Unit three: - Life Science Academy

Report
Unit Two: Diabetes
Serious effects a disease within one system can have on
homeostasis in the body as a whole
Back to Anna…
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The ME noted she was
wearing a Medical Alert
bracelet labeling her as a
diabetic
Pay attention to all aspects
of her medical history and
think about how diabetes
impacts overall health and
wellness.
Could this disease have
contributed to her death?
Diabetes by the Numbers…
 Worldwide
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2002 - 171,000,000 known to be diabetic
2005 – 1 million people died from diabetes
2030- 371,000,000 expected to be diabetic
 In
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the U.S.
2002 – 17,702,000 known to be diabetic
2030 – 30,317,000 expected
1/3 of adults do not know they have it
2002 - $132 billion health care cost, today BILLIONS! (CDC)
2000-2005 – age of onset getting younger
2.1 What is diabetes?
2.1 Essential Questions
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What is diabetes?
How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose
diabetes?
How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes
relate to how the body produces and uses insulin?
What is the relationship between insulin and glucose?
How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose
into body cells?
What is homeostasis?
What does feedback refer to in the human body?
How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose?
2.1 Key Terms
Glucagon
Glucose Tolerance Test
Homeostasis
Hormone
Insulin
Negative Feedback
Positive Feedback
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 2 Diabetes
Height
4’10”
4'11"
5'0"
5'1"
5'2"
5'3"
5'4"
5'5"
5'6"
5'7"
5'8"
5'9"
5'10"
5'11"
6'0"
6'1"
6'2"
6'3"
6'4"
Weight
148 lbs
153 lbs
158 lbs
164 lbs
169 lbs
175 lbs
180 lbs
186 lbs
192 lbs
198 lbs
203 lbs
209 lbs
216 lbs
222 lbs
228 lbs
235 lbs
241 lbs
248 lbs
254 lbs
Activity 2.1.1 Diagnosing Diabetes
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Patient Histories
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The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG)
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Gestational diabetes
Monitors the amount of sugar in blood plasma, over a set time
period
Insulin Level Testing
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Preferred method: easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than
Glucose Tolerance Testing (GTT) (vs. FPGTT)
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Case histories, physical exams, blood tests, urine test…etc.
Used to determine whether a patient has Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes
Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.This blood test
 Blood sugar levels over a two to three month period and may
assist in a diagnosis of diabetes and subsequent control
Activity 2.1.1
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Includes the following
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Conclusion Questions
Table and figure of GTT results
Table and figure of IT results
Paragraph diagnosing each patient with/without diabetes and if
diabetic (based on GTT) if it’s Type I or II (based on IT)
Notes
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Copy/paste tables and figures in word
Figures are not titled in excel, just word
Be sure to name axes, fix increments on x-axis and adjust scale
to get rid of empty space.
Figure 1. Glucose Tolerance Test Results
225
Glocose Level mg/dL
215
205
195
Anna
Patient A
Patient B
185
175
165
155
145
0
30
60
90
Minute Intervals
120
Figure 2. Insulin Test Results
450
Insulin Level uuU/L
400
350
300
250
Anna
Patient A
Patient B
200
150
100
50
0
0
30
60
90
Minute Intervals
120
Blood Test Results for Diabetes
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Anna Garcia is a Type 1 diabetic
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Patient A is not diabetic, but should be considered pre-diabetic
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A prolonged rise in blood glucose levels indicates that Anna is a diabetic.
A lack of insulin in the blood at each time period indicates that she is a Type 1
diabetic.
She is not producing insulin and thus her glucose levels are remaining elevated
over the time period.
A brief rise in glucose levels stays within the range of normal (perhaps
elevated for a bit too long)
However, risk factors described show that the patient is at risk for Type 2
diabetes.
Patient B is a Type 2 diabetic
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A prolonged rise in blood glucose levels indicates that Patient B is a diabetic.
Insulin testing reveals a normal level of insulin in the blood in response to
increased levels of glucose.
Therefore, the patient produces insulin, but it is not being effectively used by
the body, indicating Type 2 diabetes.
Interpreting Your Results!
2.1.2: The Insulin Glucose Connection
Insulin is required for your cells
to take up glucose
Glucose Transport Proteins (GLUTs)
Without Insulin…
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Cells do not take in the
glucose they need for
energy
Body doesn’t produce
insulin = Type I
Cells becomes resistant to
insulin= Type 2 diabetes
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Same effect as if there was
not insulin present
The cells do not take in
glucose from the blood
Types of Diabetes
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Type 1: Insulin-Deficient Diabetes (Juvenile Diabetes)
Type 2: Insulin-Resistant Diabetes (Adult Onset)
Blood Glucose Level
Insulin keeps it in homeostasis
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Uses insulin, glycogen & glucagon hormones
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Pancreas- Regulates BGL
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High BGL
1.
2.
3.
4.
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Alpha and beta cells sense BGL
High insulin (hormone) secretion from pancreas
Triggers cells to use more glucose
Triggers liver to store glucose as glycogen
BGL decrease
Low BGL
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pancreas STOPS producing insulin
Produces glucagon (hormone)
Frees glucose from glycogen in liver
BGL increase
1.
2.
3.
Glucose- Free in
blood, what cells
use for energy
Glycogen- Stored
glucose in the liver
Glucagonhormone
stimulates freeing
of glucose
Project 2.1.2

