Chapter 6 Conflicts in the Colonies

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Chapter 6 Conflicts in the
Colonies
(1675-1774)
Trouble on the Frontier
Section 1
Why did the English colonists fear
Metacomet (King Philip)?
 The English Colonists
feared that
Metacomet’s
determination to
protect Wampanoag
lands was part of a
plot to destroy the
English colonies.
What was the 1675 conflict between
Wampanoag Indians and English
colonists called?
 King Philip’s War was
a conflict between
Wampanoag Indians
and English colonists
in 1675.
Define Militia.
 A militia is a group of
civilians serving as
soldiers.
Who captured Metacomet’s wife and
son?
 Captain Benjamin
Church captured
Metacomet’s wife and
son.
Most American Indian and European
alliances were often based on what?
Most Indian and European alliances were
based on trade.
What tribes made up the Iroquois
League? What European Nation did they
ally with?
 The tribes that made up
the Iroquois
Confederation were the
Mohawk, Seneca,
Cayuga, Oneida, and
Onondaga. Later the
Tuscarora joined.
 They allied with the
British.
Why did the French maintain a better
trust with American Indians?
The French maintained a better trust with
Indians because they had small
settlements and were not growing as
rapidly as the English settlements.
England and France were dominant European
Powers. As they came to North America in search
of more wealth, they brought their rivalry with
them. What was the name of the three conflicts that
spanned from 1689 to 1748?
The three conflicts that occurred between
1689 and 1748 were King William’s War,
Queen Anne’s War, and King George’s
War.
To protect their claims in the Ohio River Valley the French set
up forts in areas also claimed by the English colony of
Virginia. Who did Gov. Dinwiddie of VA send in 1753 to
deliver a message to the French?
 Gov. Dinwiddie sent
Colonel George
Washington to deliver
a message to the
French.
List the four advantages of each at the
outbreak of the French and Indian War
England
France




