Chapter 6 Powerpoint Slides

Report
Employee Selection
The Challenges of Human Resources Management
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1–1
Chapter Objectives
After studying this chapter, you should be able to
LEARNING OUTCOME 1
Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process.
LEARNING OUTCOME 2
Explain what it is required for an employee selection tool to be
reliable and valid.
LEARNING OUTCOME 3
Illustrate the different approaches to conducting an employment
interview.
LEARNING OUTCOME 4
Compare the value of different types of employment tests.
LEARNING OUTCOME 5
Describe the various decision strategies for selection.
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Matching People and Jobs
• Selection

The process of choosing individuals who have
relevant qualifications to fill existing or projected
job openings.
• Selection Considerations


Person-job fit: job analysis identifies required
individual competencies (KSAOs) for job success.
Person-organization fit: the degree to which
individuals are matched to the culture and values
of the organization.
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The Goal of Selection: Maximize “Hits”
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Begin with a Job Analysis
• Results of a Job Analysis

Job Description
– A detailed list of tasks, duties, responsibilities,
and authority

Job Specifications
– the individual competencies employees need for
success—the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other
factors (KSAOs) that lead to superior performance.
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Steps in the Selection Process
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The Selection Process
• Obtaining Reliable and Valid Information

Reliability
– The degree to which interviews, tests, and other
selection procedures yield comparable data over
time and alternative measures.

Validity
– Degree to which a test or selection procedure
measures a person’s attributes.
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Initial Screening
• Cover Letters and
Resumes
• Polygraph Tests
• Video Resumes
• Integrity and Honesty
Tests
• Application Forms
• Graphology
• Online Applications
• Medical Examinations
• Biographical Information
Blanks (BIB)
• Employment Tests
• Background
Investigations
• Internet Checks and
Phone Screening
• Interviews
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Application/Resume Assessment Grid
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Application Forms
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Application date
Educational background
Experience
Arrests and criminal convictions
National origin
References
Disabilities
EEO and at-will statements
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Online Applications
• An Internet-based automated posting, application,
and tracking process helps firms to more quickly
fill positions by:

Attracting a broader and more diverse
applicant pool

Collecting and mining resumes with keyword
searches to identify qualified candidates

Conducting screening tests online

Reducing recruiting costs significantly
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Employment Interviews
• Why the interview is so popular:

It is especially practical when there are only a
small number of applicants.

It serves other purposes, such as public relations

Interviewers maintain great faith and confidence
in their judgments.
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Interviewing Methods
• Nondirective Interview

The applicant determines the course of the
discussion, while the interviewer refrains from
influencing the applicant’s remarks.
• Structured Interview

An interview in which a set of standardized
questions having an established set of answers
is used.
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Interviewing Methods (cont.)
• Situational Interview

An interview in which an applicant is given a
hypothetical incident and asked how he or she would
respond to it.
• Behavioral Description Interview (BDI)

An interview in which an applicant is asked questions
about what he or she actually did in a given situation.
• Panel and Sequential Interview

An interview in which a board of interviewers
questions and observes a single candidate.
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Hiring Managers Reveal Mistakes
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Interviewing Methods (cont.)
• Phone Interview

Phone interviews can be effective and actually help
expand a company’s pool of talent.
• Computer Interview


Using a computer program that requires candidates to
answer a series of questions tailored to the job.
Answers are compared either with an ideal profile or with
profiles developed on the basis of other candidates’
responses.
• Video and Digitally-Recorded Interviews

Using video conference technologies to record and
evaluate job candidates’ technical abilities, energy level,
appearance, and the like before incurring the costs of
a face-to-face meeting.
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Variables in the Employment Interview
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Eleven Ground Rules for Employment Interviews
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
Understand the job
Establish an interview plan
Establish and maintain rapport and listen actively
Pay attention to nonverbal cues
Provide information as freely and honestly as possible
Use questions effectively
Separate facts from inferences
Recognize stereotypes and biases
Avoid the “halo error,” or judging an individual favorably or
unfavorably overall on the basis of only one strong point
(or weak point) on which you place high value
10. Control the course of the interview
11. Standardize the questions asked
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How Candidates’ Physical Attributes
Influence Employ
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Diversity Management:
Are Your Questions Legal?
• No questions are expressly forbidden.

Questions related to race, color, age, religion, sex,
or national origin can be hazardous.

