Unit Two: Diabetes Serious effects a disease within one system can have on homeostasis in the body as a whole Back to Anna… The ME noted she was wearing a Medical Alert bracelet labeling her as a diabetic Pay attention to all aspects of her medical history and think about how diabetes impacts overall health and wellness. Could this disease have contributed to her death? Diabetes by the Numbers… Worldwide 2002 - 171,000,000 known to be diabetic 2005 – 1 million people died from diabetes 2030- 371,000,000 expected to be diabetic In the U.S. 2002 – 17,702,000 known to be diabetic 2030 – 30,317,000 expected 1/3 of adults do not know they have it 2002 - $132 billion health care cost, today BILLIONS! (CDC) 2000-2005 – age of onset getting younger 2.1 What is diabetes? 2.1 Essential Questions What is diabetes? How is glucose tolerance testing used to diagnose diabetes? How does the development of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes relate to how the body produces and uses insulin? What is the relationship between insulin and glucose? How does insulin assist with the movement of glucose into body cells? What is homeostasis? What does feedback refer to in the human body? How does the body regulate the level of blood glucose? 2.1 Key Terms Glucagon Glucose Tolerance Test Homeostasis Hormone Insulin Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Height 4’10” 4'11" 5'0" 5'1" 5'2" 5'3" 5'4" 5'5" 5'6" 5'7" 5'8" 5'9" 5'10" 5'11" 6'0" 6'1" 6'2" 6'3" 6'4" Weight 148 lbs 153 lbs 158 lbs 164 lbs 169 lbs 175 lbs 180 lbs 186 lbs 192 lbs 198 lbs 203 lbs 209 lbs 216 lbs 222 lbs 228 lbs 235 lbs 241 lbs 248 lbs 254 lbs Activity 2.1.1 Diagnosing Diabetes Patient Histories The Fasting Plasma Glucose Test (FPG) Gestational diabetes Monitors the amount of sugar in blood plasma, over a set time period Insulin Level Testing Preferred method: easy to do, convenient, and less expensive than Glucose Tolerance Testing (GTT) (vs. FPGTT) Case histories, physical exams, blood tests, urine test…etc. Used to determine whether a patient has Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test.This blood test Blood sugar levels over a two to three month period and may assist in a diagnosis of diabetes and subsequent control Activity 2.1.1 Includes the following Conclusion Questions Table and figure of GTT results Table and figure of IT results Paragraph diagnosing each patient with/without diabetes and if diabetic (based on GTT) if it’s Type I or II (based on IT) Notes Copy/paste tables and figures in word Figures are not titled in excel, just word Be sure to name axes, fix increments on x-axis and adjust scale to get rid of empty space. Figure 1. Glucose Tolerance Test Results 225 Glocose Level mg/dL 215 205 195 Anna Patient A Patient B 185 175 165 155 145 0 30 60 90 Minute Intervals 120 Figure 2. Insulin Test Results 450 Insulin Level uuU/L 400 350 300 250 Anna Patient A Patient B 200 150 100 50 0 0 30 60 90 Minute Intervals 120 Blood Test Results for Diabetes Anna Garcia is a Type 1 diabetic Patient A is not diabetic, but should be considered pre-diabetic A prolonged rise in blood glucose levels indicates that Anna is a diabetic. A lack of insulin in the blood at each time period indicates that she is a Type 1 diabetic. She is not producing insulin and thus her glucose levels are remaining elevated over the time period. A brief rise in glucose levels stays within the range of normal (perhaps elevated for a bit too long) However, risk factors described show that the patient is at risk for Type 2 diabetes. Patient B is a Type 2 diabetic A prolonged rise in blood glucose levels indicates that Patient B is a diabetic. Insulin testing reveals a normal level of insulin in the blood in response to increased levels of glucose. Therefore, the patient produces insulin, but it is not being effectively used by the body, indicating Type 2 diabetes. Interpreting Your Results! 2.1.2: The Insulin Glucose Connection Insulin is required for your cells to take up glucose Glucose Transport Proteins (GLUTs) Without Insulin… Cells do not take in the glucose they need for energy Body doesn’t produce insulin = Type I Cells becomes resistant to insulin= Type 2 diabetes Same effect as if there was not insulin present The cells do not take in glucose from the blood Types of Diabetes Type 1: Insulin-Deficient Diabetes (Juvenile Diabetes) Type 2: Insulin-Resistant Diabetes (Adult Onset) Blood Glucose Level Insulin keeps it in homeostasis Uses insulin, glycogen & glucagon hormones Pancreas- Regulates BGL High BGL 1. 