Cooling Technology

Report
Data Center Thermal Management
and Efficiency
Jay Ries
Regional Sales Manager
Liebert Thermal Management
Emerson Network Power
Agenda
 Where is energy consumed in the data center?
 Energy consumption example
– Cooling energy consumption breakdown
 Strategies for saving energy
– Low cost strategies
– Medium cost strategies
– Higher cost strategies
 Taking it a step further (beyond cooling)
 Summary
3
Where is Energy Consumed in the
Data Center?
40%
35%
30%
25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%
52% is consumed by IT
equipment
48% is consumed by
power and cooling
support
Energy Consumption Example
Energy Consumption Example
Baseline Building design
 Existing building
−
Limitation to physical changes that can be made
−
Best suited for modifications to existing equipment
−
Full equipment replacement is a last resort
 1MW of facility power usage (all data center)
Baseline Cooling design
 Centrifugal water cooled chiller
 No economization
 Standard computer room cooling units
−
No variable speed fans or advanced controls
−
Return air control
−
45° F chilled water
−
72° F return air, 50% RH
Energy Consumption Example
Energy Consumption Example
Power Usage





Processors – 150kW
Other Services – 150kW
Server Power Supply – 140kW
Storage – 40kW
Communication Equipment – 40kW





Cooling – 380kW
each variable will have an impact on the others
UPS – 50kW
MV Transformer and Switchgear – 30kW
Lighting – 10kW
PDU – 10kW
Cooling is the only area that will be modified. In the real world,
 IT Power Usage = 520kW
 Support Power Usage = 480kW
 Total Facility Power Usage = 1000kW
 Annualized Facility PUE = 1.92
 Work our way to 1.35
Cooling Energy Consumption Breakdown
Air Cooled System
Water Cooled System
Chilled Water System
Low Cost Strategies
1. Implementing best practices
2. Adjust the unit control methods
– Dew point control
– Unit operating range
3. Change to supply air control
4. Running at higher chilled water temperatures
Low Cost Strategies
1. Implementing Best Practices
 If you have a raised floor, use it properly. Underfloor
resistance wastes energy.
 Utilize hot aisle / cold aisle, regardless if you have a
raised floor
Low Cost Strategies
1. Implementing Best Practices
 Get air where it is supposed to go.
– Blanking panels
– Fix unplanned outside infiltrations and any unecessary gaps in the
raised floor
– Return plenums to the cooling unit
 Isolate the room, particularly if you want to control
humidity
Low Cost Strategies
2. Adjust Unit Settings