Build a 3-D working model that demonstrates the role of
insulin in getting glucose into a cell as well as shows the
difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Make sure
that the model accurately depicts the role of the
following terms in blood sugar regulation:
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Glucose transport proteins
Cell membrane
Glucose
Blood
Cell
Insulin
Insulin receptors
Glycogen
Glucagon
Design requirements for the model
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The model must be constructed of materials easily accessible at
home or school.
The model must be 3-D with moveable parts.
The model should be labeled clearly.
The model must accurately show the role of insulin as it relates to
glucose in the body.
The model must accurately depict the role of the following terms in
blood sugar regulation:
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Glucose transport proteins
Cell membrane
Glucose
Blood
Cell
Insulin
Insulin receptors
2.1.3 Homeostasis & Diabetes
Internal stability within the body
 Metabolic processes occur within normal ranges
Homeostasis disrupted = disease or illness
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Example: Diabetes
Lack of insulin function = Diabetes
What is Insulin?
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Very Important Protein (hormone)
Regulates glucose entering cells
Created by the Pancreas
Controls blood sugar
Diabetes Complications
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50% of diabetics will have
heart disease
12% of diabetics will suffer
serious vision loss early
on
75% of diabetics will suffer
serious vision
loss after 15 years
1/10 of U.S. health care
dollars are spent to treat
diabetes
The Good News

Good News
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Better treatments
Earlier diagnosis
Proactive early intervention
techniques
New Research
But: There is no cure. Yet!
Look at role of:
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Food
Macromolecules
Metabolism
Feedback loops
Blood sugar concentration
Insulin
Key Terms & Essential Questions
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Key Terms
 Calorie
 Nutrient
 Molecule
Essential Question 1
 1- What are the nutrients identified on food labels?
Discuss
 What do we already know about diabetes
 Why does a diabetic have to watch what he or she
eats?
 Ask students for examples of junk or healthy food.
Activity 3.1.1 What’s in the Stuff We Eat?
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Activity 3.1.1 What’s in the Stuff We Eat?
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Acess through your curriculum icon
Handouts
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Nutritional Terms Chart
Label Analysis Chart
Password
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Click the orange button that says, “Set My Password”.
In the window that pops up, type in your last name and your
KCTCS ID number, then click the “Sign In” button.
Be at least eight characters in length
Contain characters from three of the following four categories:
English uppercase characters (A through Z)
English lowercase characters (a through z)
Base 10 digits (0 through 9)
Symbolic characters (e.g., !, $, #, %)
Be significantly different from prior passwords.
Not contain your name or user name.
Not be a common word or name.
Passwords expire after 90 days.
Activity 3.1.2: How much energy is in food?

