Different forms of Printing.
Print in China & Japan & Europe.
Gutenberg & his Press.
Print Revolution- Impacts & Problems.
Reading mania
Print & its impacts- France/ Russia/ India.
Printing- Women/ Children/ Workers.
India and the Age of Print.
New Forms of Publication.
Print & Censorship.
News papers.
Magazines & Journals.
Official Circulars & Orders.
Digital Printing.
News Letters & Pamphlets.
Text Books.
Notice & Advertisements.
Photos/ Pictures/ Cartoons etc….
East Asian Nations like
> China.
> Japan.
> Korea.
This was a system of hand printing.
AD.594 onwards books were printed in China
on the base of this system.
Wood blocks were curved by a learned
Then wood blocks were inked and then paper
was rubbed against the inked wood block.
It was a writing system prevailed in China.
It was an art of Beautiful and Stylised writing.
For to recruit the candidates in the bureaucratic
system of China through the Civil Service
It is Place in China.
Western printing techniques & mechanical
presses imported in China in later 19th
They established their outposts in China.
Shanghai became hub of modern print culture,
catering the western school.
It was a shift from hand printing to mechanical
Up to 16th century, print used only by the Scholars
for official purpose.
From 17th century onwards merchants used print
for to collect their trade information.
Reading habit increased very much and it became
a leisure activity.
A new readership formed in China.
Different forms of literature began to publishNarratives, Poetry, Anthopologies,
Autobiographies & Literary masterpiece.
Women began to publish their poems & plays.
Oldest Japanese Book.
Printed in AD.868.
It containing six sheets of paper.
It was a woodcut illustration.
The Buddhist missionaries introduced hand
printing technology in Japan from China.
They introduced around AD.768- 770.
Buddhist missionaries were introduced printing
technology in Japan from China around AD.768770.
The oldest book in Japan was Buddhist Diamond
Sutra.(Six sheet, woodcut illustr).
Pictures were printed in- Texts, Play cards, money.
Medieval period- poets & prose writers regularly
published their works.
Books were cheap in price.
Later 18th century urban circles depicted lot of
urban pictures about their urban culture.
Libraries & Bookstores filled with various type
books- woman, musical instrument, calculation,
tea ceremony, cooking, flower arrangement,
proper etiquette, places.
Kitagawa Utamaro born in Edo(Tokyo) in 1753
One of his major contribution was Ukiyo.
It is an art form its meaning was Pictures of the
floating World or depiction of ordinary human
experience especially urban one.
These prints travelled contemporary US and
It influenced the writers like Manet, Monet &
Van Gogh.
(AD 1040)
From 11th centaury onwards paper from China
reached in Europe through trade routs.
It made the manuscripts carefully written by
scribes(copy writers).
In 1295 Marcopolo, the great explorer reached
in Italy after many years of exploration in
From China he learned the technology of Wood
Block Printing.
He introduced this in Italy.
From Italy the Wood Block Technology
reached in all parts of Europe.
It is Expensive, Laborious and Time
Consuming Business.
Manuscripts themselves fragile, awkward to
handle and could not be easy to carry and read
Earliest kind dvpd……China, Japan and Korea.
Since 594 AD onwards China used W.B.P for
print the text books.
Up to 16 century – used only by the Scholars.
In 17 century- merchants & common people
began to use in their every day life.
Around 768-770 Buddhist missionaries
introduced W.B.P in Japan.
In 1295 Marcopolo, great explorer introduced
W.B.P in Italy, he gained this knowledge from
From Italy W.B.P reached in all parts of
The first printing press invented by Gutenberg
in AD 1448.
It helped the printing of books in large number.
His novel printing machine occupied the
position print World around next 300 years.
The invention of printing press paved the way
for to spread the knowledge .
Before the invention of P.P, it was very difficult
to spread knowledge.
The books were written by hand also they were
very costly.
Knowledge was the privilege of the wealthy
people only.
But this things changed after the invention of
printing press.
The first P.P was set up Germany by
Gutenberg in 1448.
He dvlpd metal types each of the 26 characters
of the Roman alphabet and devised a way of
moving them around so as to compose
different words of the text.
His novel press came to be known as the
moveable type printing machine and it
remained the basic print technology for the
next 300 years.
His press could print 250 sheets on one side per
The first book he printed was Bible.
It enabled the people to produce the book
greater speed.
