Chapter 37: Circulatory & Respiratory Systems Section 37.1 Circulation: Structure and Function TRANSPORTATION Cells need to get nutrients and oxygen and get rid of wastes Consists of heart, blood vessels, and blood What needs to be transported in the body? Transportation in living organisms: • • • • Oxygen from the lungs to the cells of the body Nitrogenous wastes to the kidneys for removal Carbon dioxide waste from cells to the lungs for removal Food nutrients from the intestines to cells for energy 1. _________ Blood is contained in ____________. vessels 2. The parts of the circulatory system are: a. __________________ heart vessels b. __________________ blood c. __________________ Heart: parts Hollow muscular organ that pumps blood Enclosed by a protective layer called the pericardium The thick layer of muscle is called the myocardium, which contains epithelial and connective tissue. The myocardium contracts to pump blood! 4 heart chambers Atria: 2 upper chambers that receive blood into the heart. Receiving chambers (singular = atrium) Ventricle: 2 lower chambers that pump blood out of the heart. Pumping chambers. Ventricles have thick muscle to pump to the lungs/body septum II. The Heart muscle A. The heart is made up of ______________. pericardium which 1. It is enclosed by the __________________ protects it. 2. The walls of the heart are made of a thick layer muscle called the _________________________, which myocardium is surrounded by layers of epithelial and connective ___________________ tissue. Pericardium Protective sac of connective tissue Surrounds the heart Filled with fluid Check… Which body system acts in a way similar to a transportation system? a. circulatory c. excretory b. nervous d. respiratory In the walls of the heart, the thick layer of muscle is called the a. myocardium. c. connective tissue layer. b. pericardium. d. epithelial tissue layer. Circulation Septum – layer that divides left and Myocardium (heart muscle) shown in red right sides of heart Epicardium (Outer surface of myocardium) Right side in charge of pumping blood from heart to lungs (pulmonary circulation) Left side receives blood from lung, sends it out to rest of body! (systemic circulation) After blood comes back from body, blood returns to right side and back to lungs for more O2 Endocardium (Inner surface of myocardium) Circulation Video Clip Heart terminology Veins go to the heart Arteries go away from the heart Capillaries join the two and bring blood close to cells One-way valves in the heart keep circulation efficient Valves = flaps of connective tissue between atria and ventricles that open and close to move blood in a one-way flow 72 times per minute. B. The heart contracts about ____ 70 mL of blood. 1. Each contraction pumps _______ left right C. The septum _______ divides the _______ and _______ heart sides of the ________. 1. This prevents the mixing of the side that carries oxygen blood with _________ and the side without. D. Chambers of the Heart atrium 1. The Upper Chamber is the __________. receive the _________. blood a. Atria ________ ventricle 2. The Lower Chamber is called the ___________. out a. Ventricles __________ pump blood ______. 3. The human heart has ___ atria and ___ 2 2 ventricles. heart animations heart parts Check… Which is the correct direction of blood flow? a. left ventricle pulmonary artery aorta b. right atrium right ventricle pulmonary artery c. left ventricle left atrium aorta d. right atrium left atrium pulmonary artery In the heart, the mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood is prevented by the a. septum. c. tricuspid valve. b. pericardium. d. mitral valve. Heartbeat 2 networks of muscle fibers in heart One in atria, one in ventricles Pacemaker – group of cardiac muscle cells, also called “sinoatrial node,” which contract and send an impulse to the network of muscle fibers Blood can be stored in atria until it’s ready to move When the network in the atria contracts, blood in atria flows into ventricles When muscles in ventricles contract, blood flows out of heart! When blood leaves the _________________ side of the heart, it is oxygen-poor. When blood leaves the _________________ side of the heart, it is oxygen-rich. Blood vessels When blood leaves left side, it is full of oxygen Aorta = large blood vessel that receives blood after it leaves left ventricle 3 types of blood vessels Arteries, capillaries, veins Arteries: Super highways, large, and muscular Carry oxygenated blood (except pulmonary artery.) Blood vessels continued Capillaries: Smallest with walls only one-cell thick Bring oxygen and nutrients to tissues and absorb CO2 “Side streets and alley ways” Veins: Large and muscular contain valves and return blood to heart Blood Pressure