People, Activity, Context, Technologies Ebba Thora Hvannberg Objective • To be able to analyse situations with respect to People, Activities, Technologies and Context (PACT) to scope design projects. PACT examples • People use technologies to undertake activities in contexts. – For example, teenagers use mobile (cell) phones to send text messages to their friends whilst sitting on a bus. – Secretaries use Microsoft Word to write documents in a firm of solicitors. – Air traffic controllers work together to ensure the smooth operation of an airport. – A woman in her seventies presses various buttons to set the intruder alarms in her house. – People use MySpace to contact with other people when sitting in an Internet café. Activites and technologies Requirements Activities in context People Opportunities Technologies People • Physical differences such as height, weight, disabilities, visual and hearing impairment. • In Europe there are 2.8 million wheelchair users so designers must consider where technologies are placed, and many people have dexterity impairments involving the use of their fingers. – What if Apple designed ATMs? Psychological differences • • • • • Memory Spacial intelligence Communication Languages Attention Mental models Activities • First, you need to decide on the goal of the activity • Temporal aspects (1-4) – How regular or seldom an activity is – Peaks, time pressure – Continous work – Response time • Collaboration (5) • Complexity(6) Triaging of casualities Activities • Safety dependent (7 og 8) – Can work lead to injuiry or death? – What consequences do errors and mistakes have? • Nature of content (9 og 10) – What type of data are processed? – What steps are executed? Context • Physical context – Inside / outside – Wide/narrow, clean/dirty – How is the whether? • Social context – Who is there to help? – Alone or in public Different work environment In a closed room At a window Organizational context • Context of an organization – Hierarchy of power – Division of work – Different paths of communication and management A technological environment • Ways and media which help us to finish an activity • Which content do you work with • Technology development is fast and hence it is important to be able to distinguish technology from other factors such as actvities, context and people. People Activities Context Technologies • In design you need to take into consideration all these factors (PACT) • Who uses, what is he or she doing, in which context and what technology does he/she have? Challenge • Write down a quick PACT analysis for a point of sale system for a café at a motorway service station.