FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE: IDIOMS, ANALOGIES, SIMILES, AND METAPHORS An Introduction Figurative vs. Literal Language Teachers commonly say, “Come in quietly, take a seat, and get started immediately on your work.” That is exactly what is required of you and that is literal. Teachers may say, “Come in as quietly as a mouse.” They don’t want you to really act like a mouse; it is meant to emphasize the request for quiet or add flavor to the sentence. That is a figure of speech— figurative language. Figurative vs. Literal Language Your parents surely ask you to clean your room on occasion. “Please clean your room today.” “I want your room as clean as a whistle by the time I get home.” Which one is figurative? The second one! (And seriously, how clean is a whistle???) Figurative vs. Literal Language Let’s pretend that you and your friends are at Me n’ Ed’s. Suddenly your best friend says, “You are such a hog! I wanted another piece of pizza, but it is all gone!” This is another example of figurative language. Your friend does not see you as a swine, yet someone who ate a lot of food— just as a hog may do. Literally would be, “You sure ate a lot!” Figurative vs. Literal Language Wikipedia states: “Literal language refers to words that do not deviate from their defined meaning. Figurative language refers to words, and groups of words, that exaggerate or alter the usual meanings of the component words.” Simply stated: Literal means you say what you mean. Figurative means you use words to exaggerate, emphasize, or add flavor; you do not mean exactly what you say. Figurative vs. Literal Language Now turn to your neighbor and explain to him/her the difference between figurative and literal. Reminder: Literal means you say what you mean. Figurative means you use words to exaggerate, emphasize, or add flavor; you do not mean exactly what you say. Using comparisons, each of these add spice to our speaking, reading, and writing. IDIOMS, ANALOGIES, SIMILES, AND METAPHORS A speech form or an expression of a given language that is peculiar to itself grammatically or cannot be understood from the individual meanings of its elements, as in keep tabs on. Wikipedia IDIOMS Idiom Examples Rome was not built in a day; be patient. She is all ears; she never misses anything said! Joy sure has a nose for news. Mr. Smith has eyes in the back of his head. It’s raining cats and dogs. Let’s kill two birds with one stone and get both of these jobs done at the same time. Keep your eyes peeled for a Starbuck’s. That experience left a bad taste in my mouth. When I heard the bad news, I tried to keep a stiff upper lip rather than crying. Idioms If you visit a foreign country, beware of idioms! They can confuse the non-native! If you know someone new to America, be helpful and explain idiom meanings. They can leave a person bewildered! Here is an excellent source for more examples. http://www.idiomsite.com/ Try these on for size! (Not literally!) Idioms Remember: Idioms have an entirely different meaning than the sentence states. While visiting France, I was taken to the most beautiful, exquisite restaurant several stories high, led by narrow, winding staircases. The rooms were decorated like the time near the height of the Roman Empire. I said to my French friend, “A meal here must cost a pretty penny!” He looked at me like I’d lost my marbles. What did I really mean? (And did I really have any marbles to lose?) Idiom Practice! Your turn! Find the two idioms in this passage. Don't react when the bully is taunting you. Otherwise you will just be playing into his hands. He is trying to push your buttons to get a reaction out of you. Check your answers! Did you find them? Don't react when the bully is taunting you. Otherwise you will just be playing into his hands. He is trying to push your buttons to get a reaction out of you. More Idiom Practice! Find the two idioms in this passage. Tim decided that he would start his own lawn mowing business. Currently he was working for a man who paid him 35% of what the homeowner paid. Tim was tired of playing second fiddle to a man who was taking advantage of him. Unfortunately, he had to start his own business from scratch, finding new customers. Check your answers! Did you find them? Tim decided that he would start his own lawn mowing business. Currently he was working for a man who paid him 35% of what the homeowner paid. Tim was tired of playing second fiddle to a man who was taking advantage of him. Unfortunately, he had to start his own business from scratch, finding new customers. Last Idiom Practice! Find the two idioms in this passage. Giving in to peer pressure and trying cigarettes, drugs, or alcohol is dangerous. If you do, you are playing with fire. It is a good rule of thumb to avoid anything that is bad for your body or is mind-altering. Check your answers! Did you find them? Giving in to peer pressure and trying cigarettes, drugs, or alcohol is dangerous. If you do, you are playing with fire. It is a good rule of thumb to avoid anything that is bad for your body or is mind-altering. A comparison of the similarities between two otherwise dissimilar things. Wikipedia ANALOGIES Analogy Examples Pairs of words with relationships: Dog is to bark as cat is to meow. Stop is to go as above is to below. Son is to boy as daughter is to girl. Nose is to smell as ear is to hear. Up is to down as in is to out. Water is to pool as air is to ball Sun is to hot as snow is to cold. Analogies Analogies are used to compare things. Sometimes they are useful in keeping your mind sharp—kind of like puzzles. Here is a game worth trying! See if you can spot the right words! http://www.sadlieroxford.com/phonics/analogies/analogiesx.htm If that one is too fast for you, try this one: