Different forms of Printing. Print in China & Japan & Europe. Gutenberg & his Press. Print Revolution- Impacts & Problems. Reading mania Print & its impacts- France/ Russia/ India. Printing- Women/ Children/ Workers. India and the Age of Print. New Forms of Publication. Print & Censorship. News papers. Magazines & Journals. Official Circulars & Orders. Digital Printing. News Letters & Pamphlets. Text Books. Notice & Advertisements. Photos/ Pictures/ Cartoons etc…. East Asian Nations like > China. > Japan. > Korea. This was a system of hand printing. AD.594 onwards books were printed in China on the base of this system. Wood blocks were curved by a learned carpenter. Then wood blocks were inked and then paper was rubbed against the inked wood block. It was a writing system prevailed in China. It was an art of Beautiful and Stylised writing. For to recruit the candidates in the bureaucratic system of China through the Civil Service Examination. It is Place in China. Western printing techniques & mechanical presses imported in China in later 19th centaury. They established their outposts in China. Shanghai became hub of modern print culture, catering the western school. It was a shift from hand printing to mechanical printing. Up to 16th century, print used only by the Scholars for official purpose. From 17th century onwards merchants used print for to collect their trade information. Reading habit increased very much and it became a leisure activity. A new readership formed in China. Different forms of literature began to publishNarratives, Poetry, Anthopologies, Autobiographies & Literary masterpiece. Women began to publish their poems & plays. Oldest Japanese Book. Printed in AD.868. It containing six sheets of paper. It was a woodcut illustration. The Buddhist missionaries introduced hand printing technology in Japan from China. They introduced around AD.768- 770. Buddhist missionaries were introduced printing technology in Japan from China around AD.768770. The oldest book in Japan was Buddhist Diamond Sutra.(Six sheet, woodcut illustr). Pictures were printed in- Texts, Play cards, money. Medieval period- poets & prose writers regularly published their works. Books were cheap in price. Later 18th century urban circles depicted lot of urban pictures about their urban culture. Libraries & Bookstores filled with various type books- woman, musical instrument, calculation, tea ceremony, cooking, flower arrangement, proper etiquette, places. WOOD BLOCKS EXAMPLE OF PRINTING Kitagawa Utamaro born in Edo(Tokyo) in 1753 One of his major contribution was Ukiyo. It is an art form its meaning was Pictures of the floating World or depiction of ordinary human experience especially urban one. These prints travelled contemporary US and Europe. It influenced the writers like Manet, Monet & Van Gogh. WOOD BLOCK (AD.200) MOVEABLE TYPE (AD 1040) From 11th centaury onwards paper from China reached in Europe through trade routs. It made the manuscripts carefully written by scribes(copy writers). In 1295 Marcopolo, the great explorer reached in Italy after many years of exploration in China. From China he learned the technology of Wood Block Printing. He introduced this in Italy. From Italy the Wood Block Technology reached in all parts of Europe. It is Expensive, Laborious and Time Consuming Business. Manuscripts themselves fragile, awkward to handle and could not be easy to carry and read easily. Earliest kind dvpd……China, Japan and Korea. Since 594 AD onwards China used W.B.P for print the text books. Up to 16 century – used only by the Scholars. In 17 century- merchants & common people began to use in their every day life. Around 768-770 Buddhist missionaries introduced W.B.P in Japan. In 1295 Marcopolo, great explorer introduced W.B.P in Italy, he gained this knowledge from China. From Italy W.B.P reached in all parts of Europe. The first printing press invented by Gutenberg in AD 1448. It helped the printing of books in large number. His novel printing machine occupied the position print World around next 300 years. The invention of printing press paved the way for to spread the knowledge . Before the invention of P.P, it was very difficult to spread knowledge. The books were written by hand also they were very costly. Knowledge was the privilege of the wealthy people only. But this things changed after the invention of printing press. The first P.P was set up Germany by Gutenberg in 1448. He dvlpd metal types each of the 26 characters of the Roman alphabet and devised a way of moving them around so as to compose different words of the text. His novel press came to be known as the moveable type printing machine and it remained the basic print technology for the next 300 years. His press could print 250 sheets on one side per hour. The first book he printed was Bible. It enabled the people to produce the book greater speed. The production of book in large number created a new culture of reading and enlarged the number of readers. A Parchment made from the skin of animals. In letterpress printing, platen is a board which is pressed