What is a calorie, and how is it
related to food?

Heat= energy
As the food burns…energy is being
released
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy can be changed from one
form to another, but it cannot be
created or destroyed.
Essential Question 2- How is the
amount of energy in a food
determined?
Key Terms
 Chemical Bond
 Chemical Reaction
 Compound
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Activity 3.1.2 Calorimetry
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Food labels list the number of calories in a serving of a
food
The number of calories is an indication of the amount of
energy that a serving of food provides to the body
When referring to food, a calorie is the amount of
energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of
water 1° C
The number of calories in a piece of food is determined
by measuring the increase in temperature of a known
volume of water when a portion of the food is burned
This process for measuring the amount of energy in food
is called calorimetry
A little bit of chemistry…
The Bulk of Living Matter:
CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN
Trace elements
Essential to life
 Occur in minute
amounts
 Common additives to
food and water
 Dietary deficiencies
 Physiological conditions

Ex) iodized salt
Elements can combine to form
compounds
CompoundsChemical elements combined in fixed ratios
Sodium
Chlorine
Sodium Chloride
Figure 2.3
Atoms

The smallest particle of matter that still retains the
properties of an element

Composed of 3 Subatomic Particles
1.
2.
3.
PROTONS: POSITIVE CHARGE
NEUTRONS: NEUTRAL CHARGE
ELECTRONS: NEGATIVE CHARGE
Subatomic Particles
PROTONS


Positive charge
In a central nucleus
NEUTRONS



Neutral charge
In a central nucleus
= in wt. to protons
ELECTRONS

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Negative charge
Arranged in electron shells
Surrounding nucleus
MUCH lighter
1/2,000
Outermost electron shell (can hold 8 electrons)
First electron shell (can hold 2 electrons)
Electron
Hydrogen (H)
Carbon (C)
Atomic number = 1 Atomic number = 6
Periodic Table
Nitrogen (N)
Atomic number = 7
Oxygen (O)
Atomic number = 8
Subatomic Algebra
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Protons= atomic number
Protons + neutrons= mass number
Atomic number
Isotopes