Dew Point
– Standard design points used to be 72° return air temperature
–
–
and 50% relative humidity (RH)
New, more aggressive design points can be 90°+ return air
temperature and an unspecified relative humidity
Why shouldn’t you fix at 50% relative humidity (RH)
• Dew point @ 72°, 50% = 52°
• Dew point @ 95°, 50% = 74°
–
If the return temperature is increased at a fixed RH, the dew
point will rise, requiring the equipment to waste energy to
remove moisture that didn’t need to be there in the first place
Low Cost Strategies
2. Adjust Unit Settings
 Unit operation settings
–
Expanding the operating range for the temperature and
humidity keeps unit components from cycling too frequently.
Higher return air temperatures allow CRAH units to run
more efficiently
–
•
•
•
Capacity increase up to 70% for chilled water units
Capacity increase up to 50% for compressor based units
The more efficiently the units operate, the fewer that are
required to control the space, saving energy.
Low Cost Strategies
2. Adjust Unit Settings
Increased Capacity at Higher Temps
Low Cost Strategies
3. Supply Air Control
 Supplies a consistent temperature to the cold aisle
 Saves energy because it allows the return air temperature to be
increased, allowing the CRAH unit to run more efficiently.
Low Cost Strategies
4. Running At Higher Water Temperatures
 45° chilled water temperature has been the standard design point for
many years
 Higher chilled water temperatures are starting to become more
prevalent
 Why? At higher temperatures, there are huge potential savings on
the chiller
–
For every 1 degree increase in the chilled water supply temperature, a
2% energy savings can be realized on the chiller plant
–
–
45°chilled water = Baseline
55°chilled water = 20% energy savings
Low Cost Strategies
The Results of Implementation
 Applying Low Cost Strategies
– Changes to cooling system
•
•
•
•
Best practices implemented
Supply air control
50° F chilled water
85° F return air with dew point control
Total cooling power usage drops from 380kW to
314kW. The number of units stay the same, but
some units can be turned off.
 Support Power Usage = 480kW
414kW
 Total Facility Power Usage = 1000kW 934kW
 Annualized Facility PUE = 1.92
1.79
Medium Cost Strategies
1. Variable speed fan retrofits (EC Fan / VFD)
2. Aisle containment
3. Control retrofits
4. Rack level sensors
Medium Cost Strategies
1. Variable speed fan retrofits (EC Fan / VFD)
 Floor-mount cooling fans typically run at 100% rated rpm
 By utilizing variable speed technology, fan speed can be varied based
upon room conditions
 Energy savings based on a single 10HP motor
18
Fan Speed
Energy
Consumed
100%
8.1kWH
90%
5.9kWH
27%
80%
4.2kWH
48%
70%
2.8kWH
65%
60%
1.8kWH
78%
Savings
Medium Cost Strategies
2. Aisle Containment
 Allows for proper air separation
 Able to be done either the hot or cold aisle, though it is easier to
retrofit the cold aisle of an existing room
 Physical containment varies from simple curtains to a pre-fabricated
system designed to match the racks.
Medium Cost Strategies
2. Aisle Containment
Containment Strategies
 Contained hot aisle
–
–
–
–
Requires full containment to trap hot air
Can be difficult to retrofit in perimeter designs
Easier to retrofit in row cooling designs
Overhead fire suppression concerns on full containment
 Contained cold aisle
– Multiple containment options
• Doors only
• Curtains only
• Full containment
– Can be easier to retrofit in all cooling designs
– Overhead fire suppression concerns on full containment
Medium Cost Strategies
3. Control Retrofits
 Allows for upgraded control schemes that save energy
 New controls allow units to be networked together
– Give more visibility of full system
– Eliminate fighting of units, - one cooling while one is heating
Medium Cost Strategies
4. Remote Sensors
 Usually associated with a control retrofit or a designed scheme through
a building management system
 Increased visibility and quicker reaction to changes at the rack
 Generally applied with supply air sensors
“Bath tub effect”
Low + Medium Cost Strategies
The Results of Implementation
 Applying Low + Medium Cost Strategies
 Changes to cooling system
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Best practices implemented
Supply air control
+55° F chilled water
Total cooling power usage
drops from 314kW to
184kW. All units are now
on, running at a reduced
speed.
+90° F return air with dew point control
+ Remote sensors
+ Aisle containment
+ Variable speed fans
+ Control retrofits
 Support Power Usage = 414kW
284kW
 Total Facility Power Usage = 934kW
 Annualized Facility PUE = 1.79
804kW
1.55
ROI is generally less than 1 year for these strategies
Higher Cost Strategies (Major Capital Expenditures)
1. Bringing cooling closer to the source
2. Variable capacity compressors
3. Economization
– Air economizers
– Water economizers
– Refrigerant Economizers
Higher Cost Strategies
1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source
Rack-based
configuration



