3. HRD ppt Group 6

Team members
Childhood patterns of
 A child learns what is right and wrong from what
he observes in his environment or situations that
make him happy or unhappy. Many of the things
that he learns are from feelings and emotions ,
and less from a rational process of discussion and
discourse. The learning is not independent of the
feelings the individual has for the people or the
situation. Feelings as well as experience,
therefore, play an important part in learning. It is
relatively permanent change in the behavior . It
takes place only when Grasps the subject
mentally or physically.
Theories of learning
way of
 Learning occurs when people acquire and
develop skills, knowledge, and change
behavior as a result of an interaction between
forces within the learner and in the
 To emphasize upon ways to maximize learning,
we’ll focus on 3 primary areas:Trainee Characteristics
Training Design
Transfer of Training
 A learner’s or trainee personal characteristics
influence how he or she learns new tasks and
new information. Two such characteristics
are: Trainability
 Personality and attitudes
 Trainability focuses on the trainee’s readiness to
learn and combines the trainee’s level of ability
and motivation with his or her perceptions of the
work environment.
Trainability= f(Motivation X Ability X Perceptions of Work
 Trainability is extremely important. Placing
employees in programs they are not motivated to
attend or are not prepared to do well, only wastes
time and resources.
Pre-training Motivation
Following are the findings of a recent research about
pre-training motivation: The way trainees perceive training
 The way in which individuals view their own ability
 Experiencing negatives on the job prior to training
 Involvement in decisions about training
 Perception that participation will lead to benefits
 Perception of support, or lack of obstacles to use
what has been learned in the work environment
Trainee Testing
 Experiments on the impact of ability and prior job
knowledge on learning found that the cognitive
ability(i.e. intelligence) has a direct impact on
learning, but prior job knowledge has almost no
effect on the acquisition of subsequent knowledge.
 This suggests that cognitive ability rather than prior
job knowledge should be used to select trainees into
programs designed to teach complex tasks.
 Trainability testing is one such approach, which
focuses on measuring the motivation and relevant
abilities of candidates for training, and selecting for
training only those who show a sufficient level of
 Another approach to trainee testing is to allow
candidates to complete part of the training
program, and use their performance in that
section as an predictor of how well they will
perform during the remainder of the training.
 Thus, trainee testing are effective in predicting
the training success, thereby leading to
improvement in job performance.
Personality and Attitudes
 Personality is the stable set of personal characteristics
that account for consistent patterns of behavior.
Personality traits that are related to employee learning
include locus of control, need for achievement,
extraversion, openness to experience, etc.
 Also, employee’s attitudes towards career exploration,
expectations for training and job involvement impact
learning and its applications to the job.
 To summarize, assessing employee’s relevant abilities,
motivation and personality prior to training are
important in maximizing the chances that learning will
Training Design
 Training Design involves adapting the learning
environment to maximize learning. Training
design issues include: The conditions of practice that influence
 The factors that impact retention of what is
 Thorough understanding of these issues will be
helpful in designing an effective training
Conditions of Practice
There are 6 major issues that relate to practice
and learning. They are:• Active Practice
• Massed vs Spaced Practice Sessions
• Whole vs Part learning
• Over learning
• Knowledge of Results, and
• Task Sequencing
Retention of Learning
 Meaningful Material
 Degree of Original Learning
 Interference
Transfer of Training
 Positive transfer
 Zero transfer
 Negative transfer
 Near transfer
 Far transfer
Ideas for Maximizing Training
 Identical Elements
 General Principles
 Support in Work Environment
 Stimulus Variability
Individual Difference in the
learning Process
 Trainee characteristics play a role in the learning,
retention, and transfer of skills and factual
 Three additional factors that account for
differences in individual learning processes are:1. Different rates of trainee progress.
2. Interactions between attributes and treatment.
3. The training of adults and old workers.
Rate Of Progress
 People learn at different rates. Some people
progress more quickly than others, and individual
learners may even progress at different rates during
the same training program.
 A useful way to show rates of learning is by drawing
learning curves.
 Learning curves can provide useful feedback to both
trainers and trainees. When implementing a new
HRD program, plotting learning curves can be used
as baseline for communicating expectations of
progress to future trainees and trainers, and as aids
as scheduling and planning future sessions.