The number of neutrons in an atom may vary
 Variant forms of an element are called isotopes
 Some isotopes are radioactive
Atoms whose shells are not full
Tend to interact with other atoms and
• gain
• lose
• or share electrons
These interactions form chemical bonds
• Ionic bonds- attractions between ions of opposite charge
• Covalent bonds- join atoms into molecules through
electron sharing (unequally shared= polarity)
• Hydrogen bonds- are weak bonds important in the
chemistry of life
Essential Qs & Key Terms
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Get 3.1 and 3.2 Crossword
Essential Questions
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3. What is the basic structure of all matter?
4. What is a chemical reaction?
5. What is the role of a chemical bond in energy transfers?
6. What is the relationship between nutrients, food, chemical reactions,
and energy?
Key Terms
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Covalent bond
Homeostasis
Hydrogen bond
Hydrophilic
Ionic bond
Polarity
Solute
Solution
Solvent
Activity 3.1.3
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Takes you through a lesson on molecules
Starts with an interactive presentation available on our
website:
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http://lifescienceacademy.weebly.com/unit-3.html
Interactive Molecules PowerPoint
You MUST follow directions as you go through
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Lab Manual
Molecule Kit
Atomic model Resource Kit
Sports Drink vs. Water Resource Sheet
Sports Drinks vs. Water
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Essential Questions
7.
8.
Why is water balance such an important factor in
maintaining homeostasis?
Are sports drinks a valuable tool in maintaining water
balance?
3.2.1 Macromolecules
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Large organic molecules that contain carbon
Necessary for life
Made by combining smaller molecules
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Polymers—made of repeating sub-units called monomers.
Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids
Four classes of Macromolecules
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Proteins
Carbohydrates
Nucleic Acids
Lipids
Proteins
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Amino Acid building blocks
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Tryptophan
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Leucine
amine (-NH2)
carboxylic acid (-COOH)
Functions
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Structure (tissues, organs)
Movement
Cellular communication
Storage
Transport
Metabolic reactions
(enzymes)
Protection (antibodies)
Carbohydrates
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Building Blocks
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Large carbohydrates
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Monosaccharides
One sugar
Glucose, Fructose
Polysaccharides
Many sugars
Starch, Glycogen
Functions
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Energy source
Structure
Store energy for later use
Cell communication
Nucleic Acids
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Building Blocks
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Two types of nucleic
acids
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Nucleotide
Deoxyribonucleic Acid
(DNA)
Ribonucleic Acid
(RNA)
Function
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Passing traits from
generation to
generation
Protein production
Lipids (not polymers)
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No single building block
Made of C, H and O
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Fats (triglycerides)
Steroids
Oils and waxes
Phospholipids
Fat soluble vitamins
Functions:
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Energy storage (triglycerides)
Cell communication
Structural
Insulation
Protection (wax)
3.2 Key Terms
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Adenosine tri-phosphate
(ATP)
Amino Acid
Carbohydrate
Chemical Indicator
Dehydration Synthesis
Disaccharide
Electrolyte
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Glucose
Hydrolysis
Lipid
Macromolecule
Monomer
Monosaccharide
Polymer
Polysaccharide
Protein
Essential Questions
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What are the main structural components of
carbohydrates, proteins and lipids?
How do carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differ in
structure and function?
What types of foods supply carbohydrates, proteins and
lipids?
What is dehydration synthesis?
What is hydrolysis?
How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to
food?
How can macromolecules be detected in foods?
Activity 3.2.1
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Go step by step
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Open activity in curriculum file
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Use either loose leaf notebook paper or copy paper to create
your answer packet
Write Activity 3.2.1 at top
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Get my OK when directed to do so
DO NOT SKIP around…it will only make it harder!
Followed by your name
Two sections
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Procedure (make your sketches large, ½ page minimum)
Conclusion Questions (complete sentences)
Activity 3.1.2 Math Review
Mass of H2O
Change in H2O Temp
Change in Food Mass
E Gained by water (calories)
E food (chem cal/g)
E food (food cal/g)
Food Energy (joules/g)
Food Energy (kilojoules/g)
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Sample 1 Sample 2
82.30
91.90
0.08
2.30
0.10
1.30
6.58
65.84
0.07
275.61
0.28
211.37
162.59
0.16
680.61
0.68
Energy gained by water (chemistry calories) = (mass of
water) x (change in temperature) x (specific heat of
water)
The specific heat of water is 1 calorie ÷ (1 g x 1°C)= 1.
Activity 3.1.2 Math Review
Mass of H2O
Change in H2O Temp
Change in Food Mass
E Gained by water (calories)
E food (chem cal/g)
E food (food cal/g)
Food Energy (joules/g)
Food Energy (kilojoules/g)
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Sample 1 Sample 2
82.30
91.90
0.08
2.30
0.10
1.30
6.58
65.84
0.07
275.61
0.28
211.37
162.59
0.16
680.61
0.68
Energy content of the food sample (chemistry calories) =
Energy gained by water ÷ change in mass of food
Activity 3.1.2 Math Review
Mass of H2O
Change in H2O Temp
Change in Food Mass
E Gained by water (calories)
E food (chem cal/g)
E food (food cal/g)
Food Energy (joules/g)
Food Energy (kilojoules/g)
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Sample 1 Sample 2
82.30
91.90
0.08
2.30
0.10
1.30
6.58
65.84
0.07
275.61
0.28
211.37
162.59
0.16
680.61
0.68
Calculate the energy content of the food sample in food
calories.
1 food calorie= 1000 chem calories (1 km= 1000m)
Chem calorie/1000= food calorie (m/1000=km
Activity 3.1.2 Math Review
Mass of H2O
Change in H2O Temp
Change in Food Mass
E Gained by water (calories)
E food (chem cal/g)
E food (food cal/g)
Food Energy (joules/g)
Food Energy (kilojoules/g)
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Sample 1 Sample 2
82.30
91.90
0.08
2.30
0.10
1.30
6.58
65.84
0.07
275.61
0.28
211.37
162.59
0.16
680.61
0.68
Calculate the food energy (joules/g).
One chemistry calorie is equal to 4.186 joules.
E food (chem cal/g) * 4.186= joules/g
Divide by 1000 to get kJ/g
Activity 3.1.2 Math Review
Mass of H2O
Change in H2O Temp
Change in Food Mass
E Gained by water (calories)
E food (chem cal/g)
E food (food cal/g)
Food Energy (joules/g)
Food Energy (kilojoules/g)
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Sample 1 Sample 2
82.30
91.90
0.08
2.30
0.10
1.30
6.58
65.84
0.07
275.61
0.28
211.37
162.59
0.16
680.61
0.68
Energy gained by water (chemistry calories) = (mass of
water) x (change in temperature) x (specific heat of
water)
The specific heat of water is 1 calorie ÷ (1 g x 1°C)= 1.
Section 3.3: Molecules
Working Together
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Protein- Any of a class of
nitrogenous organic
compounds that consist of
large molecules composed of
one or more long chains of
amino acids
Are an essential part of all
living organisms
Structure dictates function!
One primary function- to act
as enzymes!
Activity 3.3.1
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Essential Questions 1 and 2
 1. What is an enzyme?
 2. What is the general role of enzymes in the
human body?
Key Terms
 Catalyst
 Enzyme
 Homeostasis
 pH Scale
 Substrate