on the back of the paper to get the impression from the type. At one time it used to be a wooden board; later it was made of steel. A historical account or folk tale in verse, usually sung or recited. Place where people gathered to drink alcohol, to be served food, and to meet the friends and exchange news To find out different instances or examples of print forms. In where was the earliest print technology developed in the World? What is meant by Calligraphy? For what purpose, the earliest text books were printed in China? Write a short note on Buddhist Diamond Sutra? Who was Gutenberg? In which period printing presses were set up in most countries of Europe? How book in China printed from 594 AD onwards? (or) Briefly explain the method of Wood Block printing in China? What led to the diversification in the use of print in China? When and whom was hand printing technology introduced in Japan? Prepare a brief notes on Kitagwa Utmaro and Ukiyo. Briefly explain the earliest print technology in Japan. How the Wood Block printing reached in Europe? (or) To find out the role of Marcopolo in the print technology in Europe? What were the two defects of copying manuscripts.? How the printing presses helped the printing technology? Briefly explain the earliest form and development of print technology in the world? To write a short notes on Gutenberg press. To write a short notes on- Vellum & Platen. There is no denying the fact that the invention of print greatly contributed the spread of knowledge. Without this invention , all the progress that we see today was not possible. Printing is the ultimate gift of God and greatest one it is the word of German reformer Martin Luther- what better words can be said in favour of print. The P.R was not just a dvpt, a new way of producing book; it transformed the lives of the people, changing their relationship to information and knowledge and with institution and authorities. It influenced the popular perceptions and opened a new way. A new reading public emerged. It reduced the cost of the Books. The time and labour required to produce each book came down. The multiple copies could be produced very easily. Earlier reading was restricted to the common people, they lived in the World of oral culture. It created a new culture of reading. But printing helped the books to reach in the wider section of the society. From a hearing public a new reading public emerged. It improved the literacy rate of the Europe. Especially in the religious field it created the wide circulation of ideas and introduced a new world of debate and discussion. Print materials persuaded the people to think differently and move them to action. The ideas of Scientists, Philosophers became more accessible to the common people. The writings of thinkers like Thomas Paine, Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesqien influenced the people very much and these factors brought Enlightenment and led to the end of despotism. Most of the revolutions of the world, which ended despotism and brought about Democratic govts in the World were much because of the advancement of the print culture. Without the spread of Education and knowledge, how could such a transformation be possible. Print culture created the condition which brought about the French Revolution 1789. Print Culture laid the emphasis on the rule of reason rather than custom. First- Popularised the ideas of Enlightenment thinkers. Thinkers like Rousseau, Voltaire and Montesque criticised the authority of church and despotic power of the state through their writings.. They put forward the idea of Equality, Liberty and Fraternity. This influenced the people very much Second-Print culture created the atmosphere of dialogue and debate. The norms, values & institutions were re- evaluated and discussed by the public. Such thing created the ground for social revolution. The literature helped the people to criticise the monarchy and their morality. The cartoons and caicatures typically criticised the monarchy. This process led to the growth of hostile of sentiments against the ruler. The print did not directly shapes the mood of the people, it open up the possibility of thinking which could not possible without the spread of print culture. The person who compose the text for printing. Metal frame in which types are laid and text composed. Give reason- he was in favour of print and spoke out in praise of it. (or) Martin Luther said that ‘Printing is the ultimate gift and the greatest one’- try to justify his statement (or) Write a note on Martin Luther and his contribution to the protestant reformation. He was a great reformer of Germany, and started the reformation in Germany. In 1512 he went to Rome for pilgrimage. In there he saw the Pope (Catholic head), and Italian prince were leading very luxurious life. The corrupt practices of the church and immoral life of the clergy men brought a great change in his idea and he became an opponent of the Pope. He was a professor of Wittenburg university, and he refused the sale of Indulgences bond. Instead of this