Cloud Computing P. Sai Kiran

Cloud Computing
P. Sai Kiran
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
The 21st century vision of
• The creation of the Internet has marked the
foremost milestone towards achieving this grand
21st century vision of “computer utilities” by
forming a worldwide system of computer
• Simply to provide IT as a Service
• Various computing paradigms have been proposed
and adopted to edge closer toward achieving this
grand vision.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
The 21st century vision of computing
• Cluster - consists of a collection of inter-connected stand-alone computers
working together as a single integrated computing resource.
• Autonomic computing — Computer systems capable of self-management.
• Grid computing — "A form of distributed and parallel computing, whereby
a 'super and virtual computer' is composed of a cluster of
networked, loosely coupled computers acting in concert to perform very
large tasks.“
• Utility computing — The "packaging of computing resources, such as
computation and storage, as a metered service similar to a traditional public
utility, such as electricity."
• Peer-to-peer — Distributed architecture without the need for central
coordination, with participants being at the same time both suppliers and
consumers of resources (in contrast to the traditional client–server model).
• Services Computing has become a cross-discipline that covers the science
and technology of bridging the gap between Business Services and IT
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
What is Cloud Computing?
• Cloud Computing is a general term used to describe a
new class of network based computing that takes place
over the Internet, basically a step on from Utility
• In other words, this is a collection/group of integrated
and networked hardware, software and Internet
infrastructure (called a platform).
• Using the Internet for communication and transport
provides hardware, software and networking services to
• These platforms hide the complexity and details of the
underlying infrastructure from users and applications by
providing very simple graphical interface or API
(Applications Programming Interface).
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Cloud Summary
• Cloud computing is an umbrella term used to refer to
Internet based development and services.
• A number of characteristics define cloud data, applications
services and infrastructure:
– Remotely hosted: Services or data are hosted on remote
– Ubiquitous: Services or data are available from anywhere.
– Commodified: The result is a utility computing model similar to
traditional that of traditional utilities, like gas and electricity - you
pay for what you would want!
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Delivery Models
While cloud-based software services are maturing,
Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Cloud platform and infrastructureP. offering
are still in their early stages !
Cloud Computing Service Layers
Services – Complete business services such as PayPal, OpenID,
OAuth, Google Maps, Alexa
Application – Cloud based software that eliminates the need
for local installation such as Google Apps, Microsoft Online
Development – Software development platforms used to
build custom cloud based applications (PAAS & SAAS) such as
Platform – Cloud based platforms, typically provided using
virtualization, such as Amazon ECC, Sun Grid
Storage – Data storage or cloud based NAS such as CTERA,
iDisk, CloudNAS
Hosting – Physical data centers such as those run by IBM, HP,
NaviSite, etc.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Impact of cloud computing on the
governance structure of IT organizations
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
If cloud computing is so great,
why isn’t everyone doing it?
• The cloud acts as a big black box, nothing inside
the cloud is visible to the clients
• Clients have no idea or control over what
happens inside a cloud
• Even if the cloud provider is honest, it can have
malicious system admins who can tamper with
the VMs and violate confidentiality and integrity
• Clouds are still subject to traditional data
confidentiality, integrity, availability, and privacy
issues, plus some additional attacks
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Companies are still afraid to use clouds
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
• The BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard provides a
roadmap for the initiatives and policies that countries can —
and should — take to ensure that they reap the full
economic and growth benefits.
• The first-of-its-kind BSA Global Cloud Computing Scorecard
ranks 24 countries accounting for 80 percent of the global
ICT market based on seven policy categories that measure
the countries’ preparedness to support the growth of cloud
• The Scorecard reveals that while developed nations are
more “cloud ready” than developing economies, troubling
obstacles emerge when you examine the lack of alignment in
the legal and regulatory environments in many of those
advanced countries.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
• BSA Cloud Policy Blueprint
Ensuring privacy
Promoting security
Battling cybercrime
Protecting intellectual property
Ensuring data portability and the harmonization of international
– Promoting free trade
– Establishing the necessary IT infrastructure
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Delivery of raw, virtualized computing infrastructure such as servers and storage
as a service to build applications. IaaS vendors let enterprises customize
infrastructure to their application needs.