A protein catalyst called an enzyme decreases
the energy of activation needed to begin a
reaction
 enzyme- a
protein molecule that functions as
a biological catalyst, increasing the rate of a
reaction without itself being changed into a
different molecule
HOW ENZYMES FUNCTION

Enzymes speed up the cell’s chemical reactions by lowering
energy barriers
◦
◦
◦
Energy of Activation- Amount of Energy
reactants must absorb before a rxn can begin
Reactants
Products
Protiens, DNA, carbohydrates, phospholipids
are rich in “potential energy”
Enzyme
EA barrier
Reactants
1 Figure 5.5A
Products
2
EA without
enzyme
EA with
enzyme
Energy
Reactants
Net
change
in energy
Products
Figure 5.5B
Progress of the reaction

A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction
◦
Enzymes have unique three-dimensional shapes
that determine which chemical reactions occur
in a cell
◦
Substrate- specific reactant that an enzyme acts on
Active site- region of enzyme that the substrate fits
into
Induced fit- enzyme changes shape slightly to fit the
substrate best
◦
◦
◦
The catalytic cycle of an enzyme
1
Enzyme available
with empty active site
Substrate
(sucrose)
Active site
2
Glucose
Substrate binds to
enzyme with induced fit
Enzyme
(sucrase)
Fructose
H2 O
4
Products are
released
Figure 5.6
3
Substrate is
converted to products
Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action
1.
2.
3.
A competitive inhibitor- Takes the
place of a substrate in the active site
A noncompetitive inhibitor- Alters an
enzyme’s function by changing its
shape
Feedback Inhibition- Metabolic rxn is
blocked by products
Substrate
Active site
Enzyme
Normal binding of substrate
Competitive
inhibitor
Figure 5.8
Noncompetitive
inhibitor
Enzyme inhibition
Activity 3.3.1 What are action molecules
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Part A: Research- Notes and Concept Map
Part B: Enzymes- Model Building
Part C: Co-enzymes- Augment A and B
Present to the class Friday!
Today Due A!
Activity 3.3.1 What are action molecules


Part A: Research- Notes and Concept Map
Essential Questions 3 to 6
3.
4.
5.
6.