Questions are acceptable if job-related, asked of
everyone, and do not discriminate against a protected
class (e.g., females)

Consult EEOC and FEP information when
constructing guidelines for interviewers
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Appropriate and Inappropriate Interview
Questions (cont.)
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Sample Reference-Checking Questions
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Background Investigations (cont.)
• Organizations using credit reports must:
1.
Check state laws to see if credit reports can legally be used.
2.
Advise and receive written consent from applicants if a
report will be requested.
3.
Provide a written certification to the consumer reporting
agency as to the purpose of the report.
4.
Provide applicants a copy of the consumer report as well as
a summary of their rights under the CCRRA.
5.
Must provide an adverse-action notice a person if that
person is not hired and contact information related to the
reporting agency.
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Preemployment Tests
• Preemployment Test

An objective and standardized measure of a sample
of behavior that is used to gauge a person’s
knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics
(KSAOs) in relation to other individuals.

Pre-employment testing has
the potential for lawsuits.
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Types of Tests
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Job Knowledge Tests
Work Sample Tests
Assessment Center Tests
Cognitive Ability Tests
Biodata Tests
Personality and Interest Inventories
Honesty and Integrity Tests
Polygraph Tests
Physical Ability Tests
Medical Examinations
Drug Tests
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Approaches to Validation
• Criterion-related Validity

The extent to which a selection tool predicts, or
significantly correlates with, important elements of
work behavior.
– A high score indicates high job performance potential; a
low score is predictive of low job performance.
• Predictive Validity

The extent to which applicants’ test scores match
criterion data obtained from those
applicants/employees after they have been on the job
for some indefinite period
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Correlation Scatterplots
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Approaches to Validation (cont.)
• Content validity

The extent to which a selection instrument, such as
a test, adequately samples the knowledge and skills
needed to perform a particular job.
– Example: typing tests, driver’s license examinations
• Construct validity


The extent to which a selection tool measures a
theoretical construct or trait.
Are difficult to validate
– Example: creative arts tests, honesty tests
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Best Practices for employee Testing and
Selection
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Decision-Making Strategy
• Selection Considerations:

Should individuals to be hired according to their highest
potential or according to the needs of the organization?

At what grade or wage level to start the individual?

Should selection be for employee-job match, or should
advancement potential be considered?

Should those not qualified but qualifiable be considered?

Should overqualified individuals be considered?

What effect will a decision have on meeting affirmative action
plans and diversity considerations?
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© 2012
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“Can-Do” and “Will-Do’ Factors
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Clinical and Statistical Approach
Clinical Approach
Subjectivity
Statistical Approach
Objectivity
Compensatory Model - Average
Multiple Cutoff Model - Minimum
Multiple Hurdle Model- Sequential
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Statistical Approach
• Compensatory Model

Permits a high score in one area to make up for a
low score in another area.
• Multiple Cutoff Model

Requires an applicant to achieve a minimum level
of proficiency on all selection dimensions.
• Multiple Hurdle Model

Only applicants with sufficiently high scores at
each selection stage go on to subsequent stages
in the selection process.
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Test Scores Scatter plot with
Hypothetical Cutoffs
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Selection Process (cont.)
• Selection Ratio

The number of applicants compared with the
number of people to be hired.
• Cutoff Score

The point in a distribution of scores above which
a person is considered and below which a person
is rejected.
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Selection Process (cont.)
• Final Decision

Selection of applicant by departmental or
immediate supervisor to fill vacancy.

Notification of selection and job offer by the
human resources department.
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Key Terms
achievement tests
negligent hiring
aptitude tests
nondirective interview
behavioral description
interview (BDI)
panel interview
compensatory model
concurrent validity
construct validity
content validity
criterion-related validity
cross-validation
multiple cutoff model
predictive validity
reliability
selection
selection ratio
situational interview
structured interview
validity
validity generalization
multiple hurdle model
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Chapter 6 - Learning Outcomes
Learning Outcome Statements
Related Outcomes from Body of the Text
1
Explain the objectives of the personnel selection process.
Because managers often have a good deal of job knowledge, how
important do you think it is for them to understand the selection process
to make good decisions?
2
Explain what is required for an employee selection tool to be Many employers do Internet searches to turn up information on job
reliable and valid.
candidates. Can you see any problem related to doing so?
3
Illustrate the different approaches to conducting an
employment interview.
If you a know a candidate, in addition to interviewing the person, do you
still need to check his or her job references and do a background check?
Can any of these steps be skipped?
4
Compare the value of different types of employment tests.
Personality tests, like other tests used in employee selection, have been
under attack for several decades. Why do you think some applicants find
personality tests objectionable? On what basis could their use for
selection purposes be justified?
5
Describe the various decision strategies for selection.
How have your skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and motivation affected the
types of jobs you have applied for in the past or how well you did a
particular job?
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