HSSP_2.ppt

Report
The Science
of Nutrition
A Microscopic to
Macroscopic Approach
Today’s Agenda
JEOPARDY
2. Lipids
3. Vitamins & Minerals
4. Nutritional Density
1.
JEOPARDY
Split into two equal teams and get out your note books.
4
Lipids
Types of Lipids
Fatty Acids
Fats, and Oils
Chemical Properties of Triglycerides
5
Types of Lipids
 Lipids
with fatty acids
Waxes
Fats and oils (trigycerides)
Phospholipids
Sphingolipids
 Lipids
without fatty acids
Steroids
What foods contain fat?
7
Fats
Fat refers to the class of nutrients known as lipids. The
lipid family includes triglycerides (fats and oils),
phospholipids, and sterols.
Every triglyceride contains one molecule of
glycerol and three fatty acids.
8
Fatty Acids
Fatty acids are chains of carbon atoms with
hydrogen atoms attached that have an
acid group (COOH) at one end and a
methyl group (CH3) at the other end.
9
Fatty Acids
 Long-chain
carboxylic acids
 Insoluble in water
 Typically 12-18 carbon atoms (even
number)
 Some contain double bonds
corn oil contains 86%
unsaturated fatty acids and
14% saturated fatty acids
10
Saturated v. Unsaturated Fatty
Acids
Saturated fatty acids carry the maximum
possible number of hydrogen atoms, while
unsaturated fatty acids lack hydrogen
atoms and have at least one double bond
between carbons.
11
Structure of Fatty Acids
Saturated = C–C bonds
Unsaturated = one or more C=C
bonds
C OOH
p a lm itic a c id , a s a tu ra te d a c id
C OOH
p a lm ito le ic a c id , a n u n s a tu ra te d fa tty a c id
12
Structures
Saturated fatty acids
 Fit closely in regular pattern
C OOH
C OOH
C OOH
H
Unsaturated fatty acids
C
 Cis double bonds
H
C
cis d o u b le b o n d
C OOH
13
Properties of Saturated
Fatty Acids
 Contain
 Closely
 Strong
 High
only single C–C bonds
packed
attractions between chains
melting points
 Solids
at room temperature
14
Properties of Unsaturated
Fatty Acids
 Contain
one or more double C=C bonds
 Nonlinear chains do not allow molecules
to pack closely
 Few interactions between chains
 Low melting points
 Liquids at room temperature
15
Fats in Your Diet
• Try not to eat any trans fats
– Increases bad (LDL) cholesterol, lowers good (HDL)
cholesterol – risk of heart disease
• Keep saturated fat consumption to a minimum
• Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats –
between 15-30% daily caloric intake
– Sources: olive oil, safflower oil, peanut oil and corn oil
• Avoid hydrogenated or partially hydrogenated
oils – added hydrogen to make it solid, preserve –
check labels!
1.What foods are high in trans
fat?
2.What foods are high in
saturated fat?
3.What foods are high in
unsaturated fat?
4. What do you want to avoid
in your diet?
17
Benefits of Dietary Fats
• Fat is an essential part of your diet
• Vital for your cell membranes
and some cellular functions
• Insulates our body
• Energy supplier
• Absorption and transportation around
body of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K
• Fat surrounds and protects organs,
including our kidneys
What do you notice?
Peanut Butter
Jelly
NUTRITIONAL
DENSITY
A Different Approach to
Thinking about Nutrition
WHAT IS DESNSITY?
WHAT IS NUTRITIONAL DESNITY?
Nutritional Density = Nutrients/Calorie
 How
much
nutritional value
(mass) per one
calorie (volume)
Two Types of Nutrients
Macronutrients
Micronutrients

B Vitamins


Folate



Citrus, tomatoes,
peppers, leafy greens
Vitamin D
Vitamin K


Almonds, seeds,
asparagus
Vitamin C


Leafy greens
Vitamin E


Bananas, seeds, green
vegetables, sweet
potato, nuts
Cauliflower, Broccoli,
Brussle Sprouts, Greens
Vitamin

Carrots,
broccoli,mango,
cantaloupe
Vitamins
Vitamins are organic
substances bodies need to
grow, metabolize, and develop
normally. Deficiencies in
vitamins can lead to disease
and poor health.

Macrominerals








Calcium
Phosphorus
Magnesium
Sodium
Potassium
Sulfur
Chloride
Trace Minerals





Iron
Zinc
Copper
Selenium
Manganese
Minerals
Minerals are the building blocks
that make up muscles, tissues,
and bones and are
components of hormones,
oxygen transport, and enzyme
systems.


Flavonoids
Glucosinolates



Resveratrol


Anti-Inflammatory
Ellagic Acid


Cruciferous
Vegetables
Keep Cancer in
Check
Berries
Carotenoids

Provide fruits and
vegetables with
red, yellow and
orange color
Phytonutrients
Phytonutrients are natural
chemicals found in plants.
There are over 25,000 of them,
and they help fight disease
and keep the body working
Does anything surprise you?
A Final Note about Health
Vitamins
and Minerals
29
30
The Nature of Vitamins
 Vitamins
are organic (carbon)
compounds needed for normal
function, growth and maintenance.
 Vitamins are cofactors, they don’t
do anything by themselves.
 They are not a source of calories.
31
The Nature of Vitamins
 Food
processing can
preserve nutrients.
32
The Nature of Vitamins

Nutritional Value lost by:
 Light
 Heat
 Oxidation
 Bacteria
 Enzymes
 Insects
 (Nutritional value of baby
food must be assured.)
Effect of packaging on
nutrient loss in milk.
Vitamin Requirements
 Daily
Values (DV): standard nutrient intake values
developed by FDA



