.40%
10.60%
7.70%
41.10%
34.60%
44.00%
30.10%
27.30%
20.10%
25.80%
13.20%
14.50%
14.00%
14.10%
8.40%
6.10%
2.90%
0.90%
0.90%
Payroll tax
% of
budget
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
0.00%
14.85%
9.38%
4.30%
4.09%
Income
tax % of
budget
0.00%
0.00%
4.83%
6.73%
15.46%
33.18%
74.22%
60.23%
44.89%
51.65%
55.05%
28.94%
38.98%
61.72%
77.92%
60.34%
Year
1948
1950
1951
1955
1960
1965
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2010
Tariff ($ mils,
Tariff % of
Tariff rate
nominal)
budget
$408.00
$407.00
$609.00
$585.00
$1,105.00
$1,442.00
$2,430.00
$3,676.00
$7,174.00
$12,079.00
$11,500.00
$19,301.00
$19,914.00
$23,379.00
$25,298.00
5.50%
4.50%
5.50%
5.10%
7.30%
6.70%
6.00%
3.70%
2.90%
3.60%
2.80%
2.60%
1.60%
1.40%
1.30%
0.90%
0.90%
1.10%
0.80%
1.10%
1.20%
1.30%
1.30%
1.40%
1.60%
1.10%
1.40%
1.00%
1.10%
1.20%
Payroll tax
% of
budget
5.29%
6.85%
7.23%
8.48%
12.22%
19.01%
23.03%
30.28%
30.52%
34.77%
36.82%
35.60%
32.24%
36.87%
39.99%
Income
tax % of
budget
61.31%
59.82%
62.96%
64.53%
62.32%
63.61%
63.90%
58.40%
59.70%
53.94%
54.30%
54.90%
59.83%
55.98%
50.40%
美国联邦个人所得税的一些历史变化
美国二十世纪政府支出
美国1920年代经济的蓬勃发展
美国一战纪念建筑
Liberty Memorial, Kansas city, MO
美国一战纪念建筑
Liberty Memorial, Kansas city, MO
美国一战纪念建筑
Indianapolis War Memorial Plaza, Indianapolis, IN
美国一战纪念建筑
At Michigan & Michigan of the East
一战中的中国
• 段祺瑞政府几经折腾于1917.8对德宣战。一战中国未动一兵一卒。
• 英国招募约十四万华工在码头搬货物,挖战壕。约两千人死去,
多为战后滞留期间染1918-19西班牙流感而死。
• Chinese Labour Corps Cemeteries administered by CWGC.
• 四种墓碑:
•
•
•
•
勇往直前 A noble duty bravely done
鞠躬尽瘁 Faithful unto death
流芳百世 A good reputation endures forever
虽死犹生 Though dead he still liveth
在法国北部加来省的一战华工墓地
一战与文学艺术
A writer’s war
Writer
Nation
Works
Author’s war experience
Ernest Hemingway
USA
A Farewell to Arms
Ambulance driver on Italian Front
Remarque
GER
All Quiet on the Western
Front
Infantry soldier on the Western
Front
Hasek
CZE
The Good Soldier
Schweik/Schwejk
Austrian-Hungarian infantry solider
on the Eastern Front, POW
J.R.R. Tolkien
GBR
Lord of the Rings series
Soldier on the Western Front,
Somme
McCrae, MD
CAN
In Flanders Fields (poem)
Surgeon on the Western Front
Ford Madox Ford
GBR
Parade’s End
Officer on the Western Front
Morpurgo
GBR
War Horse
N/A
一战与文学艺术
Movies
Movie
Year
Featuring
Based on
War Horse
2011
Steve Spielberg (Director)
All Quiet on the
Western Front
1930
Lewis Milestone (Director)
Remarque’s novel on trench
warfare on the Western Front.
Laurence of Arabia
1962
David Lean (Director)
Peter O’Toole
T.E. Laurence, Sinai and Palestine
Campaign
Legends of the Fall
1994
Brad Pitt
Western front. Legendary/Fantasy.
Merry Christmas
2005
Out of Africa
1985
1914 Christmas Truce on the
Western Front
Sydney Pollack (Director)
Meryl Streep
WWI in today’s Kenya+Tanzania.
Memoir of a Danish noble.
References
• Besides what has been mentioned in notes and previous slides:
• The Great War: BBC’s 26-episode documentary series from 1964
• The Great War and the Shaping of the 20th Century: PBS’s 8-episode
documentary series from 1996
• The Western Front: BBC’s 6-episode documentary series from 1998 or
1999
• http://www.greatwar.co.uk/
• http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BBC_World_War_I_centenary_season

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