– Backup & Recovery Platforms providing services to backup and recover file systems and
raw data stores on servers and desktop systems.
– Big Data Provides tools to automate and manage infrastructure used for Big Data. These
products allow users to customize their configuration and choose from a set of toolkits and
– Compute Provides server resources for running cloud based systems that can be
dynamically provisioned and configured as needed.
– Content Delivery Networks CDNs store content and files to improve the performance and
cost of delivering content for web based systems.
– Multi-Cloud Management Tools that manage services on more than one cloud
infrastructure platform. Some tools support private-public cloud configurations.
– Services Management Services that manage cloud infrastructure platforms. These tools
often provided features that cloud providers do not provide or specialize in managing
certain application technologies.
– Storage Provides massively scalable storage capacity which can be used for applications,
backups, archiving, file storage, and more.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Backup & Recovery
1. Backupify
2. BKOL by
3. Elephant Drive
4. IBM SmartCloud Managed
5. JungleDisk
6. Mozy
7. Online Backup
8. SpiderOak
9. Zmanda Cloud Backup
Big Data
1. Infochimps Platform
2. Opani
3. PiCloud
Content Delivery Networks
Amazon CloudFront
Multi-Cloud Management
1. enStratus
2. New Relic
3. RightScale
4. Standing Cloud
1. Amazon EC2
2. AT&T Synaptic
Services Management
3. BlueLock Cloud
1. BitNami Cloud Hosting
4. Cloud Servers
2. CloudWatch
5. CloudSigma
3. Scalr
6. ElasticHosts
4. ylastic
7. FiberCloud
8. Flexiant FlexiScale
9. GoGrid
10. IBM SmartCloud Enterprise
11. Joyent Cloud
1. Amazon EBS
12. LayeredTech
2. Amazon S3
13. Locaweb Cloud Server Pro
3. Aprigo NINJA
14. Maxnet Virtual Servers
4. AT&T Synaptic
15. Navisite
5. EMC Atmos Online
16. Open Hosting Inc.
6. Google Storage for
17. OpSource Clloud
18. Phoenix NAP Secured Cloud
7. Nirvanix
19. Rackspace Cloud Servers
8. Rackspace Cloud Files
20. redIT.
9. Zetta
21. Savvis
22. Savvis Cloud Compute
23. Small Business Cloud Computing
24. Storm Servers
25. SunGard Enterprise Cloud
26. Terremark
27. Verizon CaaS
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
• Delivery of a virtualized application runtime platform that has a software stack
for developing applications or application services. PaaS applications and
infrastructure are run and managed by the services vendor.
– Business Intelligence (15) Platforms for the creation of business intelligence
applications such as dashboards, reporting systems, and big data analysis.
– Database (6) These services offer scalable database systems that ranging from
relational database solutions to massively scalable non-sql datastores.
– Development & Testing (9) These platforms are only for the development and
testing cycles of application development, which expand and contract as needed.
– General Purpose (21) Platforms suited for general purpose application
development. These services provide a database, a web application runtime
environment, and typically support web services for integration.
– Integration(11) Services for integrating applications ranging from cloud-to-cloud
integration to custom application integration.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Cloud based delivery of complete software applications that run on infrastructure
the SaaS vendor manages. SaaS applications are accessed over the Internet and
typically charged on a subscription basis.
– Billing (5)Application services to manage customer billing based on usage and
subscriptions to products and services.
– CRM (12)Platforms for CRM(Customer Relationship Management) application that
range from call center applications to sales force automation.
– Collaboration (16)Platforms providing tools that allow users to collaborate in
workgroups, within enterprises, and across enterprises.
– Content Management (6)Services for managing the production and access to content
for web based applications.
– Document Management (5)Platforms of managing documents, document production
workflows, and providing workspaces for groups or enterprises to find and access
– ERP (5)Enterprise resource planning (ERP) is an Integrated computer-based system used
to manage internal and external resources, including tangible assets, financial resources,
materials, and human resources.