Blood pressure = force of blood on arteries’ walls Sphygmomanometer = device to measure blood pressure in your arm Systolic pressure = force in arteries when ventricles contract Diastolic pressure = force felt in arteries when ventricles relax Blood Body contains about 4-6 liters 45% consists of cells Red blood cells called erythrocytes which transport oxygen (the protein hemoglobin binds iron and oxygen) White blood cells called leukocytes fight infection Platelets are cell fragments that aid in clotting 55% consists of straw colored fluid called plasma 90% water Contains albumins, globulins, and fibrinogen Plasma Platelets White blood cells Red blood cells Whole Blood Sample Sample Placed in Centrifuge Blood Sample That Has Been Centrifuged plasma Red blood cells Lymphatic system White BC and Platelets Diseases of the Circulatory System Heart disease, stroke are leading causes of death in US Main causes: high blood pressure & atherosclerosis Atherosclerosis = condition in which fatty deposits called plaque build up inside the arteries Consequences of atherosclerosis Blocked arteries can cause part of heart to die from lack of oxygen If enough heart muscle dies, heart attack occurs Blood clots can form, get stuck in blood vessel leading to brain Stroke occurs Keeping your Circulatory System Healthy! Exercise to keep your heart strong Eat a low fat/low cholesterol diet Don’t smoke! Cardiovascular diseases are much easier to prevent than to cure. Check… Which of the following is true about blood pressure? a. Diastolic pressure is higher than systolic pressure. b. It is not affected by atherosclerosis. c. It drops a great deal when traveling through arteries. d. It is lower in veins than in arteries. Which of the following are the smallest of the blood vessels? a. veins c. capillaries b. lymphatic cells d. arteries Blood Type Review… Which of the following genotypes result in the same phenotype? a. IAIA and IAIB b. IBIB and IBi c. d. IBI and IAIB IBi and ii If a man with blood type A and a woman with blood type B produce an offspring, what might be the offspring’s blood type? a. AB or O c. A, B, AB, or O b. A, B, or O d. AB only Respiratory System 2 kinds of respiration 1. Cellular respiration = breaking down food molecules in the mitochondria in presence of oxygen to make ATP 2. Respiration for the organism = gas exchange (O2 in, CO2 out) Function of respiratory system: to bring about exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, air and tissues Respiratory System diagram Parts of Respiratory System Air: flows from the mouth & nose pharynx larynx trachea bronchus tubes bronchioles alveoli Pharynx = passage for air/food Trachea = windpipe Epiglottis = flap of tissue that covers entrance to trachea when you swallow alveoli = air sacs surrounded by capillaries Keep it Clean! Cilia and mucus act as filters along the pathway to keep lung tissue healthy, need to keep air warm, moist, filtered! Nose hairs filter dust Mucus moistens air, traps dust/smoke Cilia sweep dust, mucus away from lungs so they can be swallowed or spit out animation Larynx and Gas Exchange Larynx, or voice box, has two elastic folds of tissue (your vocal cords!) 2 bronchi (singular: bronchus) = passageways from trachea to lungs These tubes subdivide into smaller tubes (bronchioles) They end at alveoli (air sacs), where oxygen diffuses into capillaries to enter _________, while _________is picked up to be _______________________ Breathing Movement of air into (inspiration) and out of (expiration) the lungs Mainly controlled by brain! Diaphragm = large flat muscle at base of chest cavity Process of breathing is driven by air pressure When diaphragm contracts, air comes in When diaphragm relaxes, air is exhaled animation Check… Air is forced into the lungs by the contraction of the a. alveoli. b. bronchioles. c. diaphragm. d. heart. Which of the following activities is the best analogy for respiration? a. exchanging gifts c. receiving a gift b. giving a gift d. sitting in a chair Respiratory Diseases • Bronchitis: inflammation of bronchi • Emphysema: loss of elasticity of lung tissue alveoli can’t expand for gas ex. tobacco damages the tissue Nicotine paralyzes cilia in upper respiratory system! NIDA.gov • Asthma: narrowing of the bronchi and bronchioles due to the constriction of muscles around the airways. Environmental, genetic? • Cystic fibrosis: recessive, autosomal genetic disease in which lungs collect mucous and cause multiple infections. Cystic Fibrosis Check… Chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer can be caused by a.swollen bronchi. b. enlarged alveoli. c. groups of cancer cells. d. smoking. Air is filtered, warmed, and moistened in the a.nose and mouth. b.throat. c. d. lungs. pharynx.