his objection against the Indulgences bond he wrote in latin in the form of 95 statement, known as ninty five thesis and nailed them in the door of the Church at Wittenburg. Through this Luther laid great stress on faith and strongly opposed the sale and purchase of the bond, a means of salvation. He believed in the Bible and not in the Pope. Luther’s thesis printed and widely distributed in Germany. It created a great excitement everywhere. A national church was formed in Germany, and prayers began to held in German language. It helped the formation of Reformation Movt in Germany Luther’s translation of new Testament were sold 5000 copies within a few week and second edition appeared within three month. Deeply grateful to print and he remarked ‘Printing is the Ultimate gift of God and greatest one’. Write a note on ‘Erasmus and idea of printed books’. (or) Who was Erasmus? Why is he remembered in history? Erasmus (1466-1533), a great reformer of Holland, and pioneer of reformation in Holland. He was the foremost advocate of the new learning and was deadly opposed to corrupt & immoral life of Pope and clergymen. He severely condemned the evil practices and abuses of the church. He was in favour of bringing reforms in church by peaceful means. Pocket Dagger, Praise of Folly and New Testament are his famous works. In the praise of folly, he denounced the abuses of the church very satiric manner. It has been rightly remarked ‘ the jokes of Erasmus did the pope more harm than the anger of the Luther. His word about the printing “ To what corner of the world do they not fly, these swarms of new book? It may be that one here and there contributes something worth knowing, but vey multitude of them is hurtful to scholarship, bcz it creates a glut, and even in good things satiety is more harmful…(printers) fill the world with books, not just trifling things (such as I write, perhaps) but stupid, ignorant, slanderous, scandalous, raving, irreligious and seditious book, and number of them is such that even the valuable publications lose their vale. A sixth century movt to reform the catholic church dominated by Rome. Martin Luther was one of the main Protestant reformers. Several traditions of anti- catholic Christianity developed out of the movement. A former catholic court for identifying and punishing heretics. Belief which do not follow the accepted teaching of the church. In medieval times, heresy was seen as a threat to the right of the church to decide on what should be believed and what should not. Heretical beliefs were severely punished. The state of being fulfilled much beyond the point of the satisfaction. Action, speech or writing that is seen as opposing the government. 17th & 18th century literacy rate increased in almost all part of Europe. Churches of different denominations set up schools in village, carrying literacy to peasants & workers. End of 18th century in some parts of Europe literacy rates were as high 60 to 80%. As a result of high literacy and schools in Europe paved the way for a virtual reading mania. People wanted books to read & printers produced books in ever increasing number. Europe-Almanacs or ritual calendars, along with ballads and folktales. (Book sellers employed pedlars who roamed around village, carrying little book for sale) England- penny Chap Book (pocket size book)- carried by petty pedlars known as chapmen, and sold for a penny. France- Biliotheque bleue- low priced small book, printed on poor quality paper, bound in cheap blue cover. Romances- four to six pages Histories- stories about past. Combining information- current affairs & entertainment. News paper & Journals- Wars, trade & dvpt of other places. Ancient & medieval scientific texts were compiled & published Maps & scientific digrams. Scientists like Issac Newton- began to publish their discoveries. Thinkers- Thomas Paine, Voltaire & Rousseau- widely printed & published. Denomination Almanac Chap Book Chapman Despotism Why did some people fear the effect of easily available printed books? The Roman catholic church began keeping an Index of Prohibited books from the mid 16th century Briefly describe the fear of print in the 16th & 17th century. There were many people welcomed the printed books bcz they felt- enlighten, educate, enhance their knowledge, end the despotism. But some others not welcomed the printed books. They had many fears about it. There was no control over the printed materials, then rebellion and irrational thought might spread. Many monarchs feared that the printed books could lead to rebellions against state authorities. Many religious authorities felt that free print material can make the people rebel against their cherished religions. Roman catholic church troubled by such effects of popular reading & questioning of the faith, imposed over control over publishers and book sellers began to maintain an Index Prohibited books from 1558 onwards. Many writers and artists began to fear that if no control is extended on the printed material, the authority of the valuable liberation would be