The production of book in large number
created a new culture of reading and enlarged
the number of readers.
A Parchment
made from the
skin of animals.
In letterpress
printing, platen is a
board which is
pressed on the back
of the paper to get
the impression from
the type. At one time
it used to be a
wooden board; later
it was made of steel.
A historical
account or folk
tale in verse,
usually sung or
Place where
people gathered
to drink alcohol,
to be served food,
and to meet the
friends and
exchange news
To find out different instances or examples of print
In where was the earliest print technology
developed in the World?
What is meant by Calligraphy?
For what purpose, the earliest text books were
printed in China?
Write a short note on Buddhist Diamond Sutra?
Who was Gutenberg?
In which period printing presses were set up in
most countries of Europe?
How book in China printed from 594 AD
Briefly explain the method of Wood Block
printing in China?
 What led to the diversification in the use of
print in China?
 When and whom was hand printing
technology introduced in Japan?
 Prepare a brief notes on Kitagwa Utmaro and
 Briefly explain the earliest print technology in
How the Wood Block printing reached in
To find out the role of Marcopolo in the print
technology in Europe?
 What were the two defects of copying
 How the printing presses helped the printing
 Briefly explain the earliest form and
development of print technology in the world?
 To write a short notes on Gutenberg press.
 To write a short notes on- Vellum & Platen.
There is no denying the fact that the invention of
print greatly contributed the spread of
Without this invention , all the progress that we
see today was not possible.
Printing is the ultimate gift of God and greatest
one it is the word of German reformer Martin
Luther- what better words can be said in favour
of print.
The P.R was not just a dvpt, a new way of producing
book; it transformed the lives of the people, changing
their relationship to information and knowledge and
with institution and authorities.
It influenced the popular perceptions and opened a
new way.
A new reading public emerged.
It reduced the cost of the Books.
The time and labour required to produce each book
came down.
The multiple copies could be produced very easily.
Earlier reading was restricted to the common people,
they lived in the World of oral culture.
It created a new culture of reading.
But printing helped the books to reach in the wider
section of the society.
From a hearing public a new reading public emerged.
It improved the literacy rate of the Europe.
Especially in the religious field it created the wide
circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of
debate and discussion.
Print materials persuaded the people to think
differently and move them to action.
The ideas of Scientists, Philosophers became more
accessible to the common people.
The writings of thinkers like Thomas Paine, Rousseau,
Voltaire and Montesqien influenced the people very
much and these factors brought Enlightenment and
led to the end of despotism.
Most of the revolutions of the world,
which ended despotism and brought
about Democratic govts in the World were
much because of the advancement of the
print culture.
Without the spread of Education and
knowledge, how could such a
transformation be possible.
Print culture created the condition which brought
about the French Revolution 1789.
Print Culture laid the emphasis on the rule of reason
rather than custom.
First- Popularised the ideas of Enlightenment
Thinkers like Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesque
criticised the authority of church and despotic power
of the state through their writings..
They put forward the idea of Equality, Liberty and
This influenced the people very much
Second-Print culture created the atmosphere of
dialogue and debate.
The norms, values & institutions were re- evaluated
and discussed by the public.
Such thing created the ground for social revolution.
The literature helped the people to criticise the
monarchy and their morality.
The cartoons and caicatures typically criticised the
This process led to the growth of hostile of
sentiments against the ruler.
The print did not directly shapes the mood of the
people, it open up the possibility of thinking which
could not possible without the spread of print
The person who
compose the text for
Metal frame in
which types are
laid and text
Give reason- he was in favour of print and
spoke out in praise of it.
Martin Luther said that ‘Printing is the ultimate
gift and the greatest one’- try to justify his
Write a note on Martin Luther and his
contribution to the protestant reformation.
He was a great reformer of Germany, and started the
reformation in Germany.
In 1512 he went to Rome for pilgrimage.
In there he saw the Pope (Catholic head), and Italian
prince were leading very luxurious life.
The corrupt practices of the church and immoral life
of the clergy men brought a great change in his idea
and he became an opponent of the Pope.
He was a professor of Wittenburg university, and he
refused the sale of Indulgences bond.
Instead of this his objection against the Indulgences
bond he wrote in latin in the form of 95 statement,
known as ninty five thesis and nailed them in the
door of the Church at Wittenburg.