2. 3. 4. Alpha and beta cells sense BGL High insulin (hormone) secretion from pancreas Triggers cells to use more glucose Triggers liver to store glucose as glycogen BGL decrease Low BGL 1. 2. 3. 4. Pancreas STOPS producing insulin Produces glucagon (hormone) Frees glucose from glycogen in liver BGL increase 1. 2. 3. Glucose- Free in blood, what cells use for energy Glycogen- Stored glucose in the liver Glucagonhormone stimulates freeing of glucose Project 2.1.2 Build a 3-D working model that demonstrates the role of insulin in getting glucose into a cell as well as shows the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Make sure that the model accurately depicts the role of the following terms in blood sugar regulation: Glucose transport proteins Cell membrane Glucose Blood Cell Insulin Insulin receptors Glycogen Glucagon Design requirements for the model The model must be constructed of materials easily accessible at home or school. The model must be 3-D with moveable parts. The model should be labeled clearly. The model must accurately show the role of insulin as it relates to glucose in the body. The model must accurately depict the role of the following terms in blood sugar regulation: Glucose transport proteins Cell membrane Glucose Blood Cell Insulin Insulin receptors 2.1.3 Homeostasis & Diabetes Internal stability within the body Metabolic processes occur within normal ranges Homeostasis disrupted = disease or illness Example: Diabetes Lack of insulin function = Diabetes What is Insulin? Very Important Protein (hormone) Regulates glucose entering cells Created by the Pancreas Controls blood sugar Diabetes Complications 50% of diabetics will have heart disease 12% of diabetics will suffer serious vision loss early on 75% of diabetics will suffer serious vision loss after 15 years 1/10 of U.S. health care dollars are spent to treat diabetes The Good News Good News Better treatments Earlier diagnosis Proactive early intervention techniques New Research But: There is no cure. Yet! Look at role of: Food Macromolecules Metabolism Feedback loops Blood sugar concentration Insulin Key Terms & Essential Questions Key Terms Calorie Nutrient Molecule Essential Question 1 1- What are the nutrients identified on food labels? Discuss What do we already know about diabetes Why does a diabetic have to watch what he or she eats? Ask students for examples of junk or healthy food. Activity 3.1.1 What’s in the Stuff We Eat? Activity 3.1.1 What’s in the Stuff We Eat? Acess through your curriculum icon Handouts Nutritional Terms Chart Label Analysis Chart Password Click the orange button that says, “Set My Password”. In the window that pops up, type in your last name and your KCTCS ID number, then click the “Sign In” button. Be at least eight characters in length Contain characters from three of the following four categories: English uppercase characters (A through Z) English lowercase characters (a through z) Base 10 digits (0 through 9) Symbolic characters (e.g., !, $, #, %) Be significantly different from prior passwords. Not contain your name or user name. Not be a common word or name. Passwords expire after 90 days. Activity 3.1.2: How much energy is in food? What is a calorie, and how is it related to food? Heat= energy As the food burns…energy is being released First Law of Thermodynamics Energy can be changed from one form to another, but it cannot be created or destroyed. Essential Question 2- How is the amount of energy in a food determined? Key Terms Chemical Bond Chemical Reaction Compound Activity 3.1.2 Calorimetry Food labels list the number of calories in a serving of a food The number of calories is an indication of the amount of energy that a serving of food provides to the body When referring to food, a calorie is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1° C The number of calories in a piece of food is determined by measuring the increase in