Hawk-Eye Technology

Report
By: Tanner Torres
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First invented by Dr. Paul Hawkins in 2001.
Extremely complex computer system
Costs around $20,000-$25,000 per court for
one week
Hawk-Eye is not featured at over 60 events
across the ATP, WTA , and ITF tours
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10 high-speed cameras at different angles
and positions around the court
Creates a 3D trajectory of the path of the ball
Uses the 3D trajectory to determine the exact
touch area the ball made with the court when
it bounced
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Exact bounce mark is determined and shown
via virtual software
Using the triangulation of images from
cameras players can see exactly whether the
ball was in or out
Only a 3.6 mm margin of error
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“The ball's moving so fast these days that
sometimes it's impossible for anyone to see,
even a trained official. With instant replay we
can take advantage of technology and
eliminate human error. Having just a few
challenges will make it both fun and dramatic
for fans at the same time.”
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Each player is allowed 3 unsuccessful
challenges per set
If the set reaches a tie-breaker, each player is
awarded 1 extra challenge
If the player’s challenge is unsuccessful, then
the player loses that challenge.
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Can measure speed of the ball at any point
during a rally
Service patterns, length ran during rally,
service comparisons, and percentage of time
a player spends in different regions of court
The History of Hawk-Eye
2001
System was developed by Dr. Paul Hawkins
2005
Hawk-Eye tested by the ITF and passed for professional use
2006
The Nasdaq-100 Open in Miami was the first tennis tour event to use Hawk-Eye
2006
The U.S. Open becomes the first grand-slam tournament to implement the Hawk-Eye challenge
system
2007
The Australian Open and Wimbledon Championships also adopt the Hawk-Eye System
2008
Announced uniform set of rules: 3 incorrect challenges per set plus one extra in the event of a
tiebreak
2012
Hawk-Eye is now featured at over 60 events across the ATP, WTA, and ITF tours.
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BBC. "Hawk-Eye Challenge Rules Unified." BBC News. BBC, 19 Mar.
2008. Web. 11 Nov. 2012.
<http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/hi/tennis/7305404.stm>.
Hawk-Eye Innovations Ltd. "Tennis." Hawk-Eye Innovations. Hawk-Eye
Innovations Ltd., n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2012.
<http://www.hawkeyeinnovations.co.uk/page/sports-officiating/tennis>.
Mullins, Justin. "Hawk-Eye in the Crosshairs at Wimbledon Again." - IEEE
Spectrum. - IEEE Spectrum, June 2008. Web. 11 Nov. 2012.
<http://spectrum.ieee.org/computing/software/hawkeye-in-thecrosshairs-at-wimbledon-again>.
Topend Sports. "Hawk-Eye Line-calling System." Hawkeye Tennis LineCalling System. Topend Sports, 10 June 2012. Web. 11 Nov.
2012.<http://www.topendsports.com/sport/tennis/hawkeye.htm>.
Tsang, Jason. "Technology in Tennis: Hawk-eye." Jason Tsang's Blog.
Blogger.com, 14 July 2006. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
<http://blog.jasontsang.ca/2006/07/technology-in-tennis-hawkeye.html>.

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