Through this Luther laid great stress on faith and
strongly opposed the sale and purchase of the bond, a
means of salvation.
He believed in the Bible and not in the Pope.
Luther’s thesis printed and widely distributed in
It created a great excitement everywhere.
A national church was formed in Germany, and
prayers began to held in German language.
It helped the formation of Reformation Movt in
Luther’s translation of new Testament were sold 5000
copies within a few week and second edition appeared
within three month.
Deeply grateful to print and he remarked ‘Printing is
the Ultimate gift of God and greatest one’.
Write a note on ‘Erasmus and idea of printed
Who was Erasmus? Why is he remembered in
Erasmus (1466-1533), a great reformer of Holland,
and pioneer of reformation in Holland.
He was the foremost advocate of the new learning
and was deadly opposed to corrupt & immoral life of
Pope and clergymen.
He severely condemned the evil practices and abuses
of the church.
He was in favour of bringing reforms in church by
peaceful means.
Pocket Dagger, Praise of Folly and New Testament
are his famous works.
In the praise of folly, he denounced the abuses of the
church very satiric manner.
It has been rightly remarked ‘ the jokes of Erasmus
did the pope more harm than the anger of the Luther.
His word about the printing “ To what corner of the
world do they not fly, these swarms of new book? It
may be that one here and there contributes
something worth knowing, but vey multitude of
them is hurtful to scholarship, bcz it creates a glut,
and even in good things satiety is more
harmful…(printers) fill the world with books, not
just trifling things (such as I write, perhaps) but
stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving,
irreligious and seditious book, and number of them
is such that even the valuable publications lose
their vale.
A sixth century movt to reform the catholic
church dominated by Rome. Martin Luther
was one of the main Protestant reformers.
Several traditions of anti- catholic Christianity
developed out of the movement.
A former catholic
court for identifying
and punishing
Belief which do not
follow the accepted
teaching of the
church. In medieval
times, heresy was
seen as a threat to the
right of the church to
decide on what
should be believed
and what should not.
Heretical beliefs were
severely punished.
The state of being
fulfilled much beyond
the point of the
Action, speech or
writing that is seen as
opposing the
17th & 18th century literacy rate increased in
almost all part of Europe.
Churches of different denominations set up
schools in village, carrying literacy to peasants &
End of 18th century in some parts of Europe
literacy rates were as high 60 to 80%.
As a result of high literacy and schools in Europe
paved the way for a virtual reading mania.
People wanted books to read & printers produced
books in ever increasing number.
Europe-Almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and
folktales. (Book sellers employed pedlars who roamed around
village, carrying little book for sale)
England- penny Chap Book (pocket size book)- carried by
petty pedlars known as chapmen, and sold for a penny.
France- Biliotheque bleue- low priced small book, printed on
poor quality paper, bound in cheap blue cover.
Romances- four to six pages
Histories- stories about past.
Combining information- current affairs & entertainment.
News paper & Journals- Wars, trade & dvpt of other places.
Ancient & medieval scientific texts were compiled &
Maps & scientific digrams.
Scientists like Issac Newton- began to publish their
Thinkers- Thomas Paine, Voltaire & Rousseau- widely printed
& published.
Chap Book
Why did some people fear the effect of easily
available printed books?
The Roman catholic church began keeping an
Index of Prohibited books from the mid 16th
Briefly describe the fear of print in the 16th &
There were many people welcomed the printed books bcz
they felt- enlighten, educate, enhance their knowledge, end
the despotism.
But some others not welcomed the printed books. They had
many fears about it.
There was no control over the printed materials, then
rebellion and irrational thought might spread.
Many monarchs feared that the printed books could lead to
rebellions against state authorities.
Many religious authorities felt that free print material can
make the people rebel against their cherished religions.
Roman catholic church troubled by such effects of popular
reading & questioning of the faith, imposed over control
over publishers and book sellers began to maintain an Index
Prohibited books from 1558 onwards.
Many writers and artists began to fear that if no control is
extended on the printed material, the authority of the
valuable liberation would be destroyed.
Revolutionary Russian author.
‘My Childhood and my University’- is one of
his famous work- describing his tiring
circumstances which faced as a poor boy in his
Novelist- France- 18th century.
‘The printing press is the most powerful engine
of progress and public opinion is the force that
will sweep despotism away”.