temperature of a known volume of water when a portion of the food is burned This process for measuring the amount of energy in food is called calorimetry A little bit of chemistry… The Bulk of Living Matter: CARBON, HYDROGEN, OXYGEN, AND NITROGEN Trace elements Essential to life Occur in minute amounts Common additives to food and water Dietary deficiencies Physiological conditions Ex) iodized salt Elements can combine to form compounds CompoundsChemical elements combined in fixed ratios Sodium Chlorine Sodium Chloride Figure 2.3 Atoms The smallest particle of matter that still retains the properties of an element Composed of 3 Subatomic Particles 1. 2. 3. PROTONS: POSITIVE CHARGE NEUTRONS: NEUTRAL CHARGE ELECTRONS: NEGATIVE CHARGE Subatomic Particles PROTONS Positive charge In a central nucleus NEUTRONS Neutral charge In a central nucleus = in wt. to protons ELECTRONS Negative charge Arranged in electron shells Surrounding nucleus MUCH lighter 1/2,000 Outermost electron shell (can hold 8 electrons) First electron shell (can hold 2 electrons) Electron Hydrogen (H) Carbon (C) Atomic number = 1 Atomic number = 6 Periodic Table Nitrogen (N) Atomic number = 7 Oxygen (O) Atomic number = 8 Subatomic Algebra Protons= atomic number Protons + neutrons= mass number Atomic number Isotopes The number of neutrons in an atom may vary Variant forms of an element are called isotopes Some isotopes are radioactive Atoms whose shells are not full Tend to interact with other atoms and • gain • lose • or share electrons These interactions form chemical bonds • Ionic bonds- attractions between ions of opposite charge • Covalent bonds- join atoms into molecules through electron sharing (unequally shared= polarity) • Hydrogen bonds- are weak bonds important in the chemistry of life Essential Qs & Key Terms Get 3.1 and 3.2 Crossword Essential Questions 3. What is the basic structure of all matter? 4. What is a chemical reaction? 5. What is the role of a chemical bond in energy transfers? 6. What is the relationship between nutrients, food, chemical reactions, and energy? Key Terms Covalent bond Homeostasis Hydrogen bond Hydrophilic Ionic bond Polarity Solute Solution Solvent Activity 3.1.3 Takes you through a lesson on molecules Starts with an interactive presentation available on our website: http://lifescienceacademy.weebly.com/unit-3.html Interactive Molecules PowerPoint You MUST follow directions as you go through Lab Manual Molecule Kit Atomic model Resource Kit Sports Drink vs. Water Resource Sheet Sports Drinks vs. Water Essential Questions 7. 8. Why is water balance such an important factor in maintaining homeostasis? Are sports drinks a valuable tool in maintaining water balance? 3.2.1 Macromolecules Large organic molecules that contain carbon Necessary for life Made by combining smaller molecules Polymers—made of repeating sub-units called monomers. Proteins, Carbohydrates, Nucleic Acids Four classes of Macromolecules Proteins Carbohydrates Nucleic Acids Lipids Proteins Amino Acid building blocks Tryptophan Leucine amine (-NH2) carboxylic acid (-COOH) Functions Structure (tissues, organs) Movement Cellular communication Storage Transport Metabolic reactions (enzymes) Protection (antibodies) Carbohydrates Building Blocks Large carbohydrates Monosaccharides One sugar Glucose, Fructose Polysaccharides Many sugars Starch, Glycogen Functions Energy source Structure Store energy for later use Cell communication Nucleic Acids Building Blocks Two types of nucleic acids Nucleotide Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Function Passing traits from generation to generation Protein production Lipids (not polymers) No single building block Made of C, H and O Fats (triglycerides) Steroids Oils and waxes Phospholipids Fat soluble vitamins Functions: Energy storage (triglycerides) Cell communication Structural Insulation Protection (wax) 3.2 Key Terms Adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) Amino Acid Carbohydrate Chemical Indicator Dehydration Synthesis Disaccharide Electrolyte Glucose Hydrolysis Lipid Macromolecule Monomer Monosaccharide Polymer Polysaccharide Protein Essential Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. What are the main structural components