– Environmental Health & Safety (0)Helps manufacturers manage and promote safe
handling of hazardous materials.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Financials (11)Applications for managing financial processes for companies that range from
expense processing and invoicing to tax management.
Health and Wellness(2) Services for improving and managing people's health and well-being.
Human Resources(8) Software for managing human resources functions within companies.
IT Services Management(2) Software that helps enterprises manage IT Services delivery to
services consumers and manage performance improvement.
Personal Productivity (5) Software that business users use on a daily basis in the normal course
of business. The typical suite includes applications for word processing, spreadsheets, and
Project Management(9) Software packages for managing projects. Features of packages may
specialize the offering for specific types of projects such as software development, construction,
Sales(8) Applications that are specifically designed for sales functions such as pricing,
commission tracking, etc.
Security(4) Hosted products for security services such as malware and virus scanning, single
sign-on, etc.
Social Networks(3) Platforms for creating and customizing social networking applications.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Cloud Software
• Software used to build cloud computing environments, manage cloud
environments, or software used to build highly scalable cloud applications.
Products include both commercial and open source software.
• Cloud Abstraction (4)Software libraries that provide an abstraction layer to
avoid cloud vendor lock-in and build multi-cloud ready applications.
• Cloud Integration (3)Software that help enterprises integrate with cloud
infrastructure servers from external providers.
• Configuration Automation (3)Software that automates application
configuration management on cloud platforms. This can include definitions of
application stack and system configuration as well as runtime configuration
and scaling rules management.
• Data (16)Database systems that meet the scalability of massive web based
systems. These range from solutions based on relational databases to
columnar, document-oriented, and key-value database solutions.
• Distributed Cache (9)Provides data caching to accelerate the performance of
large scale web based systems.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Distributed Compute(2) Software that manages elastic compute resources where
applications can dynamically acquire and use additional server resources.
Infrastructure Management(12) Packages and tools for managing cloud scale systems
that can be used to create private clouds or used by service providers to build cloud
Multi-Cloud Business Apps(2) Cloud enabled business applications that are available on
multiple cloud IaaS or PaaS solutions, e.g. AWS, Rackspace, IBM Smart Cloud, MS Azure,
etc. Multi-Cloud Business Apps offer enterprises with a choice of their cloud provider
without customization.
PaaS(3) Software for building a PaaS on a public or private cloud. PaaS software runs a
select software stack that enterprises standardize on.
SaaS Data Security(4) These services enhance the security of using SaaS based systems
by adding encryption and/or additional access controls on SaaS data sets.
Storage(5) Software to manage massively scalable storage solutions.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Opportunities and Challenges
• The use of the cloud provides a number of
– It enables services to be used without any
understanding of their infrastructure.
– Cloud computing works using economies of
• It potentially lowers the outlay expense for start up companies, as they
would no longer need to buy their own software or servers.
• Cost would be by on-demand pricing.
• Vendors and Service providers claim costs by establishing an ongoing
revenue stream.
– Data and services are stored remotely but
accessible from “anywhere”.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Opportunities and Challenges
• In parallel there has been backlash against cloud
– Use of cloud computing means dependence on others
and that could possibly limit flexibility and innovation:
• The others are likely become the bigger Internet companies like Google and IBM, who
may monopolise the market.
• Some argue that this use of supercomputers is a return to the time of mainframe
computing that the PC was a reaction against.
– Security could prove to be a big issue:
• It is still unclear how safe out-sourced data is and when using these services
ownership of data is not always clear.
– There are also issues relating to policy and access:
If your data is stored abroad whose FOI policy do you adhere to?
What happens if the remote server goes down?
How will you then access files?
There have been cases of users being locked out of accounts and losing access to data.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Lower computer costs:
– You do not need a high-powered and high-priced
computer to run cloud computing's web-based
– Since applications run in the cloud, not on the
desktop PC, your desktop PC does not need the
processing power or hard disk space demanded by
traditional desktop software.
