September 7, 2011

Dr. Geoff Goodman
ext. 4277
[email protected]
Course Website:
Please briefly share your academic, professional, and
clinical experiences.
What are your expectations for this course?
Did everyone receive a syllabus and relevant readings?
Class dates and holidays
Psychopathologies not covered in this course:
 Learning Disabilities
 Mental Retardation
(educational specialists)
Provide information about risk factors for child and
adolescent psychopathology
Provide information about protective factors against the
development of child and adolescent psychopathology
Provide information about the major conditions and
disorders that come to clinical attention
This course does not explicitly cover information about
intervention strategies.
Effects of emotional and behavioral problems in children
Impairments in academic achievement
Impairments in interpersonal competencies
Impairments in independent living skills
Persistence across the lifespan
Integrate studies of normal and pathological development
Examine developmental continuities and discontinuities of
traits, behavior patterns, emotional responses, and
Evaluate evidence across multiple levels of analysis
 a. genetic
 b. biological
 c. psychological
 d. family
 e. neighborhood
 f. culture
Use interdisciplinary methods
 Clinical and developmental psychology
 Child and adolescent psychiatry
 Genetics
 Neurology
 Public health
 Philosophy of science
Explore risk and protective factors and their interaction
Use transactional models of influence
 Not linear patterns of association
 Probabilistic, dynamic, nonlinear, complex conceptual models
Consider social and cultural context in understanding
function and meaning of behavioral and emotional states
Equifinality – multiple pathways yield the same
psychopathological outcome (mediational models)
 genetic constellation
 environmental deprivation
 prenatal teratogens
 brain injury
 different combinations
of risk factors or sheer
number of risk factors
Multifinality – same pathway to multiple psychopathological
outcomes (mediational models)
Consideration of unique subgroups (moderational models):
 Common genotypes
 Common personality variables
 Common socialization practices (e.g., secure base behavior)
 Common neighborhoods
Consideration of neuroscientific principles and the role of
the brain
Study of aberrations in normal developmental pathways
Study of normal developmental pathways
Study of normal processes can elucidate atypical processes,
while study of atypical processes can elucidate normal
Progress in one domain depends on progress in another
Mental disorders are not discrete and categorical, but rather,
dimensional and continuous
(flaw with DSM-IV)
 Schizophrenia-spectrum disorders
 Autism-spectrum disorders
Developmental pathways are lawful and coherent
Developmental pathways are sometimes discontinuous
(e.g. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)Conduct
Disorder (CD)Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD))
Different continuities exist across different subgroups (e.g.,
outcomes of authoritarian parenting in Caucasian, middleclass children versus African American children children)
Examining both “micro” and “macro”
levels of analysis
Connecting these various levels from
gene expression to cultural expression
and their mutual influence
Bottom-up and top-down conceptions
must co-exist
Risk factors – “antecedent variables that predict such
dysfunction” (p. 13)
 Identify risk factors causal of disorder
 Identify risk factors that are malleable
Protective factors (resilience; buffering) – “unexpectedly
good outcomes, or competence, despite the presence of
adversity or risk” (p. 14; see Crockenberg (1981) study)
Same risk factors might produce different outcomes,
depending on the presence of protective factors
Criticism of uniqueness of protective factors because they
exist on the opposite end of the continuum with risk factors
(e.g., IQ, temperament, parenting)
Children influence parents, teachers and peers
Parents, teachers, and peers influence children
Early maturing brain regions influence and are influenced
by environmental factors
Operation of gene-environment interactions
Family, school,
neighborhood, and culture
are all central to the
unfolding of both aberrant
and adaptive behavior
Different cultural contexts
can provide different
meaning to particular
behaviors (e.g., suicide)
Multiple risk factors related to lowered chances of recovery
Malleability, plasticity, and flexibility in development
Bi-directional influences between genes and epigenetic
factors (e.g., brain structures, behavioral patterns,
environmental influences)

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