of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids? How do carbohydrates, proteins and lipids differ in structure and function? What types of foods supply carbohydrates, proteins and lipids? What is dehydration synthesis? What is hydrolysis? How do dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis relate to food? How can macromolecules be detected in foods? Activity 3.2.1 Go step by step Open activity in curriculum file Use either loose leaf notebook paper or copy paper to create your answer packet Write Activity 3.2.1 at top Get my OK when directed to do so DO NOT SKIP around…it will only make it harder! Followed by your name Two sections Procedure (make your sketches large, ½ page minimum) Conclusion Questions (complete sentences) Activity 3.1.2 Math Review Mass of H2O Change in H2O Temp Change in Food Mass E Gained by water (calories) E food (chem cal/g) E food (food cal/g) Food Energy (joules/g) Food Energy (kilojoules/g) Sample 1 Sample 2 82.30 91.90 0.08 2.30 0.10 1.30 6.58 65.84 0.07 275.61 0.28 211.37 162.59 0.16 680.61 0.68 Energy gained by water (chemistry calories) = (mass of water) x (change in temperature) x (specific heat of water) The specific heat of water is 1 calorie ÷ (1 g x 1°C)= 1. Activity 3.1.2 Math Review Mass of H2O Change in H2O Temp Change in Food Mass E Gained by water (calories) E food (chem cal/g) E food (food cal/g) Food Energy (joules/g) Food Energy (kilojoules/g) Sample 1 Sample 2 82.30 91.90 0.08 2.30 0.10 1.30 6.58 65.84 0.07 275.61 0.28 211.37 162.59 0.16 680.61 0.68 Energy content of the food sample (chemistry calories) = Energy gained by water ÷ change in mass of food Activity 3.1.2 Math Review Mass of H2O Change in H2O Temp Change in Food Mass E Gained by water (calories) E food (chem cal/g) E food (food cal/g) Food Energy (joules/g) Food Energy (kilojoules/g) Sample 1 Sample 2 82.30 91.90 0.08 2.30 0.10 1.30 6.58 65.84 0.07 275.61 0.28 211.37 162.59 0.16 680.61 0.68 Calculate the energy content of the food sample in food calories. 1 food calorie= 1000 chem calories (1 km= 1000m) Chem calorie/1000= food calorie (m/1000=km Activity 3.1.2 Math Review Mass of H2O Change in H2O Temp Change in Food Mass E Gained by water (calories) E food (chem cal/g) E food (food cal/g) Food Energy (joules/g) Food Energy (kilojoules/g) Sample 1 Sample 2 82.30 91.90 0.08 2.30 0.10 1.30 6.58 65.84 0.07 275.61 0.28 211.37 162.59 0.16 680.61 0.68 Calculate the food energy (joules/g). One chemistry calorie is equal to 4.186 joules. E food (chem cal/g) * 4.186= joules/g Divide by 1000 to get kJ/g Activity 3.1.2 Math Review Mass of H2O Change in H2O Temp Change in Food Mass E Gained by water (calories) E food (chem cal/g) E food (food cal/g) Food Energy (joules/g) Food Energy (kilojoules/g) Sample 1 Sample 2 82.30 91.90 0.08 2.30 0.10 1.30 6.58 65.84 0.07 275.61 0.28 211.37 162.59 0.16 680.61 0.68 Energy gained by water (chemistry calories) = (mass of water) x (change in temperature) x (specific heat of water) The specific heat of water is 1 calorie ÷ (1 g x 1°C)= 1. Section 3.3: Molecules Working Together Protein- Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids Are an essential part of all living organisms Structure dictates function! One primary function- to act as enzymes! Activity 3.3.1 Essential Questions 1 and 2 1. What is an enzyme? 2. What is the general role of enzymes in the human body? Key Terms Catalyst Enzyme Homeostasis pH Scale Substrate A protein catalyst called an enzyme decreases the energy of activation needed to begin a reaction enzyme- a protein molecule that functions as a biological catalyst, increasing the rate of a reaction without itself being changed into a different molecule HOW ENZYMES FUNCTION Enzymes speed up the cell’s chemical reactions by lowering energy barriers ◦ ◦ ◦ Energy of Activation- Amount of Energy reactants must absorb before a rxn can begin Reactants Products Protiens, DNA, carbohydrates, phospholipids are rich in “potential energy” Enzyme EA barrier Reactants 1 Figure 5.5A Products 2 EA without enzyme EA with enzyme Energy Reactants Net change in energy Products Figure 5.5B Progress of the reaction A specific enzyme catalyzes each cellular reaction ◦ Enzymes have unique three-dimensional shapes that determine which chemical reactions occur in a cell ◦ Substrate- specific reactant that an enzyme acts on Active site- region of enzyme that the substrate fits into Induced fit- enzyme changes shape slightly to fit the substrate best ◦ ◦ ◦ The catalytic cycle of an enzyme 1 Enzyme available with empty active site Substrate (sucrose) Active site 2 Glucose Substrate binds to enzyme with induced fit Enzyme (sucrase) Fructose H2 O 4 Products are released Figure 5.6 3 Substrate is converted to products Enzyme inhibitors block enzyme action 1. 