He proclaimed- Tremble, therefore, tyrants of
the world ! Tremble before the virtual leader.
As a result of the mass literacy in Europe 19th century
witnessed a new readership- Children, Woman, Workers
In late 19th century primary Edn became compulsory,
Children became important category of readers.
Production of books became critical for the publishers.
A children press set up in France in 1857, devoted only for
Published new books as well as old fairy tales and folk tales.
The Grimm brothers in Germany spent lot of years for
compiling traditional folk tales from peasants and published
in 1812.
Unsuitable things and vulgar to the elites were not included
in the publishing version.
Through this folk tales acquired a new form, print recorded
old tales but also changed them.
Women became important readers as well as
Penny magazines (1832-1835 from England)
especially for women, manuals teaching
proper behavior, house keeping.
Novels began to written in 19th century
women became important readers.
Some best women novelists- Jane Austen,
Bronte sisters & George Eliot.
Their writings became important in defining
a new type of women- With will, Strength of
personality, determination and power to
Lending libraries appeared from 17th
19th – Lending libraries in England
became instruments for educating white
collar, artisans and lower middle class
Self educated people wrote themselves.
After working days the workers had
spent some times for self improvement
and self expression.
They wrote political tracts and
autobiographies in large numbers.
From 18th century- press made of metal.
Richard M. Hoe- New york – perfected power
driven cylindrical press- capable of printing 8000
copies per hour.
In the late 19th century- off-set press was
developed which could print six colours at a time.
In 20th – electrically operated press
Methods of feeding paper increased, quality of
plates became better, automatic paper reels and
photoelectric controls of the colour register were
Printers and publishers continuously dvpd
new strategies to sell their product.
In 19th century periodicals serialised
important novels- which gave birth to
particular way of writing novels.
1920- England- popular works were sold in
cheap series called shilling series.
The dust cover or book jacket was invented
in 19th century.
During the time of great depression-1930
publishers feared a decline in book
purchase, to overcome this situation they
brought out cheap paper back editions.
India had very rich and old tradition of hand written
manuscripts- Sanskrit, Persian and vernacular languages.
Manuscripts copied- palm leaves or handmade paper.
Pages were illustrated beautifully.
They would be either pressed wooden covers or sewn to
ensure the preservation.
It produced till to the introduction of print (Late 19)
Manu scripts had lot of limitation.
Pre colonial Bengal, dvpd an extensive network of village
primary school, students very often did not read texts, they
know only write.
Teachers dictated the portion from memory and students
wrote them down.
He was a 14th century poet.
His collected work are known as Diwan.
Its peculiar feature of his work was beautiful
calligraphy , elaborate illustration and design.
The Portuguese missionaries introduced print tech
in India in the mid-16th century.
The first press set up in Goa.
Jesuit missionaries printed tracts in Konkani
By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in
Konkani and Kanara languages.
In 1579 Catholic priests - First Tamil books at
In 1713 they were printed- First Malayalam book.
In 1710 Dutch protestant missionaries printed 32
Tamil texts- most of them were translated works.
The English East India Company imported press17th
In 1780- James Augustus Hicky began to edit the
‘Bengal Gazette’.
It was a weekly magazine that described itself as ‘a
commercial paper open to all, but influenced by none’
It was a private English enterprise, proud of its
independence from colonial India, that began English
printing in India.
He published lot of Advts including related to import
and sale of slaves.
But also he published lot of gossips about EIC senior
officials in India.
So Governor general Warren Hastings had
persecuted Hicky and banned his press.
EEIC officially ay allowed some news papers
only to carry the information to the people.
18- number of news paper and journals
appeared in print.
Indians began to publish Indian News papers.
The to appear was the weekly Bengal Gazette,
brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharia, who
was close to
Ram Mohan Roy.
Early- 19, intense religious debates emerged in India
Variety of interpretations formed about the belief of
different religions.
Some reformers criticised exciting practices of
religions, some others countered the arguments of
These debates carried out in public by print.
Printed tracts and N.P not only spread the ideas, they
shaped the nature of the debates.
A wider public participated in this debates and
expressed their views.
New ideas emerged through this clashes.
News papers conveyed news from one place to another.
Some intense controversies- between Relig & Soci
reformers and Orthodox Hindu believers- Widow
immolation, Monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and
Bengal- N.P and tracts circulated various arguments.