destroyed. Revolutionary Russian author. ‘My Childhood and my University’- is one of his famous work- describing his tiring circumstances which faced as a poor boy in his childhood. Novelist- France- 18th century. ‘The printing press is the most powerful engine of progress and public opinion is the force that will sweep despotism away”. He proclaimed- Tremble, therefore, tyrants of the world ! Tremble before the virtual leader. As a result of the mass literacy in Europe 19th century witnessed a new readership- Children, Woman, Workers In late 19th century primary Edn became compulsory, Children became important category of readers. Production of books became critical for the publishers. A children press set up in France in 1857, devoted only for children. Published new books as well as old fairy tales and folk tales. The Grimm brothers in Germany spent lot of years for compiling traditional folk tales from peasants and published in 1812. Unsuitable things and vulgar to the elites were not included in the publishing version. Through this folk tales acquired a new form, print recorded old tales but also changed them. Women became important readers as well as writers. Penny magazines (1832-1835 from England) especially for women, manuals teaching proper behavior, house keeping. Novels began to written in 19th century women became important readers. Some best women novelists- Jane Austen, Bronte sisters & George Eliot. Their writings became important in defining a new type of women- With will, Strength of personality, determination and power to think. Lending libraries appeared from 17th century 19th – Lending libraries in England became instruments for educating white collar, artisans and lower middle class people. Self educated people wrote themselves. After working days the workers had spent some times for self improvement and self expression. They wrote political tracts and autobiographies in large numbers. From 18th century- press made of metal. Richard M. Hoe- New york – perfected power driven cylindrical press- capable of printing 8000 copies per hour. In the late 19th century- off-set press was developed which could print six colours at a time. In 20th – electrically operated press Methods of feeding paper increased, quality of plates became better, automatic paper reels and photoelectric controls of the colour register were introduced. Printers and publishers continuously dvpd new strategies to sell their product. In 19th century periodicals serialised important novels- which gave birth to particular way of writing novels. 1920- England- popular works were sold in cheap series called shilling series. The dust cover or book jacket was invented in 19th century. During the time of great depression-1930 publishers feared a decline in book purchase, to overcome this situation they brought out cheap paper back editions. India had very rich and old tradition of hand written manuscripts- Sanskrit, Persian and vernacular languages. Manuscripts copied- palm leaves or handmade paper. Pages were illustrated beautifully. They would be either pressed wooden covers or sewn to ensure the preservation. It produced till to the introduction of print (Late 19) Manu scripts had lot of limitation. Pre colonial Bengal, dvpd an extensive network of village primary school, students very often did not read texts, they know only write. Teachers dictated the portion from memory and students wrote them down. He was a 14th century poet. His collected work are known as Diwan. Its peculiar feature of his work was beautiful calligraphy , elaborate illustration and design. The Portuguese missionaries introduced print tech in India in the mid-16th century. The first press set up in Goa. Jesuit missionaries printed tracts in Konkani language. By 1674, about 50 books had been printed in Konkani and Kanara languages. In 1579 Catholic priests - First Tamil books at Cohin. In 1713 they were printed- First Malayalam book. In 1710 Dutch protestant missionaries printed 32 Tamil texts- most of them were translated works. The English East India Company imported press17th In 1780- James Augustus Hicky began to edit the ‘Bengal Gazette’. It was a weekly magazine that described itself as ‘a commercial paper open to all, but influenced by none’ It was a private English enterprise, proud of its independence from colonial India, that began English printing in India. He published lot of Advts including related to import and sale of slaves. But also he published lot of gossips about EIC senior officials in India. So Governor general Warren Hastings had persecuted Hicky and banned his press. EEIC officially ay allowed some news papers only to carry the information to the people. 