heizer_om10_ch03 RRr

Report
3
Project Management
PowerPoint presentation to accompany
Heizer and Render
Operations Management, 10e
Principles of Operations Management, 8e
PowerPoint slides by Jeff Heyl
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-1
Examples of Projects
 Building Construction
 Research Project
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-2
Project Management
Activities
 Planning
 Objectives
 Scheduling
 Resources
 Project activities
 Work break-down
structure
 Start & end times
 Network
 Organization
 Controlling
 Monitor, compare, revise, action
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-3
Project Management
Techniques
 Gantt chart
 Critical Path Method
(CPM)
 Program Evaluation
and Review
Technique (PERT)
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-4
A Simple Gantt Chart
J
F
M
Time
A M J
J
A
S
Design
Prototype
Test
Revise
Production
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-5
PERT and CPM
 Network techniques
 Developed in 1950’s
 CPM by DuPont for chemical plants (1957)
 PERT by Booz, Allen & Hamilton with the
U.S. Navy, for Polaris missile (1958)
 Consider precedence relationships and
interdependencies
 Each uses a different estimate of
activity times
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-6
Six Steps PERT & CPM
1. Define the project and prepare the
work breakdown structure
2. Develop relationships among the
activities - decide which activities
must precede and which must
follow others
3. Draw the network connecting all of
the activities
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-7
Six Steps PERT & CPM
4. Assign time and/or cost estimates
to each activity
5. Compute the longest time path
through the network – this is called
the critical path
6. Use the network to help plan,
schedule, monitor, and control the
project
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3-8
A Comparison of AON and
AOA Network Conventions
Activity on
Node (AON)
(a) A
C
B
A
(b)
C
B
B
(c)
A
C
Activity
Meaning
A comes before
B, which comes
before C.
A and B must both
be completed
before C can start.
B and C cannot
begin until A is
completed.
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
Activity on
Arrow (AOA)
A
B
C
A
B
C
B
A
Figure 3.5
C
3-9
Determining the Project
Schedule
Perform a Critical Path Analysis
 The critical path is the longest path
through the network
 The critical path is the shortest time in
which the project can be completed
 Any delay in critical path activities
delays the project
 Critical path activities have no slack
time
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 10
Determining the Project
Schedule
Perform a Critical Path Analysis
Activity
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
Description
Time (weeks)
Build internal components
2
Modify roof and floor
3
Construct collection stack
2
Pour concrete and install frame
4
Build high-temperature burner
4
Install pollution control system
3
Install air pollution device
5
Inspect and test
2
Total Time (weeks)
25
Table 3.2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 11
Determining the Project
Schedule
Perform a Critical Path Analysis
Earliest start (ES) = earliest time at which an activity can
Activity Description
Time (weeks)
start, assuming all predecessors
have
A
Build internal
components
2
been completed
Modify
roof and
floor
3
EarliestBfinish (EF)
= earliest
time
at which an activity can
be finished
C
Construct
collection stack
2
D start (LS)
Pour=concrete
and
4
Latest
latest time
at install
which frame
an activity can
start so as to not delay
E
Build high-temperature
burnerthe completion
4
of thecontrol
entire project
F
Install time
pollution
system
3
LatestGfinish (LF)
= latest
time bydevice
which an activity has
Install
air pollution
5 to
be finished so as to not delay the
H
Inspect and test
2
completion time of the entire project
Total Time (weeks)
25
Table 3.2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 12
Determining the Project
Schedule
Perform a Critical Path Analysis
Activity Name
or Symbol
A
Earliest
Start
ES
EF
Latest
Start
LS
LF
Figure 3.10
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
2
Earliest
Finish
Latest
Finish
Activity Duration
3 - 13
Forward Pass
Begin at starting event and work forward
Earliest Start Time Rule:
 If an activity has only a single immediate
predecessor, its ES equals the EF of the
predecessor
 If an activity has multiple immediate
predecessors, its ES is the maximum of
all the EF values of its predecessors
ES = Max {EF of all immediate predecessors}
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 14
Forward Pass
Begin at starting event and work forward