Ram- Sambad Kaumudi- 1821
Hindu orthodox- Samachar Chandrika- oppose his
1822- Persiann News paper- Jam-i-Jahan Nama &
Shamsul Akbar.
1822- Gujarati N.P- Bombay Samachar.
In North India- Ulama (Legal Scholars of Islam)
anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynasty
They feared colonial rulers make changes in the
Muslim personal laws.
To counter this- used cheap lithographic press,
published persian and urdu translation of holy
scripturess and they printed N.P and tracts.
The Deoband seminary- 1867, thousands upon
thousands fatwas telling muslim readers how to
conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and
explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines.
19- Muslim seminary and sects- with different
interpretation of faith
Urdu printing helped them conduct these battles in
Religious texts reached very wide circle and
encouraged the people-discussion, debate and
controversies within and among different religion.
Among Hindu Print encouraged the reading of
religious texts especially in Vernacular language.
The first printed edition of Ramacharitmanas of
Tulasidas- 16 th century text from Calcutta-1810
Mid 19- cheap lithographic editions flooded- North
Indian market.
From 1880- Venkateswar press in Bombay & navi
Kishore press in Lucknow- published religious texts
in vernacular language.
It could be read out to large groups of illiterate men
and women.
Legal scholars of
Islam and the Sharia (
A body of Islamic
A legal
pronouncement on
Islamic law usually
given by a Mufti
(legal scholar) to
clarify issues on
which the law is
Krishnaji Trimbuck and his Marathi
News Paper
Printing created- New kind of writing.
More people could now read, they wanted to see
their own lives, experience, emotions and
relationship reflected in what they read.
Novel: literary form developed in Europe, ideally
catered their needs.
It soon acquired distinctively Indian forms and styles.
It opened up new worlds of experience, and gave a
vivid sense of the diversity of human lives.
Other new literary form- lyrics, short stories, essays
about social and political matters.
Different ways, reinforced the new emphasis on
human lives and intimate feelings, about the political
and social rules that shaped such things.
End 19- New visual culture emerged.
Increasing number of press- visual images could be
easily reproduced in multiple copies.
Raja Ravi Varma- produced images in mass
Poor wood engravers who made wood blocks set up
shop near the letter presses, and were employed print
Cheap prints, calendars easily available in the bazzarpoor used this to decorate their house and working
These prints shaped the idea of modernity, tradition,
religion and politics, and society and culture.
1870 onwards- cartoon and caricatures were
published in N.P, Journals- Social & political
Some caricatures ridiculed the educated
Indians fascination with western tastes and
clothes and others expressed the fear of social
Imperial caricatures lampooning (ridiculed)
nationalists as well as nationalist cartoons
criticising imperial rule.
Lives and feelings of women began to written
vivid and intense way.
Women’s reading increased- Middle class families.
Liberal husbands and fathers- began to educate
their children and send them to school.
After mid 19- Women’s schools- cities and towns.
Journals- carried the writings of Women, and
explained why women should be educated.
They carried a syllabus and attached suitable
reading matter which could be used for home
based schooling.
Social reforms and novels created a great interest
in what women would have to say about their
own life.
Urdu, Tamil, Bengali, Marathi print- dvpd earlier.
Hindi printing- 1870, promoted women
Early 20- journals- written and edited by women,
became extremely popular.
They discussed- women’s Edn, Widowhood,
widow remarriage and national movt.
Some of them offered- household, fashion
lessons, entertainment through short stories and
seralised novels.
All families were not liberal.
Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl
would be widowed.
Muslims feared that educated women would be
corrupted by reading Urdu romantic poems.
However some times rebel women defied such
Story of Muslim girl (page 172)
Story of Hindu girl (page 172)
Amar Jiban autobiography in 1876. first full
length autobiography in Bengal
Social reforms and novels had already created a great
interest in women lives and emotions
1860 onwards Bengali women like- Kailashbashini
Debi- highlighting the experience of women about
how women were imprisoned at home, kept in
ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and
treated unjustly by the very people they served.
1880- Maharashtra- Tarabai Shinde and Pandita
Ramabai- passionate anger about the miserable lives
upper caste Hindu women, especially widows.
Tamil Woman- through novel expressed what reading
meant to women who were so greatly confined by
social regulations : “for various reason, my world is
small…… more than half my life’s happiness comes
from book”.