Rear door
configuration
Row-based
configuration
Bring the cooling closer minimizes the need for large fans, reducing
energy
Some rear door designs don’t have fans, instead utilizing the server
fans to move the air
Generally produce a better sensible cooling to power ratio than a
typical system – more cooling for less energy
Higher Cost Strategies
1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source
Rack Based Solutions
Pump Refrigerant Technology
Dew Point Controlled
Pumped Refrigerant Cooling
Base Infrastructure (160 kw)
Cooling Modules (mix and match)
Higher Cost Strategies
1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source
Rear Door Solutions
Refrigerant Based Rear Door
•
•
•
•
•
Refrigerant based, rear door heat exchanger
A rear door with 10kW to 40kW of cooling
Connect up to 16 doors onto a single pumped refrigerant loop
Designed to accommodate various racks
Energy story – passive door (no fans) that uses the server
fans to transfer air through the coil
Performance
• Provides room neutral high density rack cooling
• Applicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot
aisle / cold aisle configuration
Higher Cost Strategies
1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source
Rear Door Solutions
Chilled Water Based Rear Door
•
•
•
•
Chilled water based, rear door heat exchanger
A rear door with 16kW to 35kW of cooling
Designed to accommodate various racks
Energy story – passive door (no fans) that uses the server
fans to transfer air through the coil
Performance
• Provides room neutral high density rack cooling
• Applicable for atypical room layouts and rooms without hot
aisle / cold aisle configuration
Higher Cost Strategies
1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source
Row Based Solutions
Row Based Solutions
•
•
•
•
Precise temperature and Humidity control
12” or 24” wide designs
Air, Water, Glycol and Chilled Water models
Energy efficient, load matching
-
Digital scroll compressor, 20-100% cooling capacity modulation
Variable speed EC plug fans
Performance
•
•
•
•
Real-time environment control
Automatic performance optimization
Adaptive component monitoring
Adjustable air baffle direction
Higher Cost Strategies
1. Bringing Cooling Closer to the Source
Rear door
configuration
Rack-based
configuration
Row-based
configuration
Fan Energy for 30kW of Cooling
Perimeter Unit = 4.24 kW
Rack Based = 0.54 kW
Row-Based Unit = 1.38 kW
Rear Door = 0.00 kW (no fans)
Higher Cost Strategies
2. Variable Capacity Compressors
 Digital Scroll Compressors
– Matches room load in unlimited step increments
– Reliable
– Not field repairable. Must be replaced.
 4-step Semi-Hermetic Compressors
– Matches room load in 4 step increments
– Reliable
– Field repairable
 Compressors w/ VFD Control
– Matches room load in unlimited step increments
– Reliable
– Usually not field repairable.
Intended for partially loaded rooms. May be
used in conjunction with variable speed fans
for even greater energy savings.
Higher Cost Strategies
3. Economization
 Air side economizers
–
–
For chilled water or compressorized systems
Utilize outside air based on dew point,
minimizing compressor and/or chiller usage
 Water side economizers


For chilled water systems
Uses water cooled by a cooling tower or a dry
cooler (fluid cooler) in low temperature conditions
to minimize chiller operation
 Pumped refrigerant economizers
 New technology for compressorized systems
 Uses refrigerant cooled in low temperature conditions