Earliest Finish Time Rule:
 The earliest finish time (EF) of an activity
is the sum of its earliest start time (ES)
and its activity time
EF = ES + Activity time
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 15
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
ES
EF = ES + Activity time
Start
0
0
0
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 16
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
EF of A =
ES of A + 2
ES
of A
0
Start
0
A
0
2
0
2
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 17
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
0
Start
0
2
EF of B =
ES of B + 3
ES
of B
0
B
0
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 18
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
C
4
2
0
0
0
B
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 19
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
C
4
2
0
= Max (2, 3)
0
D
3
0
B
7
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
4
3 - 20
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
C
4
2
0
0
0
B
3
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
D
7
4
3 - 21
ES/EF Network for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
C
4
4
2
F
7
3
0
4
0
E
8
13
4
0
B
3
3
3
D
4
7
H
15
2
G
8
13
5
Figure 3.11
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 22
Backward Pass
Begin with the last event and work backwards
Latest Finish Time Rule:
 If an activity is an immediate predecessor
for just a single activity, its LF equals the
LS of the activity that immediately follows it
 If an activity is an immediate predecessor
to more than one activity, its LF is the
minimum of all LS values of all activities
that immediately follow it
LF = Min {LS of all immediate following activities}
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 23
Backward Pass
Begin with the last event and work backwards
Latest Start Time Rule:
 The latest start time (LS) of an activity is
the difference of its latest finish time (LF)
and its activity time
LS = LF – Activity time
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 24
LS/LF Times for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
C
4
4
2
F
7
3
0
4
0
E
8
13
13
4
0
B
3
H
2
15
15
LS = LF
D – Activity time
G
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
7
4
8
13
5
LF = EF
of Project
3 - 25
LS/LF Times for
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
C
4
4
10
2
F
3
7
13
E
0
8 of
LF =4 Min(LS
following activity)
0
13
13
4
0
B
3
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
D
4
7
H
2
15
15
G
8
13
5
3 - 26
LS/LF Times for
LF = Min(4, 10)
Milwaukee Paper
0
A
2
2
2
0
Start
2
C
2
4
4
4
10
0
4
4
0
0
B
3
3
3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
D
4
7
E
4
F
3
7
13
8
13
8
13
H
2
15
15
G
8
13
8
13
5
3 - 27
LS/LF Times for
Milwaukee Paper
0
0
0
0
Start
0
A
2
2
2
2
2
C
2
4
4
4
10
0
4
0
4
0
1
B
3
3
3
4
4
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
D
4
E
4
F
3
7
13
8
13
8
13
H
2
15
15
G
7
8
13
8
8
13
5
3 - 28
Computing Slack Time
After computing the ES, EF, LS, and LF times
for all activities, compute the slack or free
time for each activity
 Slack is the length of time an activity can
be delayed without delaying the entire
project
Slack = LS – ES
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
or
Slack = LF – EF
3 - 29
Computing Slack Time
Earliest Earliest
Start
Finish
Activity
ES
EF
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
0
0
2
3
4
4
8
13
2
3
4
7
8
7
13
15
Latest
Start
LS
Latest
Finish
LF
Slack
LS – ES
On
Critical
Path
0
1
2
4
4
10
8
13
2
4
4
8
8
13
13
15
0
1
0
1
0
6
0
0
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Table 3.3
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 30
Critical Path for
Milwaukee Paper
0
0
0
0
Start
0
A
2
2
2
2
2
C
2
4
4
4
10
0
4
0
4
0
1
B
3
3
3
4
4
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
D
4
E
4
F
3
7
13
8
13
8
13
H
2
15
15
G
7
8
13
8
8
13
5
3 - 31
ES – EF Gantt Chart
for Milwaukee Paper
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
A Build internal
components
B Modify roof and floor
C Construct collection
stack
D Pour concrete and
install frame
E Build hightemperature burner
F Install pollution
control system
G Install air pollution
device
H Inspect and test
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 32
LS – LF Gantt Chart
for Milwaukee Paper
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10 11 12 13 14 15 16
A Build internal
components
B Modify roof and floor
C Construct collection
stack
D Pour concrete and
install frame
E Build hightemperature burner
F Install pollution
control system
G Install air pollution
device
H Inspect and test
© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall
3 - 33

similar documents