LTWP Location

Lake Turkana Wind Power Project:
Contributions and Lessons Learned
Oslo, 28 August 2014
Aldwych Overview
• Aldwych was formed in 2004 to invest in, construct, own and operate
power generation, transmission and distribution/ supply businesses in
sub-Saharan Africa
• Aldwych founders and management have international power industry
experience and have successfully financed or re-financed twenty power
projects worldwide totalling some 11,000MW and US$3.75bn, in both the
developed and the developing world
• Aldwych has completed project transactions in Zambia, South Africa,
and Kenya and has advanced projects in Nigeria, Tanzania, Ghana, and
South Sudan
• Investors include the Pan-African Infrastructure Development Fund,
FMO, Emerging Africa Infrastructure Fund as well as management
LTWP Project Summary
€623 million, 310MW wind farm, located in northern Kenya, near Lake Turkana
The largest single wind farm in Africa and largest private investment in Kenya
Consists of 365 Vestas V52 (850 kV) wind turbines, overhead electric grid connection
system and high-voltage sub-station
Includes upgrading of 204km of existing road and village
Double circuit 400kV, 436 km transmission line (financed by Spanish and Kenyan
government funds) to connect to national grid
In development since 2006 and originated by KP&P; joined by Aldwych in 2009
20-year energy-only PPA with KPLC, Government letter of support backing KPLC’s
Equity includes Norfund and Aldwych as well as KP&P, FinnFund and IFU
Mandated lead debt arrangers: African Development Bank, Nedbank and Standard Bank
Financing documents signed in March 2014
PRG: African Development Bank; breach of contract insurance: ATI
Aldwych will oversee construction and will operate the plant and will be the largest
Project Location
The proposed project is a 310 MW
Wind Park to be constructed
approximately 450km North of
The wind farm site, covering
40,000 acres (162km2), is located in
Loiyangalani District, Marsabit
County approximately 50km north
of South Horr Township.
Wind Regime
• The site lies between 450m at the shore of Lake Turkana and
2,300m above sea level at the top of Mt. Kulal. Strong predictable
wind streams are generated between Lake Turkana (with
relatively constant temperature) and the desert hinterland (with
steep temperature fluctuations)
• Wind streams pass through the valley which effectively acts as a
funnel (the Turkana Corridor low level jet stream). The Turkana
wind blows in a south-east direction all year round
• Data collected and analysed since 2007 indicate that site has
some of the best wind resources in Africa, with consistent,
unidirectional, daily wind speeds averaging at least 11
meters/second which will create a 62% capacity factor
Contributions to Kenya (1)
1. Lowering cost of Generation: the tariff at €7.52 cents/kWh ($10 cents)
compared to marginal cost of power in Kenya which is $18 cents/kWh
2. Providing significant power: will be 17% of Kenya’s power generated
3. Environmental standards: IFC and Equator Principles met with special
attention to monitoring during construction
4. CDM/Carbon offset: It is expected that average annual emission
reductions of 728,483 t CO2 per year will be generated during the first
crediting period and is certified UNFCCC Gold Standard
5. Transmission Line Support:
• LTWP has dedicated a team for over 2 years to set Ketraco policy and
acquire the 436km way-leaves (2,300 plots) to IFC standards
• This is supported by a €625,000 grant from Norfund
Contributions to Kenya (2)
5. Macroeconomic contribution:
• Will replace Kenya’s to spend of approximately €120 million per year on
importing fuel
• The LTWP tax contribution will be €22.7 million per year and €450 million
over the life of the investment
• Jobs - During the 32-month construction period, up to 2,500 jobs followed
by over 200 full time jobs throughout the period of operations
6. Community:
• A CSR programme is being finalised based on extensive input from the
nomadic and pastoral communities; LTWP will use a combination of
revenue from carbon credits and profit to form and fund a trust, which
will ensure a well targeted plan over the 20 years of the investment
• 204km year round road will open up trade to the area
Lessons Learned
1. Ensure deal fundamentals are best for the country
2. Must have and maintain political will
3. Pay attention to community and county government
4. Oversubscribe debt so lenders do not dictate the terms
5. Align incentives with developers
6. Ensure supportive equity structure
7. Get on the ground alongside your partners
8. Predict time and resources required and triple the estimate
9. Have patience – pioneering deals are hard
10. Find patient partners and work hard at expectation management
Next Steps
First equity disbursements in September
Construction to commence shortly thereafter
First 50-90MW due in Q3 2016
Full commissioning of 310MW in Q2 2017

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