Attribute Treatment
 Interest in the effect of trainee intelligence on learning
has led some researchers to hypothesize that the
effectiveness of training methods may be influenced by
various trainee characteristics.
 Some methods of training may be better suited to
certain types of people.
 2 variable that have received considerable attention in
ATI research are cognitive ability and motivation. The
expectancy theory of motivation suggests that when
motivation is low, both high- and low – ability individuals
will performs at low levels, but when motivation is high,
differences in performance can be expected between
high- and low- ability individuals.
 A well developed ATI theory is the Cognitive
Resources allocation theory proposed by Ruth
Kanfer and Philip Ackerman. Their theory uses
an information processing perspective to explain
the existence of a cognitive ability-motivation
ATI for both skill acquisition and task
performance of moderately difficult tasks.
Training Adult And Older
 ADULT LEARNING THEORY: Researches such
as Malcolm knowles noted that many principles
of learning and instructional methods were
developed with or for children, and argued that
teaching adults requires using a different set of
 A theory adult learning is called Andragogy. The
word was first used by Malcolm knowles for
developing – unified system of ‘Adult Learning’
 Theory of youth learning is called Pedagogy
 Andragogy is based on four assumptions about
differences between adults and children:Adults are self directed.
Adults are acquired a large amount of knowledge and
experience that can be tapped as a resource for learning.
3. Adults show a greater readiness to learn tasks that are
relevant to the roles they have assumed in life.
4. Adults are motivated to learn in order to solve problems
or address needs, and they expect to immediately apply
what they learn to these problems and needs.
 Gerontology: A Second approach to the question of
whether alder adults need to be trained differently is
rooted in gerontology and industrial gerontology.
 Gerontology is the scientific study of old age and ageing.
Recently research suggests some differences between
older and younger adults in certain learning situations.
 However, research is increasingly challenging the common
stereotypes concerning older adults’ ability to learn. A
consistent finding is that, although older adult can take
longer to learn new knowledge and skills and tend to make
more errors during learning, they can and do attain
performance levels equals to those achieved by young
 Five principles can be used for the effective training and
development of older adults:
Older workers can and do develop.
Supervisors need to realize that they may consciously or
consciously exclude older workers from training
opportunities because of un warranted negative attitudes.
For a training program to be effective for older workers,
attention must be paid to motivation, structure,
familiarity, organization, and time
The organizational climate must reward entry into training
and transfer of skills back to the job.
Training must be considered within an integrated career
A Learning style represents how individual choices
made during the learning process affect what
information is selected and how it is processed.
Some people are more comfortable and successful
with some training approaches (such as role
playing, lectures, video tapes)
 Mode of learning is individual’s orientation
towards gathering and processing information
during learning
 The Four basic modes of experiential learning
1. Concrete Experience – an intuitive preference
for learning through direct experience
2. Abstract conceptualization – A preference for
learning by thinking about an issue in
theoretical terms
Modes of learning …(contd)
3. Reflective Observation – A preference to learn by
watching and examining different points of view
to achieve an understanding.
4. Active experimentation - A preference for
learning something by actually doing it and
judging its practical value.
 Kolb identified 4 learning styles:
 Divergent – A combination of feeling and
watching emphasizing imagination, an
awareness of values and the ability to generate
alternative courses of action.
 Assimilation -A combination of thinking and
watching that stresses on inductive reasoning,
the integration of disparate observations into an
explanation, and the creation of theoretical
learning styles….(contd)
 Convergent - A combination of thinking and
doing with a focus on problem solving, decision
making and the practical application of ideas.
 Accommodative - A combination of feeling and
doing, this style is usually demonstrated by
accomplishment, executing plans, and
involvement in new experiences
Learning strategies represent “the behavior and
thoughts a learner engages in during
These strategies can be categorized as:
 Rehearsal strategies
 Elaboration strategies
 Organizational strategies
 Comprehension monitoring strategies
 Affective strategies
proposed seven primary perceptual preferences:
 Print
 Visual
 aural
 Interactive
 Tactile
 Kinesthetic
 Olfactory

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