18- number of news paper and journals appeared in print. Indians began to publish Indian News papers. The to appear was the weekly Bengal Gazette, brought out by Gangadhar Bhattacharia, who was close to Ram Mohan Roy. Early- 19, intense religious debates emerged in India Variety of interpretations formed about the belief of different religions. Some reformers criticised exciting practices of religions, some others countered the arguments of reformers. These debates carried out in public by print. Printed tracts and N.P not only spread the ideas, they shaped the nature of the debates. A wider public participated in this debates and expressed their views. New ideas emerged through this clashes. News papers conveyed news from one place to another. Some intense controversies- between Relig & Soci reformers and Orthodox Hindu believers- Widow immolation, Monotheism, Brahmanical priesthood and idolatry. Bengal- N.P and tracts circulated various arguments. Ram- Sambad Kaumudi- 1821 Hindu orthodox- Samachar Chandrika- oppose his opinion. 1822- Persiann News paper- Jam-i-Jahan Nama & Shamsul Akbar. 1822- Gujarati N.P- Bombay Samachar. In North India- Ulama (Legal Scholars of Islam) anxious about the collapse of Muslim dynasty They feared colonial rulers make changes in the Muslim personal laws. To counter this- used cheap lithographic press, published persian and urdu translation of holy scripturess and they printed N.P and tracts. The Deoband seminary- 1867, thousands upon thousands fatwas telling muslim readers how to conduct themselves in their everyday lives, and explaining the meaning of Islamic doctrines. 19- Muslim seminary and sects- with different interpretation of faith Urdu printing helped them conduct these battles in public Religious texts reached very wide circle and encouraged the people-discussion, debate and controversies within and among different religion. Among Hindu Print encouraged the reading of religious texts especially in Vernacular language. The first printed edition of Ramacharitmanas of Tulasidas- 16 th century text from Calcutta-1810 Mid 19- cheap lithographic editions flooded- North Indian market. From 1880- Venkateswar press in Bombay & navi Kishore press in Lucknow- published religious texts in vernacular language. It could be read out to large groups of illiterate men and women. Legal scholars of Islam and the Sharia ( A body of Islamic Law) A legal pronouncement on Islamic law usually given by a Mufti (legal scholar) to clarify issues on which the law is uncertain. Krishnaji Trimbuck and his Marathi News Paper (170) Printing created- New kind of writing. More people could now read, they wanted to see their own lives, experience, emotions and relationship reflected in what they read. Novel: literary form developed in Europe, ideally catered their needs. It soon acquired distinctively Indian forms and styles. It opened up new worlds of experience, and gave a vivid sense of the diversity of human lives. Other new literary form- lyrics, short stories, essays about social and political matters. Different ways, reinforced the new emphasis on human lives and intimate feelings, about the political and social rules that shaped such things. End 19- New visual culture emerged. Increasing number of press- visual images could be easily reproduced in multiple copies. Raja Ravi Varma- produced images in mass circulation. Poor wood engravers who made wood blocks set up shop near the letter presses, and were employed print shops. Cheap prints, calendars easily available in the bazzarpoor used this to decorate their house and working place. These prints shaped the idea of modernity, tradition, religion and politics, and society and culture. 1870 onwards- cartoon and caricatures were published in N.P, Journals- Social & political issue. Some caricatures ridiculed the educated Indians fascination with western tastes and clothes and others expressed the fear of social change. Imperial caricatures lampooning (ridiculed) nationalists as well as nationalist cartoons criticising imperial rule. Lives and feelings of women began to written vivid and intense way. Women’s reading increased- Middle class families. Liberal husbands and fathers- began to educate their children and send them to school. After mid 19- Women’s schools- cities and towns. Journals- carried the writings of Women, and explained why women should be educated. They carried a syllabus and attached suitable reading matter which could be used for home based schooling. Social reforms and novels created a great interest in what women would have to say about their own life. Urdu, Tamil, Bengali, Marathi print- dvpd earlier. Hindi printing- 1870, promoted women education. Early 20- journals- written and edited by women, became extremely popular. They discussed- women’s Edn, Widowhood, widow remarriage and national movt. Some of them offered- household, fashion lessons, entertainment through short stories and seralised novels. All families were not liberal. Conservative Hindus believed that a literate girl would be widowed. Muslims feared that educated women would be corrupted by reading Urdu romantic poems. However some times rebel women defied such prohibition. Story of Muslim girl (page 172) Story of Hindu girl (page 172) Amar Jiban autobiography in 1876. first full length autobiography in Bengal Social reforms and novels had already created a great interest in women lives and emotions 1860 onwards Bengali women like- Kailashbashini Debi- highlighting the experience of women about how women were imprisoned at home, kept in ignorance, forced to do hard domestic labour and treated unjustly by the very people they served. 