2. 3. A competitive inhibitor- Takes the place of a substrate in the active site A noncompetitive inhibitor- Alters an enzyme’s function by changing its shape Feedback Inhibition- Metabolic rxn is blocked by products Substrate Active site Enzyme Normal binding of substrate Competitive inhibitor Figure 5.8 Noncompetitive inhibitor Enzyme inhibition Activity 3.3.1 What are action molecules Part A: Research- Notes and Concept Map Part B: Enzymes- Model Building Part C: Co-enzymes- Augment A and B Present to the class Friday! Today Due A! Activity 3.3.1 What are action molecules Part A: Research- Notes and Concept Map Essential Questions 3 to 6 3. 4. 5. 6. How are enzymes able to function with such specificity? Why are enzymes important to human health? What might happen if an enzyme was missing or didn’t work properly? What are examples of enzymes found in the digestive system? Move on to Part B and C Section 3.4 Hormones, Insulin & Diabetes A hormone is a substance that has an effect on cells that can be very far away from where the hormone is released. Insulin is an important hormone Diabetes Due to a breakdown in the feedback mechanism that uses insulin to control the level of glucose in the blood and its transport into cells. Activity 3.4.1 Can Negative Feedback Be a Positive Thing? Essential Questions 1 and 2. What is a feedback mechanism? In what ways do negative feedback and positive feedback differ? Key Terms 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Feedback Hormone Insulin Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Feedback loops Feedback- a signal within a system that is used to control that system Feedback loop- When feedback occurs and a response results found in many living and non-living systems enhance or inhibit changes keep a system operating effectively Feedback Loops Negative Feedback Loops Move above and below Target set point Towards stabilization E.g. temperature Positive Feedback Loops Move away from Target set point Amplify E.g. fruit ripening (ethylene) Negative Feedback: Body Temperature 37⁰C Too Hot 1. 2. 3. 4. Sweat- Evaporatative cooling Vasodialate- (red face) Blood carried to surface, convection Temperature Drops too far Turn off cooling mechanisms Too Cold 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Goose bumps- Hair stands on end, skin pulls tight to conserve heat Vasoconstrict- Pull blood inward, less convection Shivering- Muscle constriction Temperature goes too high Turn off heating mechanisms Negative Feedback: Blood Glucose Level Uses insulin & glucagon hormones Pancreas- Regulates BGL High BGL 1. 2. 3. 4. Alpha and beta cells sense BGL High insulin secretion from pancreas Triggers cells to use more glucose Triggers liver to store glucose as glycogen BGL decrease Low BGL 1. 2. 3. 4. Pancreas STOPS producing insulin Produces glucagon Frees glucose from glycogen in liver BGL increase 1. 2. 3. Glucose- Free in blood, what cells use for energy GlycogenStored glucose in the liver Glucagonhormone stimulates freeing of glucose What if there is an error in the loop? Type I Diabetics Beta cells don’t work No insulin is secreted Glucose levels increase without a check and balance Type II Diabetics Too much glucose throughout life Cells stop recognizing insulin Glucose levels increase without a check and balance Why do insulin injections help? Why is too much sugar bad? Essential Questions 3 and 4. 