Chapter 6 Conflicts in the Colonies (1675-1774) Trouble on the Frontier Section 1 Why did the English colonists fear Metacomet (King Philip)? The English Colonists feared that Metacomet’s determination to protect Wampanoag lands was part of a plot to destroy the English colonies. What was the 1675 conflict between Wampanoag Indians and English colonists called? King Philip’s War was a conflict between Wampanoag Indians and English colonists in 1675. Define Militia. A militia is a group of civilians serving as soldiers. Who captured Metacomet’s wife and son? Captain Benjamin Church captured Metacomet’s wife and son. Most American Indian and European alliances were often based on what? Most Indian and European alliances were based on trade. What tribes made up the Iroquois League? What European Nation did they ally with? The tribes that made up the Iroquois Confederation were the Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Oneida, and Onondaga. Later the Tuscarora joined. They allied with the British. Why did the French maintain a better trust with American Indians? The French maintained a better trust with Indians because they had small settlements and were not growing as rapidly as the English settlements. England and France were dominant European Powers. As they came to North America in search of more wealth, they brought their rivalry with them. What was the name of the three conflicts that spanned from 1689 to 1748? The three conflicts that occurred between 1689 and 1748 were King William’s War, Queen Anne’s War, and King George’s War. To protect their claims in the Ohio River Valley the French set up forts in areas also claimed by the English colony of Virginia. Who did Gov. Dinwiddie of VA send in 1753 to deliver a message to the French? Gov. Dinwiddie sent Colonel George Washington to deliver a message to the French. List the four advantages of each at the outbreak of the French and Indian War England France Strong central government Well located forts Alliances with many Indians 6,600 well trained troops Larger colonial population A superior navy Alliance with Iroquois Stronger economy What was the Albany plan of Union and why was it rejected? The Albany plan of Union called for the colonies to unite for the first time under a president general and a grand council. It was rejected because colonial government did not want to give up individual authority. Define casualties. Casualties are people who are killed, wounded, captured, or missing in a war. What is another name for the French and Indian War? Another name for the French and Indian War is the Seven Years’ War. Why was Gen. Edward Braddock so easily defeated by the French and their Indian Allies? Braddock lacked confidence in Washington’s poorly trained colonial militia Braddock used traditional military tactics. After it was captured, what did the British rename Fort Duquesne? After capturing Fort Duquesne, the British renamed it Fort Pitt. After capturing what Canadian city, the British took the advantage in the war? The British took the advantage in the war after they captured Quebec. How did James Wolfe fool the French under the command of Louis-Joseph de Montcalm? Wolfe fooled the French by sailing his army across the river at night. In the morning they were in position to attack. What treaty ended the Seven Years’ War? The Treaty of Paris of 1763 officially ended the War between France and Britain. How did the treaty drastically change the balance of power in North America? The treaty removed the French presence East of the Mississippi River (except New Orleans). Consequences of the French and Indian War Section 2 Where did most of the first settlers in North America live? Most of the first British settlers lived close to the Atlantic coastline and along major rivers. What is the backcountry? The backcountry was the frontier region between the coastal settlements and the Appalachian Mountains. What were the first settlers of the backcountry called? The first settlers to go to the backcountry were called pioneers. What two reasons made the Ohio River Valley so appealing to settlers? The forests were rich with game The soil was good for farming. After the French and Indian War what did the British ban that angered many American Indians? The British Government banned the giving of gifts to Indian tribes. Why did the Indians feel that they should not give up their land in the Ohio Valley and the Great Lakes region? The Indian tribes did not participate in the Treaty of Paris 1763. In the 1760’s Ottawa, Miami, Huron, Shawnee, and Delaware joined together to oppose the British. Who emerged as their leader? Ottawa Chief Pontiac emerged to lead the Indians against the British. Pontiac and his followers abandoned white practices in order to cleanse themselves. Where did Pontiac’s Rebellion fail? Pontiac’s rebellion failed at Fort Detroit in May of 1763. The British also used a policy of distributing blankets laced with small pox to kill the Indians. After Pontiac’s Rebellion, what did the British