1880- Maharashtra- Tarabai Shinde and Pandita Ramabai- passionate anger about the miserable lives of upper caste Hindu women, especially widows. Tamil Woman- through novel expressed what reading meant to women who were so greatly confined by social regulations : “for various reason, my world is small…… more than half my life’s happiness comes from book”. Early 20- Folk litterature widely printed. Ram Chaddha published fast selling- Istri Dharm Vichar- teach women how to be obedient wives. The Khalsa Tract Society- cheap booklets with similar message. Many of them- dialogues about the qualities of a good women. Entire area in central calcutta- the Battaladevoted to the printing of popular books. Available- cheap editions of religious tracts and scriptures as well as literature that was considered obscene and scandalous. Late 19- Books were being profusely illustrated with woodcut and coloured lithographs. Pedlars took the Battala publications to the home, enabling women to read in their leisure times. From 19th- very cheap small books were available in the market. In Madras town and sold at cross road, allowed poor people travelling to market and buy them. Early 20th- Public libraries- expanded the access of the book. These libraries were set up in Cities, Towns and prosperous villages. For rich local patrons, setting up libraries was a way for acquiring the knowledge. (Role early libraries in India). From late 19th- issue of caste discrimination began to be wrote in many printed tracts and essays. Jyotiba Phule- the Maratha pioneer of low caste protest Movt, the injustice of caste system – Gulamgiri (1871) In 20th- Dr.B.R Ambedkar (Maharashtra) and E.V Ramaswamy Naicker (Madrass)- better known as Periyar wrote powerfully on caste and their writings were read by people all over India. Local protest Movts and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts criticising ancient scriptures and envisioning a new and just future. (Role of print- Caste Sysytem). Factories were too overworked and lacked the Edn to write much about their experiences. Kashibaba- Kanpur millworker- wrote and publiished Chhote Aur Bade Sawal in 1938 showed the caste and class exploitation. Sudarshan Chakr- Kanpur Millworker- wrote poems (1935-1955)- collected work- Sacchi Kavitayan. 1930- Banglore cotton millworkers setup libraries to educate themselves. The social reformers tried to excessive drinking and bring literacy and sometimes propagated the idea of nationalism. (millworkers) LIJIN GOLDEN Before 1798- EEIC was not too much concerned with the censorship. But the Englishmen in India who were critical of Company misrule and hated the actions of particular company officers. The company was worried that such criticism might be used by its critics in England to attack its trade monopoly in India. So that company decided to control print materials in India 1820- Calcutta Supreme Court passed certain regulations to control press freedom and the company began to encouraging publication of newspapers that would celebrate British rule. 1835- faced urgent petitions by editors of English and vernacular newspapers, Governor General William Bentinck agreed to revise press laws. Thomas Macaulay, liberal colonial officer formulated new rules that helped the early freedom struggle. After the revolt of 1857, the attitude of freedom of press changed. English people demanded to reduce the freedom of the Native press. Colonial Govt began to take stringent control on Indian Newspapers. In 1878- a Vernacular press act was passed, modelled on the Irish press Laws. It provided the Govt with extensive right to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press. The Govt kept regular track of the vernacular newspapers published in different provinces. A report was judged as seditious, the newspapers was warned and if the warning is ignored, the press was to be seized and the printing machinery confiscated. Despite repressive measures, nationalist newspapers grew in numbers in all parts of India. They reported colonial misrule and encouraged the nationalist movt. Attempts to the nationalist criticism provoked militant protest. This led to a renewed cycle of persecution and protest When Punjab revolutionaries were deported in 1907, Balgangadhar Thilak wrote great sympathy about them in Kesari. This led to his imprisonment in 1908, provoking in turn widespread protests all over India Instances or Examples of Print formsNewspaper, journals, magazines, Digital prints, pamphlets etc…….. Earliest print technology DevelopedChina, Japan, Korea CHINA : - Woodblock/ Hand printing - Calligraphy - Purpose of earlier book - Importance of Shanghai - 17- Diversification (New readership, Merchants, New forms of book, Women writers) JAPAN : - Buddhist Diamond Sutra - Introduction of print technology - Features - Kitgawa Utmaro & Ukiyo Europe : - Introduction - Marco Polo - Two defects