to minimize condenser and compressor operation
Similar utilization as water side economizers
Higher Cost Strategies
3. Economization – Pumped Refrigerant
Liebert DSE –The Most Efficient DX Data Center Cooling System
Annual Energy Usage
Reliable, Low-Maintenance
Operation
450
Annual Utility Cost ($1000’s)
400
 No water usage
350
300
60%
250
 No water treatment
 No outside air
200
contamination
150
 No dampers and
louvers to maintain
100
 Instant, automatic
50
0
DX with Water-Side
Economizer
Chilled Water with Air-Side
Economizer
Liebert DSE with
EconoPhase
Liebert DSE with EconoPhase
Pumped Refrigerant Economizer
Cooling PUE
1.3 - 1.05
economizer changeover
Higher Cost Strategies
3. Economization – Pumped Refrigerant
Liebert DSE System Overview
Thermal System Manager
with iCOM
Liebert EconoPhase
First ever pumped
refrigerant economizer
Liebert MC
Intelligent, high
efficiency condensers
Liebert Proprietary Data Center
Management Intelligence and
Optimized Aisle
Liebert DSE Indoor Unit
Next generation data
center cooling system
Cooling
Mode
Liebert DSE System:
DX Operation Mode
DX
Outdoor Cooling
System
SCOP
Temp
pPUE
kW
95º F
1.26
3.8
3.9 kW
Check Valve
4.1 kW
Solenoid
Valve
Refrigerant
Pump
Check Valve
8.5 kW
8.7 kW
3.2 kW
3.4 kW
Electronic
expansion
valve
Evaporator
8.5 kW
Check
Valve
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
8.7 kW
Compressor
24.9
Liebert DSE System:
DX + Pump Operation Mode
Cooling
Mode
Outdoor Cooling
System
SCOP
Temp
pPUE
kW
DX
95º F
1.26
3.8
24.9
Partial
60º F
1.14
7.0
13.6
3.9 kW
Check Valve
0.1 kW
0.3kW
Solenoid
Valve
Refrigerant
Pump
Check Valve
9.8 kW
3.4 kW
Electronic
expansion
valve
Evaporator
Check
Valve
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
0.0 kW
Compressor
Cooling
Mode
Liebert DSE System:
Pump Operation Mode
Outdoor Cooling
System
SCOP
Temp
pPUE
kW
DX
95º F
1.26
3.8
24.9
Partial
60º F
1.14
7.0
13.6
Full
45º F
1.09
10.6
9.0
3.9 kW
Check Valve
4.8 kW
0.4 kW
0.4 kW
Solenoid
Valve
Refrigerant
Pump
Check Valve
0.0 kW
3.4 kW
Electronic
expansion
valve
Evaporator
Check
Valve
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
0.0 kW
Compressor
Cooling
Mode
Liebert DSE System:
Pump Operation Mode
Outdoor Cooling
System
SCOP
Temp
pPUE
kW
DX
95º F
1.26
3.8
24.9
Partial
60º F
1.14
7.0
13.6
Full
45º F
1.09
10.6
9.0
Full
30º F
1.05
20.7
4.6
3.9 kW
Check Valve
0.2 kW
0.5 kW
0.5 kW
Solenoid
Valve
Refrigerant
Pump
Check Valve
0.0 kW
3.4 kW
Electronic
expansion
valve
Evaporator
Check
Valve
Circuit 2
Circuit 1
0.0 kW
Compressor
Minneapolis, MN Bin Data – EconoPhase,
Partial, Compressor
Dayton, OH
below 5
5 to 9
10 to 14
15 to 19
20 to 24
25 to 29
30 to 34
35 to 39
40 to 44
45 to 49
50 to 54
55 to 59
60 to 64
65 to 69
70 to 74
75 to 79
80 to 84
85 to 89
90 to 94
above 95
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
below 5 to 9 10 to
5
14
15 to
19
20 to
24
25 to
29
30 to
34
35 to
39
40 to
44
45 to
49
50 to
54
55 to
59
60 to
64
65 to
69
70 to
74
75 to
79
80 to
84
85 to
89
90 to above
94
95
Higher Cost Strategies
3. Economization
 1MW of IT load
 90°F return air; 20% + redundancy; No humidity control
 Which is best? It depends on the customer drivers
–
–
–
–
–
First cost/capital cost
Energy savings/PUE
Total cost of ownership
Redundancy/availability
Reliability
LIEBERT® DSE
Low + Medium + Higher Cost Strategies
The Results of Implementation
 Applying Low + Medium + Higher Cost Strategies
 Key cooling system features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Supply air control
90° F return air with dew point control
Rack level sensors
Aisle containment
Variable Speed Fans
Advanced Controls
+ Pumped Refrigerant Economizers
+ Variable Capacity Compressors
Total cooling power usage
drops from 184kW to 83kW.
All CW units have been
replaced with new units.
 Support Power Usage = 284kW
183kW
 Total Facility Power Usage = 804kW
703kW
 Annualized Facility PUE = 1.55 1.35
ROI is generally less than 3 years for these strategies
Taking It a Step Further
The annualized cooling PUE for cooling only is 1.09 for
the last scenario. Why is the overall PUE 1.35?
– Not implementing virtualization with the servers
– Inefficiencies in the power distribution:
•
•
•
•
•
•
UPS modules
PDUs
Generators
Batteries
Switchgear
Lighting
– Lack of monitoring
• Not having real time data means you cannot react quickly
Taking It a Step Further
How can I get an even better cooling PUE?
– Raise water and air temperatures even higher
– Implement alternate technologies that remove or greatly reduce
cooling
PUE
RISK
AVAILABILITY
– Improve server monitoring
SERVER LOADS
PUE
Implementing the Strategies
 Multiple strategies to consider
–
–
–
–
Low cost
Medium cost
Higher cost
Combination of any or all of the above
 Implementing any of these strategies can be
somewhat difficult
– Where do I start?
– What can I implement?
• Can the current equipment be upgraded?
• Do I have budget for equipment upgrades?
• Do I need outside help?
Summary
 You don’t have to spend a fortune to get energy savings
 However, to get to a world class level, major changes generally have
to be made
 Total energy consumption needs to be considered along with PUE
 Focusing only on PUE can increase risk and availability
– Works with some data center models, but not for all
For more information on this topic, please check out the
updated vendor neutral Energy Logic 2 white paper,
available on the Emerson Network Power website
Thank you!
Questions ?
jay.ries@emerson.com
Or call Uptime Solutions Inc.
937-237-3400

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