– When you are using web-based applications, your PC
can be less expensive, with a smaller hard disk, less
memory, more efficient processor...
– In fact, your PC in this scenario does not even need a
CD or DVD drive, as no software programs have to
be loaded and no document files need to be saved.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Improved performance:
– With few large programs hogging your computer's memory,
you will see better performance from your PC.
– Computers in a cloud computing system boot and run faster
because they have fewer programs and processes loaded into
• Reduced software costs:
– Instead of purchasing expensive software applications, you
can get most of what you need for free-ish!
– That is right - most cloud computing applications today, such
as the Google Docs suite, are totally free.
– That is a lot better than paying $200+ for similar Microsoft
Office software - which alone may be justification for switching
to cloud applications.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Instant software updates:
– Another advantage to cloud computing is that you are no longer
faced with choosing between obsolete software and high upgrade
– When the application is web-based, updates happen
automatically - available the next time you log into the cloud.
– When you access a web-based application, you get the latest
version - without needing to pay for or download an upgrade.
• Improved document format compatibility.
– You do not have to worry about the documents you create on
your machine being compatible with other users' applications or
operating systems.
– Where Word 2007 documents cannot be opened on a computer
running Word 2003, all documents can be read!
– There are potentially no format incompatibilities when everyone
is sharing documents and applications in the cloud.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Unlimited storage capacity:
– Cloud computing offers virtually limitless storage.
– Your computer's current 200 Gbyte hard drive is small
compared to the hundreds of Pbytes available in the cloud.
– Whatever you need to store, you can.
• Increased data reliability:
– Unlike desktop computing, in which if a hard disk crashes and
destroy all your valuable data, a computer crashing in the
cloud should not affect the storage of your data.
– That also means that if your personal computer crashes, all
your data is still out there in the cloud, still accessible.
– In a world where few individual desktop PC users back up their
data on a regular basis, cloud computing is a data-safe
computing platform!
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Universal document access:
– That is not a problem with cloud computing, because you do not
take your documents with you.
– Instead, they stay in the cloud, and you can access them
whenever you have a computer and an Internet connection.
– All your documents are instantly available from wherever you
• Latest version availability:
– Another document-related advantage of cloud computing is that
when you edit a document at home, that edited version is what
you see when you access the document at work.
– The cloud always hosts the latest version of your documents; as
long as you are connected, you are not in danger of having an
outdated version.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Advantages of Cloud Computing
• Easier group collaboration:
– Sharing documents leads directly to better collaboration.
– Many users do this as it is an important advantages of
cloud computing - multiple users can collaborate easily
on documents and projects.
– Because the documents are hosted in the cloud, not on
individual computers, all you need is an Internet
connection, and you are collaborating.
• Device independence.
– You are no longer tethered to a single computer or
– Changes to computers, applications and documents
follow you through the cloud.
– Move to a portable device, and your applications and
documents are still available.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• Requires a constant Internet connection:
– Cloud computing is impossible if you cannot connect
to the Internet.
– Since you use the Internet to connect to both your
applications and documents, if you do not have an
Internet connection you cannot access anything,
even your own documents.
– A dead Internet connection means no work and in
areas where Internet connections are few or
inherently unreliable, this could be a deal-breaker.
– When you are offline, cloud computing simply does
not work.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• Does not work well with low-speed connections:
– Similarly, a low-speed Internet connection, such as that
found with dial-up services, makes cloud computing
painful at best and often impossible.
– Web-based applications require a lot of bandwidth to
download, as do large documents.
– If you are labouring with a low-speed dial-up connection,
it might take seemingly forever just to change from page
to page in a document, let alone to launch a feature-rich
cloud service.
– In other words, cloud computing is not for the
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• Can be slow:
– Even with a fast connection, web-based applications
can sometimes be slower than accessing a similar
software program on your desktop PC.
– Everything about the program, from the interface to
the current document, has to be sent back and forth
from your computer to the computers in the cloud.