http://www.quia.com/cb/7146.html Note: This type of analogy is often seen on state tests Analogies Other times analogies are used to help another person to understand a situation better. Let’s say that you are having a hard time understanding why your friend is so upset about losing her purse. Finally she says, “It is like losing myself. Everything that is about me was in that purse!” This helps you understand the significance of the loss. Analogies Think about a time when you lost something important, you were especially excited, or you felt extreme sadness. Describe it to your partner, using an analogy to help him/her understand your feelings. Want more examples? When my beloved dog passed away, I had the same feelings as if my heart had been ripped out. The Huns attacked and spread fear. Today we see terrorists attack and people feel that same fear. Analogy Practice! Read the poem. Day's Journey by Vivian Gilbert Zabel The day dawns as a journey. One leaves the station on a train, Rushing past other places Without a pause or stop, Watching faces blur as they pass, No time to say goodbye. On and on the train does speed Until the line's end one sees, Another sunset down Without any lasting memories. Analogy Practice! Your turn! What is the analogy in the poem? What is being compared to the passing of a day? If you said, “A train speeding by,” you are right! If so, you deserve a pat on the back, or a word of congratulations. Both serve the same purpose, right? Just as analogies do. They use comparisons to help you to understand situations or relationships. school work: school; homework: home no homework; day full of sunshine A figure of speech in which two essentially unlike things are compared, often in a phrase introduced by like or as. Wikipedia SIMILES More Simile Examples His mind is as sharp as a tack. When he is in his workshop, he is as busy as a bee. That old table is as sturdy as an ox. Her stare was as cold as ice. Last night I slept like a log. Her pink hair stood out like a sore thumb. The movie line was as slow as molasses in January. She sings like a bird. Yesterday the two boys fought like cats and dogs. That explanation sure is as clear as mud. Simile in Poetry Practice: Find the Similes A Red, Red Rose O My Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June; O My Luve's like the melodie That's sweetly played in tune. As fair art thou, my bonnie lass, So deep in luve am I; And I will luve thee still, my dear, Till a' the seas gang dry, my dear While the sands o' life shall run. And fare thee weel, my only luve, And fare thee weel, awhile! And I will come again, my luve Tho' it ware ten thousand mile! Robert Burns Simile in Poetry Practice Did you find the following? If so, well done! 1. O My Luve's like a red, red rose, That's newly sprung in June; 2. O My Luve's like the melodie That's sweetly played in tune. Simile in Poetry Practice Find the Similes Flint An emerald is as green as grass, A ruby red as blood; A sapphire shines as blue as heaven; A flint lies in the mud. A diamond is a brilliant stone, To catch the world's desire; An opal holds a fiery spark; But a flint holds a fire. Christina Rossetti Simile in Poetry Practice Did you find the following? If so, you are as smart as a whip! 1. An emerald is as green as grass 2. A ruby red as blood 3. A sapphire shines as blue as heaven Comparisons that show how two things that are not alike in most ways are similar in one important way. Unlike similes that use the words "as" or "like" to make a comparison, metaphors state that something is something else. Wikipedia METAPHORS Metaphor Examples His mind is a sharp tack. When he is in his workshop, he is a busy bee. That old table is a sturdy ox. Her stare was as cold ice. The movie line was slow molasses in January. That explanation is clear mud. Do these sentences look familiar? Indeed, they do. They were used for simile examples. But what was left out? as and like! Ta-da! Simile to metaphor in one easy step More Metaphor Examples "A man may break a word with you, sir, and words are but wind." (William Shakespeare, The Comedy of Errors) "The rain came down in long knitting needles." (Enid Bagnold, National Velvet) "The streets were a furnace, the sun an executioner.“ (Cynthia Ozick, "Rosa") "Life is a journey, travel it well." (United Airlines) Metaphor Practice! Time for some Battleship fun! Go to this internet site. Ready? Aim! Fire! http://www.quia.com/ba/42131.html?AP_ran d=132026281 Metaphor Poetry Practice Find the Metaphor Peace by StarFields The wind is now a roaring, smashing monster of destruction, raking all man's work from the valleys, from the vales, and sends them spinning, broken flying but all of that is not its core, its center is in truth eternal stillness bright blue skies and all you hear are gentle whispers far away and unimportant. Metaphor Poetry Practice Did you find the metaphor? Yep! Right there at the beginning of the poem! The wind is now a roaring, smashing monster of destruction Metaphor Poetry Practice Discover the Metaphor Fog by Carl Sandburg The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on. Metaphor Poetry Practice What is the Metaphor? Yes! The fog is a cat The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on. Metaphor Poetry Practice Visit this site for two poems about family. http://www.teachervision.fen.com/poetry/lite rary-techniques/5453.html Discuss the metaphors you find. What metaphors would you give your family members? Figurative Language... IDIOMS, ANALOGIES, SIMILES, AND METAPHORS Now, let’s strike while the iron is hot! Time for some independent work! Your work pages will include identifying Idioms Analogies Similes Metaphors Remember: No monkey business; zip your lips; stick to your guns; and call it a day when you are done THE END ???