Early 20- Folk litterature widely printed.
Ram Chaddha published fast selling- Istri
Dharm Vichar- teach women how to be
obedient wives.
The Khalsa Tract Society- cheap booklets with
similar message.
Many of them- dialogues about the qualities of
a good women.
Entire area in central calcutta- the Battaladevoted to the printing of popular books.
Available- cheap editions of religious tracts and
scriptures as well as literature that was
considered obscene and scandalous.
Late 19- Books were being profusely illustrated
with woodcut and coloured lithographs.
Pedlars took the Battala publications to the
home, enabling women to read in their leisure
From 19th- very cheap small books were
available in the market.
In Madras town and sold at cross road, allowed
poor people travelling to market and buy them.
Early 20th- Public libraries- expanded the access
of the book.
These libraries were set up in Cities, Towns
and prosperous villages.
For rich local patrons, setting up libraries was a
way for acquiring the knowledge. (Role early
libraries in India).
From late 19th- issue of caste discrimination
began to be wrote in many printed tracts and
Jyotiba Phule- the Maratha pioneer of low caste
protest Movt, the injustice of caste system –
Gulamgiri (1871)
In 20th- Dr.B.R Ambedkar (Maharashtra) and E.V
Ramaswamy Naicker (Madrass)- better known as
Periyar wrote powerfully on caste and their
writings were read by people all over India.
Local protest Movts and sects also created a lot of
popular journals and tracts criticising ancient
scriptures and envisioning a new and just future.
(Role of print- Caste Sysytem).
Factories were too overworked and lacked the
Edn to write much about their experiences.
Kashibaba- Kanpur millworker- wrote and
publiished Chhote Aur Bade Sawal in 1938
showed the caste and class exploitation.
Sudarshan Chakr- Kanpur Millworker- wrote
poems (1935-1955)- collected work- Sacchi
1930- Banglore cotton millworkers setup libraries
to educate themselves.
The social reformers tried to excessive drinking
and bring literacy and sometimes propagated the
idea of nationalism. (millworkers)
Before 1798- EEIC was not too much concerned with
the censorship.
But the Englishmen in India who were critical of
Company misrule and hated the actions of particular
company officers.
The company was worried that such criticism might
be used by its critics in England to attack its trade
monopoly in India.
So that company decided to control print materials in
1820- Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain
regulations to control press freedom and the
company began to encouraging publication of
newspapers that would celebrate British rule.
1835- faced urgent petitions by editors of English
and vernacular newspapers, Governor General
William Bentinck agreed to revise press laws.
Thomas Macaulay, liberal colonial officer
formulated new rules that helped the early
freedom struggle.
After the revolt of 1857, the attitude of freedom of
press changed.
English people demanded to reduce the freedom of
the Native press.
Colonial Govt began to take stringent control on
Indian Newspapers.
In 1878- a Vernacular press act was passed, modelled
on the Irish press Laws.
It provided the Govt with extensive right to censor
reports and editorials in the vernacular press.
The Govt kept regular track of the vernacular
newspapers published in different provinces.
A report was judged as seditious, the
newspapers was warned and if the warning is
ignored, the press was to be seized and the
printing machinery confiscated.
Despite repressive measures, nationalist
newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of
They reported colonial misrule and encouraged
the nationalist movt.
Attempts to the nationalist criticism provoked
militant protest.
This led to a renewed cycle of persecution and
When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in
1907, Balgangadhar Thilak wrote great sympathy
about them in Kesari.
This led to his imprisonment in 1908, provoking in
turn widespread protests all over India
Instances or Examples of Print formsNewspaper, journals, magazines, Digital prints,
pamphlets etc……..
Earliest print technology DevelopedChina, Japan, Korea
- Woodblock/ Hand printing
- Calligraphy
- Purpose of earlier book
- Importance of Shanghai
- 17- Diversification (New
readership, Merchants, New forms of book,
Women writers)
- Buddhist Diamond Sutra
- Introduction of print technology
- Features
- Kitgawa Utmaro & Ukiyo
Europe :
- Introduction
- Marco Polo
- Two defects of Manuscripts
Gutenberg & Press : Early life
: His invention
: Features of his press.
