WiRE2014_Presentation_Dirk-Pilat._session

Report
Measuring Innovation and Smart Specialisation – What
have we Learned?
Dirk Pilat, OECD
Outline
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What drives innovation performance?
o Investment in education and knowledge
o Interactions and knowledge flows
o Innovation dynamics
Looking at outcomes and impacts
Linking innovation to policy
Innovation and smart specialisation
Gaps and a measurement agenda
Jerusalem District (ISR)
Greater London (GBR)
District of Columbia (USA)
Basque Country (ESP)
Oslo and Akershus (NOR)
Australian Capital Territory (AUS)
Brussels Capital Region (BEL)
Helsinki-Uusimaa (FIN)
Ile de France (FRA)
Southern and Eastern (IRL)
Stockholm (SWE)
Magallanes y Antártica (CHL)
Capital (DNK)
Zurich (CHE)
Capital Region (KOR)
Prague (CZE)
Bratislava Region (SVK)
North Island (NZL)
Berlin (DEU)
Mazovia (POL)
Athens (GRC)
Western Netherlands (NLD)
Central Hungary (HUN)
Ankara (TUR)
Western Slovenia (SVN)
Ontario (CAN)
Federal District (MEX)
Vienna (AUT)
Lisbon (PRT)
Lazio (ITA)
Large disparities in education across regions …
Top TL2 region within each country with the highest percentage of labour force
with tertiary educational attainment compared to their country average, 2012
Regional value
% 60
40
30
20
56 54
53
53
51
50
38
35
29
49
47 47
46
37
40
32
38
34
Country value
44 43
41 42 42 42 41
40 39 38 38
38 37 37
35 34
34 34
34
34 34
32
31 32
29 30 29 29
28 29
27
26
28
25
20 20
Source: OECD (2013), Regions at a Glance, http://rag.oecd.org/
18
20 20 19
22
18
10
0
Gangwon Region
Wyoming
Zurich
Salzburg
Åland
Central Norrland
Corsica
Greater London
Source: OECD (2013), Regions at a Glance, http://rag.oecd.org/
Northwest
Reg -Bruxelles
Madeira
Australian C.T.
Aysén
Opole region
Los Lagos
Podkarpacia
Ireland
Southern and Eastern
Border, Midland and Western
Greece Aegean Islands and Crete Athens
Slovak Republic Central Slovakia Bratislava Region
Chile
Poland
Central Hungary
Southeast
Wallonia
Lisbon
Western Australia
Quebec
Southern Netherlands
Piedmont
Minimum
Hungary Southern Transdanubia
Czech Republic
Belgium
Portugal
Australia
Netherlands Northern Netherlands
Canada Prince Edward Island
Sardinia
Basque Country
Trøndelag
Styria
South Sweden
Western Finland
East of England
Midi-Pyrénées
Baden-Württemberg
Capital (DK)
Northwestern Switzerland
Washington
Capital Region (KR)
National value
Italy
Norway Northern Norway
Spain
Melilla
Austria
Sweden
Finland
United Kingdom
France
Denmark Southern Denmark
Germany
Brandenburg
Korea
United States
Switzerland
.. and also in business investment in R&D
Range of TL2 regional business R&D intensity, 2010
Maximum
8
6
4
2
0
-2
-4
%
But education is not the same as skills …
Share of young and old adults at the two highest proficiency levels in “problem
solving in technology-rich environments”
Source: OECD Survey of Adult Skills, October 2013.
… and R&D is only one element of investment in innovation
Business investment in knowledge-based assets
(as % of business sector value added, 2010)
Source: OECD calculations based on INTAN-Invest, Eurostat and multiple national sources.