 Strong central
government
 Well located forts
 Alliances with many
Indians
 6,600 well trained troops
Larger colonial population
A superior navy
Alliance with Iroquois
Stronger economy
What was the Albany plan of Union and
why was it rejected?
 The Albany plan of Union
called for the colonies to
unite for the first time
under a president general
and a grand council.
 It was rejected because
colonial government did
not want to give up
individual authority.
Define casualties.
 Casualties are people
who are killed,
wounded, captured,
or missing in a war.
What is another name for the French and
Indian War?
Another name for the French and Indian
War is the Seven Years’ War.
Why was Gen. Edward Braddock so
easily defeated by the French and their
Indian Allies?
 Braddock lacked
confidence in
Washington’s poorly
trained colonial militia
 Braddock used
traditional military
tactics.
After it was captured, what did the
British rename Fort Duquesne?
 After capturing Fort Duquesne, the British
renamed it Fort Pitt.
After capturing what Canadian city, the
British took the advantage in the war?
 The British took the
advantage in the war
after they captured
Quebec.
How did James Wolfe fool the French
under the command of Louis-Joseph de
Montcalm?
 Wolfe fooled the
French by sailing his
army across the river
at night. In the
morning they were in
position to attack.
What treaty ended the Seven Years’
War?
 The Treaty of Paris of
1763 officially ended
the War between
France and Britain.
How did the treaty drastically change the
balance of power in North America?
The treaty removed the French presence
East of the Mississippi River (except New
Orleans).
Consequences of the French
and Indian War
Section 2
Where did most of the first settlers in
North America live?
Most of the first British settlers lived close
to the Atlantic coastline and along major
rivers.
What is the backcountry?
 The backcountry was
the frontier region
between the coastal
settlements and the
Appalachian
Mountains.
What were the first settlers of the
backcountry called?
The first settlers to go to the backcountry
were called pioneers.
What two reasons made the Ohio River
Valley so appealing to settlers?
The forests were rich with game
The soil was good for farming.
After the French and Indian War what
did the British ban that angered many
American Indians?
 The British
Government banned
the giving of gifts to
Indian tribes.
Why did the Indians feel that they should
not give up their land in the Ohio Valley
and the Great Lakes region?
The Indian tribes did not participate in the
Treaty of Paris 1763.
In the 1760’s Ottawa, Miami, Huron, Shawnee, and
Delaware joined together to oppose the British.
Who emerged as their leader?
 Ottawa Chief Pontiac
emerged to lead the
Indians against the
British.
 Pontiac and his
followers abandoned
white practices in
order to cleanse
themselves.
Where did Pontiac’s Rebellion fail?
 Pontiac’s rebellion failed at Fort Detroit in May of
1763.
 The British also used a policy of distributing
blankets laced with small pox to kill the Indians.
After Pontiac’s Rebellion, what did the
British Government pass to quell the
fighting between Indians and Settlers?
The British passed the Proclamation of
1763.
What did the Proclamation of 1763 say?
 The Proclamation of
1763 prevented
pioneers from settling
west of the
Appalachian
Mountains.
 It created a divider
line between colonists
and Indians.
What famous American violated the
Proclamation of 1763?
 Daniel Boone violated
the Proclamation of
1763.
Trouble over Taxes
Section 3
To pay for the French and Indian War, Parliament
enacted duties, or taxes. What was the first law
designed to specifically to raise money in the
colonies?
The Sugar Act
What did the Sugar Act of 1764 do?
It set duties, or taxes, on foreign molasses
and sugar imported by colonists.
What was the purpose of the Currency
Act? What was the result?
It banned the colonies from printing their
own money.
British currency was in short supply in
America, so it contributed to economic
problems in the colonies.
List three things Parliament changed to
prevent colonists from smuggling?
Colonial merchants had to make lists of all
the trade goods carried on board.
The British Navy began stopping and
searching ships to check for smuggled
items.
Changed the legal system. Smugglers
would now be tried in the Vice-Admiralty
Courts.
What two Bostonians are credited with
inventing the slogan of “No taxation
without representation”?
 James Otis
 Sam Adams
What were the Committees of
Correspondence?
Approved by the Massachusetts
Legislature.
Each committee contacted other towns
and colonies to share ideas and
information about the new British Laws.
Discussed ways to protest them too.
Define boycott.
Refusal to buy certain goods.
Why did Prime Minister Grenville think
the Stamp Act of 1765 was a better
choice for the colonists?
He thought it was “the easiest, the most
equal, and the most certain that can be
chosen.”
British citizens had already paid similar
taxes.
What was the Purpose of the Sons of
Liberty?
 They were secret
societies that formed
to protest (sometimes
violently) taxes.
 They often attacked
the tax collectors.
Whose 1765 speech in the Virginia House of
Burgesses compelled nine states to send
delegates to the Stamp Act Congress?
 Patrick Henry
Define repeal.
 To abolish
Although under William Pitt’s leadership the Stamp
Act was repealed, Parliament almost immediately
passed the Declaratory Act. What did this Act do?
This act stated that Parliament had the
authority to make laws for the colonies “in
all cases whatsoever.”
The colonists could expect further laws
and taxes.
New Taxes and Tensions
Section 4
In 1767 Parliament passed the
Townshend Acts. What did these acts
do?
It placed duties on imported glass, lead,
paints, paper, and tea.
Revenue was used to pay military
expenses and salaries of colonial
governors.
What did customs agents use to enforce
the Townshend Acts?
Writs of Assistance
They were search warrants used to crack
down on smuggling.
Vice-Admiralty courts were also used
instead of the colonial courts.
Why did colonists dislike the ViceAdmiralty courts?
Colonists feared the royal authorities did
not have the best interests of the colonies
at heart.
How did the Daughters of Liberty help
colonists resist the Townshend Acts?
 They produced
household goods to
support the boycotts
and discussed
political issues.
Who owned the ship Liberty which was
seized by tax collectors in
Massachusetts?
 Boston Merchant,
John Hancock
What did Governor Francis Bernard do
in response to the Sons of Liberty’s
attacks on customs officials?
He sent for troops which arrived in Oct.
1768.
He also disbanded the Massachusetts
Legislature
What is propaganda and how were the
events of March 5, 1770 used as a
propaganda tool?
Propaganda is stories and images
designed to support a particular point of
view.
Sam Adams called it a “Massacre”
Who circulated his engraving to show
colonists how they were being
mistreated?
 Paul Revere made an
engraving showing
the British Troops
firing upon unarmed
civilians.
To reduce pressure Parliament repealed
the Townshend Acts except for the tax
on tea. Why did Parliament keep the tax
on tea?
They kept the tea tax to show that they still
claimed the right to tax the colonists.
Parliament passed the Tea Act to help the
struggling British East India Company
get out of debt. Why did colonists
oppose the Tea Act?
 Colonial tea merchants feared that the BEIC
would put them out of business.
 Others were concerned with a monopoly on tea
and possibly other businesses.
Describe the events of the Boston Tea
Party
 Pages 175-176 Go
for it.
As punishment for the Boston Tea Party
Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in
1774. What did the colonists call these
four laws?
The Intolerable Acts
What were the four laws under the
Coercive Acts?
Closing of Boston Harbor until Boston paid
for the destroyed tea.
Cancelled Massachusetts’ charter which
limited the colonial legislature.
Moved Royal officials’ trials to Britain.
The Quartering Act, which required
colonists to house and supply British
soldiers.

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