Settling the Great Basin If you do not turn in your book on tomorrow, the day of the test, you will be calling home for it. If you remember it, you will get an extra treat! This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Take out your packet and spend 15 minutes working on incomplete items. Staple your packet. Study Guide Newspaper article Graph Bubble organizer (might be on the back of the graph paper) Settlement map Where should your backpack be? This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Take out your study guide and the Deseret News papers (notes and final draft). You have 5 minutes to finish your final draft. If you are done or get done, work on the essay portion of your study guide. Where should your backpack be? History Objective – We will prepare for tomorrow’s exam by reviewing the study guide. Language Objective – We will listen to, give answers and write the important details from the activity. Behavior Objective – Participation & Work Ethic: We will listen to each questions, answer the ones given to us, and write the important details in our notes. Question #1 Why did Mormons choose the Salt Lake Valley to settle instead of other sites in the west (like California)? Question #2 How did the discovery of gold in California benefit the settlers in Utah? Question #3 Why did Mormon leaders send members of their church to begin settlements in other areas of the Great Basin? 1st detail 1st detail 1st detail 2nd detail 2nd detail 2nd detail 3rd detail 3rd detail 3rd detail 1. What were the three most important tasks facing the Mormon pioneers once they arrived in Salt Lake? 1)Planting fields 2) Building homes and structures 3) Exploring the valley 2. Why were the first cabins built inside the Old Fort? To protect them from Indians, wild animals, and to keep their own animals safe. 2) 3) 3. Salt Lake City was organized into a grid. Where did the Mormons get the idea of a grid pattern? From Nauvoo and the ancient Romans. 4. What were some of the problems the Mormon settlers had to overcome in the first year? 1) 2) 3) 4) Crickets Early winter Starvation Cattle ate all the crops except potatoes. 5. Why is the seagull Utah’s state bird? When the Mormon’s crops were being destroyed by crickets, the seagulls came and ate some of the crickets in some area, which helped to save some of the people’s food supply. 6. Why were the streets in Mormon communities so wide? So a wagon with a team of 8 oxen could turn around in the street easily. 7. How did the California gold rush benefit Utahns? 1) 49s brought more supplies than they could use, and sold them to Utahns for fresh food. 2) 49ers worked on farms in the winter. 3) They also paid to have their wagons repaired. Their money boosted the economy. 8. What is the difference between emigrant and immigrant? An immigrant enters into a country, an emigrant exits a country. 9. What was the Perpetual Emigrating Fund? The fund was created to help poor Mormon immigrants get to Utah by loaning supplies, etc. 10. Where did most Mormon immigrants come from during this time period? Canada, British Isles, Scandinavia, Germany and other countries. 11. How were people chosen to settle new places? People were chosen by their skills so their community would have all the people they needed to be selfsufficient, i.e. blacksmith, doctor, etc. 12. Why did Mormons build so many settlements? Different settlements were created for specific purposes, like St. George farmed cotton, Las Vegas was a mission to Native Americans, and others were for trading like Carson Valley. 13. What were some of the characteristics of early Mormon communities? List four. 1)They were all laid out using a grid. 2)They all had wide streets. 3) Businesses were at the center of town, farms outside of town. 4)Irrigation ditches ran along roads to provide water. 14. What was the main occupation of most settlers? Farming 15. Why was life in the settlements considered unique? 1)Polygamy 2)Church was the government 3) Communal lifestyle 4)Isolated from country 15. Why did Mormons participate in plural marriage (polygamy)? Viewed as a renewed commandment from the Old Testament in the Bible. 17. How did the Mormon communities get food during these early years in Utah? (2-3 ways) 1) 2) 3) 4) Farming Gathering Hunting Sharing 18. How did communities celebrate and what did they celebrate? They held parades, picnics, had dances and sang. They celebrated many of the typical American holidays, like the 4th of July, but also Utah centered days like Pioneer Day. 19. Who was Peter Maughan and what did he do? He was the leader of the first group of settlers to come to Cache Valley, and he helped settle Wellsville. 20. What happened in Manti from 1849-50, and how were Walkara and Isaac Morley involved? Chief Walkara invited the pioneers to settle in the Sanpete Valley and Isaac Morley lead a group of pioneers there. Winter began before they were able to build shelters, but they got supplies from SLC and were able to survive. 21. What was the State of Deseret? The first attempt at gaining statehood by the Mormon communities in Utah. Deseret was very large, surrounded by mountains and deserts, and had access to the ocean and valuable minerals. 22. Why did Brigham Young want such a large state? To protect the Mormon settlements and make them self-sufficient. It also would have helped keep nonMormon communities away. It was almost a mini country. 23. How did the Great Compromise help Utah become a territory? The U.S. was split over the issue of slavery and the southern states threatened secession and war if slavery’s continued existence wasn’t guaranteed. When California wanted to become a state, it set off a fight over the issue. In the end California was allowed to become a free state, but all the territories had to vote on whether they would be a free or slave territory. Utah became a territory because of this compromise. 24. Utah’s territorial government was mostly run by the ______________ government. federal 25. Why did Congress name the new territory “Utah”? They thought that Deseret sounded too much like desert and decided to name the territory after its largest Indian tribe. 26. Who was Millard Fillmore and what did he do in this chapter? He was the president of the U.S. at the time and sign the law that made Utah a territory. 27. What was Utah Territory’s first capital city? Fillmore 28. Who was Brigham Young and what happened to him in this chapter? He was the leader of the Mormons. He helped establish many settlements and was eventually appointed governor of the Utah Territory. 29. What were some disadvantages to have Utah become a territory rather than a state? Territories could not vote for president and could only partially choose their local officials. They could only make part of the laws that governed them and did not have a voting representative in Congress. 30. Why did people use handcarts to travel West? It was cheaper than using wagons. 31. How many people came by handcart to Utah? About 3,000 out of the 70,000 pioneers that came during the first 20 years of settlement. This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Bell Activity Review your study guide and vocabulary. Make sure your essay organizer is finished. Where should your backpack be? 8. How did most early immigrants from other countries come to Utah? They came first by ship, then by either wagons, handcarts or freight companies to Utah. How did Brigham Young help other Mormons get to Utah? Brigham Young created the Perpetual Emigration Fund which loaned animals, wagons, money, and supplies to immigrants who would pay the loan back later. This is a no gum class. Please dispose of it properly! Bell Activity Have your study guide and a pencil out and be ready to work when the bell rings. Review your study guide and vocabulary. Make sure your essay organizer is finished. Where should your backpack be? Essays #1 Why did Mormons choose the Salt Lake Valley to settle instead of other sites in the west (like California)? #2 How did the discovery of gold in California benefit the settlers in Utah? #3 Why did Mormon leaders send members of their church to begin settlements in other areas of the Great Basin?