An innovative economy is also about creative destruction …
Role of different firms in employment growth, average over 18 countries, 2001-2011, in %
Source: Criscuolo, Gal and Menon (2014), www.oecd.org/sti/dynemp.htm
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… and about collaboration
Firms collaborating on innovation activities, by size, 2008-10
(as a % of product and/or process innovative firms in each size category)
%
Large firms
SMEs
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932891321
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We have some indicators on innovation outcomes …
Innovation hotspots in ICT, biotechnology and nanotechnology, 1998-2000 and 2008-10
Total patents, 2008-10
Biotechnology and nanotechnology patents
(normalised region's share)
2.0
Total patents by region
Total patents, 1998-2000
Maryland (USA)
(0.9-3.5)
Massachusetts (USA)
1 000 patents
5 000 patents
Beijing (CHN)
West-Nederland (NLD)
Hovedstaden (DNK)
50 000 patents
1.5
Northern-Kanto,
Koshin (JPN)
North Carolina (USA)
Pennsylvania (USA)
Florida
(USA)
Nordrhein-Westfalen
(DEU)
1.0
New Jersey (USA)
Toukai (JPN)
Illinois
(USA)
0.5
Texas
(USA)
New York
(USA)
SouthernKinki
Kanto
(JPN)
(JPN)
California (USA)
île de
France
(FRA)
Bayern (DEU)
Ontario (CAN)
Washington (USA)
Capital Stockholm (SWE)
Region (KOR)
BadenZuid-Nederland (NLD)
Württemberg
(DEU)
Guangdong (CHN)
0.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
ICT-related patents
(normalised region's share)
Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932890238
… but lack a good link to impacts
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Ultimately, innovation is about increasing productivity (and thus economic growth),
about new job creation, improved health outcomes, greener growth, etc.
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But the links between investment in innovation and these impacts are complex, often
not linear and can take a long time to emerge.
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Some progress is being made:
o R&D is now considered an investment in the national accounts, and therefore part
of GDP, enabling a stronger link to economic growth.
o A lot of work is going on in countries to better understand impacts of science and
innovation.
Indicators of innovation policy are lacking, with some exceptions …
Implied tax subsidy on R&D expenditures, 2013
Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/888932891150
… and we need a stronger focus on policy evaluation
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Need an explicit commitment – at a high level - to the importance of evaluation.
Insist on the development of data and evaluation strategies before programmes begin.
Choose a evaluation technique appropriate to the programme concerned.
Insist on full disclosure in evaluation reports.
Robust governance to ensure evaluation is objective and free of political influence.
Good mechanisms for policy learning.
Smart specialisation – what is it?
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Focus on a limited number of priority areas for knowledge-based investments, linked
to a region's strengths and comparative advantages on the basis of:
o More effective spending of public resources.
o The creation of synergies between public support mechanisms for R&D and
innovation, industrial promotion and training institutions.
o The elimination of fragmentation and duplication of policy interventions.
o The identification of the most promising domains for entrepreneurship and growth
through a careful analysis of existing capabilities, assets and competences.
o Mechanisms to enable strategic development.
o Mapping and benchmarking of clusters.
o Evidence-based monitoring and evaluation systems.
Smart specialisation – what is required (1)?
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Need for government interventions on a solid market basis – which implies robust
framework conditions, that allow market driven allocation of innovation, capital and
labour: only competitive and open markets are amenable to innovation.
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Government needs to listen to market signals when allocating its own budgets for
innovation - entrepreneurial discovery – interventions should meet the market test.
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Avoid capture by vested interest – which implies transparency, accountability and
evaluation of policies.
•
Stand ready to terminate projects that don’t pass the evaluation test.
Smart specialisation – what is required (2)?
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Strong leadership and stakeholders‘ involvement.
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Existing quantitative data can provide an overall picture of the situation, but it is
limited to past and present specialisation.
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To capture the ‘entrepreneurial knowledge’ embedded in the region (e.g. to identify
emerging activities, synergies and complementarities) may require new diagnostic
tools.
Ensuring mechanisms or structures for new ‘entrepreneurial bottom-up initiatives’ to
emerge and to help mobilise the relevant stakeholders.
Finally: A measurement (and analysis) agenda to support
policies for innovation
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From education to skills – where are the gaps?
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Better indicators of outcomes and impacts – and the link to investment
From R&D to the full range of investments in innovation
Better understanding the dynamics of an innovative economy – understanding the
enormous heterogeneity in an economy, across regions, across firms, across …
Linking policy to performance – better policy indicators, more evaluation
Complementing quantitative tools with qualitative analysis
For further reading – with all data available on-line
www.oecd.org/sti/scoreboard
www.oecd.org/regional/regions-at-a-glance.htm
Thank you!
Contact: [email protected]
Read more about our work
Follow us on Twitter:
@OECDinnovation
Website: www.oecd.org/sti
Newsletter: www.oecd.org/sti/news.htm
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