How are enzymes able to function with such specificity?
Why are enzymes important to human health?
What might happen if an enzyme was missing or didn’t work
properly?
What are examples of enzymes found in the digestive
system?
Move on to Part B and C
Section 3.4 Hormones, Insulin & Diabetes


A hormone is a substance that has an effect on cells
that can be very far away from where the hormone
is released.
 Insulin is an important hormone
Diabetes
 Due to a breakdown in the feedback mechanism
that uses insulin to control the level of glucose in
the blood and its transport into cells.
Activity 3.4.1 Can Negative Feedback Be a
Positive Thing?

Essential Questions 1 and 2.
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What is a feedback mechanism?
In what ways do negative feedback and positive feedback differ?
Key Terms
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Feedback
Hormone
Insulin
Negative Feedback
Positive Feedback
Feedback loops


Feedback- a signal within a
system that is used to
control that system
Feedback loop- When
feedback occurs and a
response results

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
found in many living and
non-living systems
enhance or inhibit changes
keep a system operating
effectively
Feedback Loops
Negative Feedback Loops

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Move above and below
Target set point
Towards stabilization
E.g. temperature
Positive Feedback Loops

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Move away from
Target set point
Amplify
E.g. fruit ripening (ethylene)
Negative Feedback: Body Temperature 37⁰C

Too Hot
1.
2.
3.
4.

Sweat- Evaporatative cooling
Vasodialate- (red face) Blood carried to surface, convection
Temperature Drops too far
Turn off cooling mechanisms
Too Cold
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Goose bumps- Hair stands on end, skin pulls tight to
conserve heat
Vasoconstrict- Pull blood inward, less convection
Shivering- Muscle constriction
Temperature goes too high
Turn off heating mechanisms
Negative Feedback: Blood Glucose Level


Uses insulin & glucagon hormones
Pancreas- Regulates BGL


High BGL
1.
2.
3.
4.

Alpha and beta cells sense BGL
High insulin secretion from pancreas
Triggers cells to use more glucose
Triggers liver to store glucose as glycogen
BGL decrease
Low BGL
1.
2.
3.
4.
Pancreas STOPS producing insulin
Produces glucagon
Frees glucose from glycogen in liver
BGL increase
1.
2.
3.
Glucose- Free
in blood, what
cells use for
energy
GlycogenStored glucose
in the liver
Glucagonhormone
stimulates
freeing of
glucose
What if there is an error in the loop?

Type I Diabetics




Beta cells don’t work
No insulin is secreted
Glucose levels increase
without a check and balance
Type II Diabetics



Too much glucose
throughout life
Cells stop recognizing insulin
Glucose levels increase
without a check and balance
Why do insulin injections help?
Why is too much sugar bad?

Essential Questions 3 and 4.



3. Why is having too much sugar in blood bad?
4. What might happen to cells that are exposed to high
concentrations of sugar?
Key Terms








Concentration Gradient
Hypertonic
Hypotonic
Isotonic
Osmosis
Solute
Solution
Solvent
TEM 200,000 
Outside
of cell
Cytoplasm
Figure 5.10
Cell Membrane
 Plasma membrane is
selectively
permeable
 Phospholipid bilayer Phospholipids
1 phosphate group
and 2 fatty acids
 hydrophilic head
 hydrophobic tails