3. Why is having too much sugar in blood bad? 4. What might happen to cells that are exposed to high concentrations of sugar? Key Terms Concentration Gradient Hypertonic Hypotonic Isotonic Osmosis Solute Solution Solvent TEM 200,000 Outside of cell Cytoplasm Figure 5.10 Cell Membrane Plasma membrane is selectively permeable Phospholipid bilayer Phospholipids 1 phosphate group and 2 fatty acids hydrophilic head hydrophobic tails Figure 5.11A Transport Across Membrane Diffusion- Passive Transport Facilitated Diffusion Still passive (no energy required) move solutes against a concentration Requires the help of transport proteins Diffusion of water from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration Active Transport gradient Osmosis Particles spread out evenly in an available space, moving from high concentrated to regions where they are less concentrated Transport proteins move solutes against a concentration gradient, requires energy Exocytosis and Endocytosis Move large molecules across the membrane Hydrophilic heads Water Hydrophobic tails Hydrophilic heads Figure 5.11B Water Diffusion Particles spread out evenly in an available space Moving from high concentration to low concentration Concentration Gradient Travel down concentration gradient until equilibrium is obtained Multiple substances diffuse independently Passive transport- substances diffuse through membranes without work by the cell O2 and CO2 move in and out of our red blood cells in our lung Small, nonpolar molecules diffuse easily What about large molecules, ions or polar molecules? Molecules of dye Membrane Equilibrium Equilibrium Facilitated Diffusion Many kinds of molecules do not diffuse freely across membranes Require facilitation Still passive transport- no energy required Facilitated by transport proteins in 2 ways Charge, size, polarity Transport protein provides a pore for solute to pass Transport protein binds to solute, changes shape and releases it on the other side Solute examples Sugars, amino acids, ions and water Solute Molecule Transport Protein Osmosis DIFFERENT! NOT about the movement of solute!!! The diffusion of water across a membrane Water travels from a solution of lower solute concentration to one of higher solute concentration Water is used to “balance out” different solute concentrations to equilibrium “waters down” the side with “too much” solute Lower concentration of solute Higher concentration of solute Equal concentration of solute Solute molecule H2O Selectively permeable membrane Water molecule Solute molecule with cluster of water molecules Net flow of water Osmosis and Water Balance Osmoregulation- the control of water balance Isotonic- solution = in solute concentration to the cell Hypotonic - solution with solute concentration lower than the cell Hypertonic- solution with solute concentration greater than the cell Osmosis causes cells to: shrink in hypertonic solutions swell in hypotonic solutions Isotonic solution H2O Hypotonic solution Hypertonic solution H2O H2O H2O Animal cell (1) Normal H2O H2 O (2) Lysed H2O (3) Shriveled Plasma membrane H2O Plant cell (4) Flaccid (5) Turgid (6) Shriveled (plasmolyzed) Active Transport Cell work is not ALWAYS about balance Ex) The cell needs more K+ and less Na+ than its’ external environment (Na+/K+ PUMP) to generate nerve signals Cells expend energy for active transport Transport proteins can move solutes against a concentration gradient ◦ To the side with the most solute ◦ requires ATP ◦ Ex) The cell needs more K+ and less Na+ than its’ external environment (Na+/K+ PUMP) to generate nerve signals Transport protein ATP Solute 1 Solute binding P ADP P Protein changes shape 2 Phosphorylation 3 Transport Phosphate detaches P 4 Protein reversion Exocytosis and endocytosis Transport large molecules particles through a membrane Exocytosis- A vesicle may fuse with the membrane and expel its contents Endocytosis- Membranes may fold inward enclosing material from the outside Vesicle Protein Vesicle forming Figure 5.19B Activity 3.4.2 Ms. Merritt Bates-Thomas Nutrition Services Supervisor, Green River District Health Department Section 3.4 Continued 3.4.5 Career Journals: Due Friday! Endocrinologist Diabetes health counselor Activity 3.4.3 Essential Questions 5. What is the role of insulin in our body? 6. How does insulin accomplish its job? Activity 3.4.4 Essential Questions 7. What is diabetes? 8. How do Type I and Type II diabetes differ? 9. What are the current treatments for Type I and Type II diabetes?