Earliest form of print technology in the World
Earliest- China, Japan, Korea
Wood block/ hand printing
Merits of printing press
- reduced labour/ time/ cost
- Speed of production
- Available of Books
- wider circulation
Impacts of print revolution/ Spread of knowledge/
Enlightenment and ended despotism/ It is a great
gift from God
- Introduction
- Impacts/ merits
- Conclusion
Role of Print in the French Revolution
- Ideologies
- Philosophers
- Newspapers and books
New Innovations in the print technology
- Metal press
- Richard M Hoe- Power driven cylindrical-8000
- 19- Offset press
- 20- Electrically operated press
- Feeding paper, Platen, Automatic paper reels.
Primary Edn/ Schools started
different denominations/
press/ Folk tales/ Grimm
Woman :
Penny Magazines/ Novels/
Novelists/ New types of woman.
Workers :
Lending Libraries
After their working days
Self Edn/ Self improvement
Political and religious tracts.
MARTIN LUTHER Germany/ Catholic
Indulgence Bond and corruption/
95 thesis/
translated Bible/ Greatest gift----------ERASMUS - Holland/ against evil practice/
Against over production of book/ his
Catholic church and Despotic rulers feared the
print, fin out the reasons?
New Forms of Print
: Europe - Almanac
: England- Chap Book
:France – Biliotheque Bleaue
: Romantic/ Historic
: Newspapers/ Journals
: map/ Diagrams
: Issac Newton- Scientific
: Philosophers
Reading mania- Primary edn, Literacy rate,
Schools, Libraries, virtual reading emerged.
Before the age of print (or) age of manuscripts
Palm leaves
hand made paper
Illustrated beautifully
Wooden cover for preservation
Limitation of Manuscripts
Haffiz and Diwan
Portuguese missionaries- Goa
Jesuit and Catholic Missionaries
Dutch period
Dutch protestant missionaries
E E C- imported printing machine.
Augustus Hicky and his Bengal Gazatte
Short stories/ essays
visual culture
cartoon and caricatures
Lower class leaders
Mill workers
Short Questions
Maxim Gorky/ Vellum/ Platen/ Ballad/
Taverns/ Compositor/ Galley/ Denomination/
chapbook/ chap man/ Despotism/ Inquisition/
heretical/ Satiety/ Seditious/ Ulama/ Fatwa
Causes behind the introduction of the censorship
Press Laws/ Governor Generals
Vernacular press Act 1878
Role of Newspaper and print in the Indian freedom
struggle and Nationalism
Total Question- 10 Time : 7 mts
A former Roman Catholic court for punishing the heretics is
known as----------2. Who wrote 95 thesis against Catholic church?
3. One of the important feature of offset press is------4. What was the ancient name of Tokyo?
5. What is the importance of Buddhist Diamond Sutra?
6. Write the name of two best known women novelist in the
world in the 19th century
To write the name of one persian news paper in 19th century
Name of the paper started by Bal Gangadhar Thilak
When did the French revolution take place?
10. Name and year of an Act passed by British government to
control the vernacular newspapers
Question : 10 Time : 8 mts
To write the two names of women writers in India
Who was E.V Ramaswamy Naicker?
Who wrote my childhood and my university?
To write one defects of Manuscripts?
Who were scribes?
Who developed first known printing press?
Who started Sambad Kaumudi in 1821?
Why was Tilak arrested in 1908?
To write a note about Dr.B.R.Ambedkar.
Who was the great reformer in Holland?
Question : 10 Time : 7 mts
Who said the fight for swaraj is a fight for liberty, liberty of
press and freedom of association?
To write one reasons in behind of the introduction of
censorship by British in India.
What was the feature of chap book?
What is Biliotheque Bleu?
Who introduced print technology in Europe?
Give some instances of print forms?
Who wrote Amar Jiban?
Who was Kailashbashini?
Who wrote Gulamgiri?
Who wrote Chhote Aur Bade ka Saval?
Question : 10 Time : 13 mts
31. To find out the names of Governor Generals in India favour
for the press freedom?
32. Who was Augustus Hicky?
33. Importance of Raja Ravi Varma in Indian Print history?
34. What was the approach of conservative Hindu family
regarding with the Girls education?
35. Who feared that the women become corrupt through the
reading of Urdu?
36. Which were the new forms of print appeared in India in 20th
37. Meaning of calligraphy?
38. What was the major evil practice prevailed in the Catholic
39. Purpose of earliest text book in China?
40. To write six sentence about the impact of print revolution.

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