Figure 5.11A
Transport Across Membrane

Diffusion- Passive Transport



Facilitated Diffusion

Still passive (no energy required) move solutes against a concentration

Requires the help of transport proteins
Diffusion of water from a solution of lower solute concentration
to one of higher solute concentration
Active Transport


gradient
Osmosis


Particles spread out evenly in an available space, moving from high
concentrated to regions where they are less concentrated
Transport proteins move solutes against a concentration
gradient, requires energy
Exocytosis and Endocytosis

Move large molecules across the membrane
Hydrophilic
heads
Water
Hydrophobic
tails
Hydrophilic
heads
Figure 5.11B
Water
Diffusion


Particles spread out evenly in an available space
Moving from high concentration to low concentration




Concentration Gradient
Travel down concentration gradient until equilibrium is
obtained
Multiple substances diffuse independently
Passive transport- substances diffuse through
membranes without work by the cell



O2 and CO2 move in and out of our red blood cells in our lung
Small, nonpolar molecules diffuse easily
What about large molecules, ions or polar molecules?
Molecules of dye
Membrane
Equilibrium
Equilibrium
Facilitated Diffusion

Many kinds of molecules do not diffuse freely across
membranes




Require facilitation
Still passive transport- no energy required
Facilitated by transport proteins in 2 ways



Charge, size, polarity
Transport protein provides a pore for solute to pass
Transport protein binds to solute, changes shape and releases
it on the other side
Solute examples

Sugars, amino acids, ions and water
Solute Molecule
Transport Protein
Osmosis




DIFFERENT!
NOT about the movement of solute!!!
The diffusion of water across a membrane
Water travels from a solution of lower solute
concentration to one of higher solute concentration
 Water is used to “balance out” different solute
concentrations to equilibrium
 “waters down” the side with “too much” solute
Lower
concentration
of solute
Higher
concentration
of solute
Equal
concentration
of solute
Solute
molecule
H2O
Selectively
permeable
membrane
Water
molecule
Solute molecule with
cluster of water molecules
Net flow of water
Osmosis and Water Balance





Osmoregulation- the control of water balance
Isotonic- solution = in solute concentration to the
cell
Hypotonic - solution with solute concentration lower
than the cell
Hypertonic- solution with solute concentration
greater than the cell
Osmosis causes cells to:
 shrink in hypertonic solutions
 swell in hypotonic solutions
Isotonic solution
H2O
Hypotonic solution
Hypertonic solution
H2O
H2O
H2O
Animal
cell
(1) Normal
H2O
H2
O
(2) Lysed
H2O
(3) Shriveled
Plasma
membrane
H2O
Plant
cell
(4) Flaccid
(5) Turgid
(6) Shriveled
(plasmolyzed)
Active Transport

Cell work is not ALWAYS about balance

Ex) The cell needs more K+ and less Na+ than its’
external environment (Na+/K+ PUMP) to generate
nerve signals
Cells expend energy for active transport
 Transport proteins can move solutes against a
concentration gradient
◦ To the side with the most solute
◦ requires ATP
◦ Ex) The cell needs more K+ and less Na+ than
its’ external environment (Na+/K+ PUMP) to
generate nerve signals

Transport
protein
ATP
Solute
1 Solute binding
P
ADP
P
Protein
changes shape
2 Phosphorylation 3 Transport
Phosphate
detaches
P
4 Protein reversion
Exocytosis and endocytosis



Transport large molecules particles through a
membrane
Exocytosis- A vesicle may fuse with the membrane
and expel its contents
Endocytosis- Membranes may fold inward enclosing
material from the outside
Vesicle
Protein
Vesicle forming
Figure 5.19B
Activity 3.4.2
Ms. Merritt Bates-Thomas
Nutrition Services Supervisor, Green River
District Health Department
Section 3.4 Continued

3.4.5 Career Journals: Due Friday!



Endocrinologist
Diabetes health counselor
Activity 3.4.3

Essential Questions



5. What is the role of insulin in our body?
6. How does insulin accomplish its job?
Activity 3.4.4

Essential Questions



7. What is diabetes?
8. How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ?
9. What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?

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