of Manuscripts Gutenberg & Press : Early life : His invention : Features of his press. Earliest form of print technology in the World Earliest- China, Japan, Korea Wood block/ hand printing China--------------------------Japan-------------------------Europe-----------------------Gutenberg------------------- Merits of printing press - reduced labour/ time/ cost - Speed of production - Available of Books - wider circulation Impacts of print revolution/ Spread of knowledge/ Enlightenment and ended despotism/ It is a great gift from God - Introduction - Impacts/ merits - Conclusion Role of Print in the French Revolution - Ideologies - Philosophers - Newspapers and books New Innovations in the print technology - Metal press - Richard M Hoe- Power driven cylindrical-8000 - 19- Offset press - 20- Electrically operated press - Feeding paper, Platen, Automatic paper reels. Children Children brothers. : Primary Edn/ Schools started different denominations/ press/ Folk tales/ Grimm Woman : Penny Magazines/ Novels/ Novelists/ New types of woman. Workers : Lending Libraries After their working days Self Edn/ Self improvement Political and religious tracts. MARTIN LUTHER Germany/ Catholic priest/ Indulgence Bond and corruption/ 95 thesis/ translated Bible/ Greatest gift----------ERASMUS - Holland/ against evil practice/ Against over production of book/ his statement. Catholic church and Despotic rulers feared the print, fin out the reasons? New Forms of Print : Europe - Almanac : England- Chap Book :France – Biliotheque Bleaue : Romantic/ Historic : Newspapers/ Journals : map/ Diagrams : Issac Newton- Scientific : Philosophers Reading mania- Primary edn, Literacy rate, Schools, Libraries, virtual reading emerged. Before the age of print (or) age of manuscripts Palm leaves hand made paper Illustrated beautifully Wooden cover for preservation Limitation of Manuscripts Haffiz and Diwan INTRODUCTION OF PRINT TECHNOLOGY Portuguese missionaries- Goa Jesuit and Catholic Missionaries Dutch period Dutch protestant missionaries E E C- imported printing machine. Augustus Hicky and his Bengal Gazatte PRINT TECHNOLOGY AND RELIGIOUS REFORMATION EARLIEST NEWS PAPERS IN INDIA PRINT- MUSLIM REFORMATION PRINT HINDU REFORMATION CONSERVATIVE APPROACH- MUSLIM AND HINDU NEW FORMS OF PRINT Novels Short stories/ essays visual culture cartoon and caricatures PRINT AND WOMAN WOMAN WRITERS IN INDIA PRINT- BENGAL PRINT- PUNJAB PRINT AND POOR PEOPLE Libraries Lower class leaders Mill workers Short Questions Maxim Gorky/ Vellum/ Platen/ Ballad/ Taverns/ Compositor/ Galley/ Denomination/ chapbook/ chap man/ Despotism/ Inquisition/ heretical/ Satiety/ Seditious/ Ulama/ Fatwa Causes behind the introduction of the censorship Press Laws/ Governor Generals Vernacular press Act 1878 Role of Newspaper and print in the Indian freedom struggle and Nationalism Total Question- 10 Time : 7 mts A former Roman Catholic court for punishing the heretics is known as----------2. Who wrote 95 thesis against Catholic church? 3. One of the important feature of offset press is------4. What was the ancient name of Tokyo? 5. What is the importance of Buddhist Diamond Sutra? 6. Write the name of two best known women novelist in the world in the 19th century 7. To write the name of one persian news paper in 19th century 8. Name of the paper started by Bal Gangadhar Thilak 9. When did the French revolution take place? 10. Name and year of an Act passed by British government to control the vernacular newspapers 1. Question : 10 Time : 8 mts 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. To write the two names of women writers in India Who was E.V Ramaswamy Naicker? Who wrote my childhood and my university? To write one defects of Manuscripts? Who were scribes? Who developed first known printing press? Who started Sambad Kaumudi in 1821? Why was Tilak arrested in 1908? To write a note about Dr.B.R.Ambedkar. Who was the great reformer in Holland? Question : 10 Time : 7 mts 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Who said the fight for swaraj is a fight for liberty, liberty of press and freedom of association? To write one reasons in behind of the introduction of censorship by British in India. What was the feature of chap book? What is Biliotheque Bleu? Who introduced print technology in Europe? Give some instances of print forms? Who wrote Amar Jiban? Who was Kailashbashini? Who wrote Gulamgiri? Who wrote Chhote Aur Bade ka Saval? Question : 10 Time : 13 mts 31. To find out the names of Governor Generals in India favour for the press freedom? 32. Who was Augustus Hicky? 33. Importance of Raja Ravi Varma in Indian Print history? 34. What was the approach of conservative Hindu family regarding with the Girls education? 35. Who feared that the women become corrupt through the reading of Urdu? 36. Which were the new forms of print appeared in India in 20th century? 37. Meaning of calligraphy? 38. What was the major evil practice prevailed in the Catholic church? 39. Purpose of earliest text book in China? 40. To write six sentence about the impact of print revolution.