– If the cloud servers happen to be backed up at that
moment, or if the Internet is having a slow day, you
would not get the instantaneous access you might
expect from desktop applications.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• Features might be limited:
– This situation is bound to change, but today many
web-based applications simply are not as fullfeatured as their desktop-based applications.
– For example, you can do a lot more with Microsoft
PowerPoint than with Google Presentation's webbased offering.
– The basics are similar, but the cloud application lacks
many of PowerPoint's advanced features.
– If you are a power user, you might not want to leap
into cloud computing just yet.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• Stored data might not be secure:
With cloud computing, all your data is stored on the cloud.
The questions is How secure is the cloud?
Can unauthorised users gain access to your confidential data?
Cloud computing companies say that data is secure, but it is
too early to be completely sure of that.
– Only time will tell if your data is secure in the cloud.
• Stored data can be lost:
– Theoretically, data stored in the cloud is safe, replicated across
multiple machines.
– But on the off chance that your data goes missing, you have no
physical or local backup.
– Put simply, relying on the cloud puts you at risk if the cloud
lets you down.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Disadvantages of Cloud Computing
• HPC Systems:
– Not clear that you can run compute-intensive HPC
applications that use MPI/OpenMP!
– Scheduling is important with this type of
application – as you want all the VM to be colocated to minimise communication latency!
• General Concerns:
– Each cloud systems uses different protocols and
different APIs… so it may not be possible to run
applications between cloud based systems.
– Amazon has created its own DB system (not SQL
92), and workflow system (many popular
workflow systems out there) – so your normal
applications will have to be adapted to execute on
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
these platforms.
Architecture of Cloud
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
User Layer
Software as a Service (SaaS)
Platform as a Service (PaaS)
Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)
Security as a Service, Browser Security ,
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Service Provider Layer
Identity, Infrastructure , Privacy, Data transit ,
People and Identity , Audit and Compliance ,
Cloud integrity and Binding Issues
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
VM Layer and Data Center layer
VM Sprawl ,VM Escape, Infrastructure ,
Separation between Customers , Cloud
legal and Regularity issues, Identity and
Access management
Secure data at rest, Physical Security :
Network and Server
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Research issues in Cloud Computing
• Security Issues
– Availability of Service
– Data security
• confidentiality, for secure data transfer and access, and auditability,
• Data Issues
– Data Lock-In
• Customer lock-in seems to be striking to Cloud Computing providers
– Data Transfer Bottlenecks
• The applications are moved across the boundaries of clouds may
complicate data placement and transport
– Traffic management and analysis
• Currently, the work on measurement and analysis of data center traffic
is very less.
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Research issues in Cloud Computing
• Reputation Fate Sharing
– Reputation of the cloud as a whole may be affected by
one customer’s bad behaviour.
• Performance Issues
– Virtual Machine Migration
• Virtual Machine migration provides major benefit in cloud
computing through load balance across data centers. It also
provides robust and high response in data centers.
– Server consolidation
• Server consolidation is an efficient approach to minimize the
energy consumption for makes best use of resource utilization
– Performance Unpredictability
• Sharing I/O is complex in cloud computing while multiple virtual
machines can share CPU and main memory easily
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Research issues in Cloud Computing
– Scalable Storage
• Cloud Computing important properties are infinite capacity ondemand, no up-front cost, short-term usage for high availability,
data durability and scalability.
– Bugs in Large-Scale Distributed Systems
• The debugging of these bugs have to be done at large scale in
the production data centers as these bugs cannot be reproduced
in smaller configurations.
– Scaling Quickly
– Latency
– Energy management
• It has been estimated that the cost of powering and cooling
accounts for 53% of the total operational expenditure of data
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Research issues in Cloud Computing
– Software Frameworks
• Cloud computing provides a persuasive platform for
hosting significant data-intensive applications.
• Some researchers are still working on a trade-off between
performance and energy-awareness.
– Novel cloud architectures
• Small size data centers vs large size data centers.
– Software Licensing
– Client incomprehension
– Ad-hoc standards as the only real standards
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012
Thank You
P. Sai Kiran LBRCE, APSCHE TTP 07-07-2012

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