Government pass to quell the fighting between Indians and Settlers? The British passed the Proclamation of 1763. What did the Proclamation of 1763 say? The Proclamation of 1763 prevented pioneers from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains. It created a divider line between colonists and Indians. What famous American violated the Proclamation of 1763? Daniel Boone violated the Proclamation of 1763. Trouble over Taxes Section 3 To pay for the French and Indian War, Parliament enacted duties, or taxes. What was the first law designed to specifically to raise money in the colonies? The Sugar Act What did the Sugar Act of 1764 do? It set duties, or taxes, on foreign molasses and sugar imported by colonists. What was the purpose of the Currency Act? What was the result? It banned the colonies from printing their own money. British currency was in short supply in America, so it contributed to economic problems in the colonies. List three things Parliament changed to prevent colonists from smuggling? Colonial merchants had to make lists of all the trade goods carried on board. The British Navy began stopping and searching ships to check for smuggled items. Changed the legal system. Smugglers would now be tried in the Vice-Admiralty Courts. What two Bostonians are credited with inventing the slogan of “No taxation without representation”? James Otis Sam Adams What were the Committees of Correspondence? Approved by the Massachusetts Legislature. Each committee contacted other towns and colonies to share ideas and information about the new British Laws. Discussed ways to protest them too. Define boycott. Refusal to buy certain goods. Why did Prime Minister Grenville think the Stamp Act of 1765 was a better choice for the colonists? He thought it was “the easiest, the most equal, and the most certain that can be chosen.” British citizens had already paid similar taxes. What was the Purpose of the Sons of Liberty? They were secret societies that formed to protest (sometimes violently) taxes. They often attacked the tax collectors. Whose 1765 speech in the Virginia House of Burgesses compelled nine states to send delegates to the Stamp Act Congress? Patrick Henry Define repeal. To abolish Although under William Pitt’s leadership the Stamp Act was repealed, Parliament almost immediately passed the Declaratory Act. What did this Act do? This act stated that Parliament had the authority to make laws for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever.” The colonists could expect further laws and taxes. New Taxes and Tensions Section 4 In 1767 Parliament passed the Townshend Acts. What did these acts do? It placed duties on imported glass, lead, paints, paper, and tea. Revenue was used to pay military expenses and salaries of colonial governors. What did customs agents use to enforce the Townshend Acts? Writs of Assistance They were search warrants used to crack down on smuggling. Vice-Admiralty courts were also used instead of the colonial courts. Why did colonists dislike the ViceAdmiralty courts? Colonists feared the royal authorities did not have the best interests of the colonies at heart. How did the Daughters of Liberty help colonists resist the Townshend Acts? They produced household goods to support the boycotts and discussed political issues. Who owned the ship Liberty which was seized by tax collectors in Massachusetts? Boston Merchant, John Hancock What did Governor Francis Bernard do in response to the Sons of Liberty’s attacks on customs officials? He sent for troops which arrived in Oct. 1768. He also disbanded the Massachusetts Legislature What is propaganda and how were the events of March 5, 1770 used as a propaganda tool? Propaganda is stories and images designed to support a particular point of view. Sam Adams called it a “Massacre” Who circulated his engraving to show colonists how they were being mistreated? Paul Revere made an engraving showing the British Troops firing upon unarmed civilians. To reduce pressure Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts except for the tax on tea. Why did Parliament keep the tax on tea? They kept the tea tax to show that they still claimed the right to tax the colonists. Parliament passed the Tea Act to help the struggling British East India Company get out of debt. Why did colonists oppose the Tea Act? Colonial tea merchants feared that the BEIC would put them out of business. Others were concerned with a monopoly on tea and possibly other businesses. Describe the events of the Boston Tea Party Pages 175-176 Go for it. As punishment for the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Coercive Acts in 1774. What did the colonists call these four laws? The Intolerable Acts What were the four laws under the Coercive Acts? Closing of Boston Harbor until Boston paid for the destroyed tea. Cancelled Massachusetts’ charter which limited the colonial legislature. Moved Royal officials’ trials to Britain. The Quartering Act, which required colonists to house and supply British soldiers.