Includes DRIs (Daily Recommended Intakes for
Individuals) and (DRVs) Daily Recommended Values
(Proteins, etc.)
Disease prevention
Best met through a consumption of a wide variety of
foods
34
Vitamin Requirements
 Dietary
Reference Intakes (DRI):
recommendation for individuals (more
accurate, but would be impossible to label)
 Age
 Gender
 Pregnancy
 Lactation
35
Vitamin Requirements
 Daily
Reference Values (DRV):
standards established for protein
and other dietary components
lacking a RDA or nutrient standard
 Constitute part of the Daily Values
(DV) used on food labels
36
The Nature of Vitamins
cofactors – what is a cofactor?
 Physiological role – specific metabolic
function
 Prevents disease – unlike “supplements”
which may promote “some thing” or have
general metabolic effect
(ex. Omega 3s, fibers)
 Natural = Synthetic (except Vitamin E)
 Organic
Dietary Supplements
$6 Billion Market




They are classified as “Nutritional Supplements” They are not foods,
and not drugs.*
Supplements are “Product intended to supplement the diet and
contains vitamins, minerals, botanicals, amino acids, and their
extracts.”
NOT consumed as a food replacement
Loosely regulated, “not evaluated by FDA”
“drug” is used to
“prevent, treat or cure” disease.
By definition a
These terms cannot be used
with supplements.
Use of some supplements is backed by
scientific data.
38
Fat Soluble Vitamins
– orange, carotenoids, vision, antioxidantused as color and antioxidant
A
– we make it with sunlight, deficiency
causes rickets, in milk, regulates Ca:P ratios
D
– tocopherols, antioxidants, role in
preventing stroke, cancer, heart diseaseused as antioxidant
E
K
– contributes to blood clotting factor
A LOW FAT DIET MAY CAUSE
MALABSORBION
39
Vitamin A
Lots of double bonds, good anti-oxidant
40
Vitamin A







Carrotinoids Used in food industry as a colorant
(orange)
Antioxidant
Important for sight
Dietary deficiency common in developing
countries
 Blindness, bone abnormalities, susceptibility
to viral infections such as measles and
pneumonia
If you take a dietary supplement: teens 14-18
should not consume more than 2800mcg; 19+,
3000mcg
Cooking and storage do not reduce Vitamin A
Carrotenosis
Vitamin A cont.
SOURCES
Carrot juice (450%) /raw carrots
(175%)
QUICK: CARROTS
Boiled (270%)/raw (55%)
spinach
Vegetable soup (115%)
Boiled Peas (20%)
Baked sweet potato with skin
Cantaloupe (110%)
Steamed broccoli
Chicken (245%)/beef (545%)
liver
42
Vitamin D
Also known as calciferol due to its role in
calcium absorption
 Main role is to maintain calcium and potassium
levels



It is the only fat soluble vitamin that we can
make- in the presence of sunlight


Part of Immune System and Nerve Signaling
<1/3 of people meet dietary requirement
Can be made from cholesterol
43
Vitamin D
 Can
be stored in fat tissues (as can all fat
soluble vitamins)
 We get vitamin D form fortified milk and
cereal
 Toxicity is very dangerous
 Occurs only from excess supplementation
 Can lead to calcium deposits in kidneys,
heart and blood vessels
44
Vitamin E




A family of eight naturally occurring compounds
anti-oxidant
Since aging is considered an “oxidation” reaction,
many “anti-oxidants” are used as dietary
supplements
Protect skin, cell communication, from foods
protects against prostate cancer and Alzheimer’s




E in supplements = alpha-tocopherol; in food,
gamma-tocopherol
Role is stroke, cancer, heart, and immune response
Americans spend $300 million per year on vitamin E
supplements
E dependent on C, B3, selenium and glutathione
Vitamin E cont.
QUICK: NUTS
 Low-fat
diet may cause Vitamin E deficiency
(because Vitamin E is fat-soluble!)
 Common in vegetable oils
SOURCES
Wheat germ oil
Dry roasted sunflower seeds
Dry roasted almonds
Safflower/sunflower oil
Dry roasted hazelnuts
Peanut butter/peanuts
Boiled spinach
Vitamin K
QUICK: GREENS
 Vital
for blood clotting, protects bones
 Works as a cofactor for an enzyme that
makes two bone proteins
 Resilient to cooking/freezing
 Estimated daily value need is 80
micrograms
SOURCES
Boiled kale (1/2 cup, 660%)
Boiled (1110.6%)/raw spinach
Raw parsley (153%)
Green leaf lettuce
Boiled green beans (25%)
47
Water Soluble Vitamins
 Relatively
cheap to add
to food
 Only Vitamin C is used
for its functionality
48
Water Soluble Vitamins
 B1,
thiamine
 B2, riboflavin
 B6, pyridoxamine
 B12
 Biotin
 Panothenic acid
 Niacin
 Folacin
 Vitamin C
Water Soluble Vitamins

Vitamin B1
 Thiamine
 Involved in carbohydrate metabolism
 Helps body metabolize glucose, affects central nervous
system

B2- riboflavin
 Energy metabolism
50
Water Soluble Vitamins
 B6

- Pyridoxamine
Neurotransmitter, co-enzyme in over 100
reactions
 B12



–
Development of red blood cells
Lack of it makes one anemic
Hard for vegans to get
Vitamin B12 cont.
QUICK: FISH
SOURCES
Calf’s liver (689.8%)
Sardines (137%)
Baked/broiled snapper (66.2%)
Steamed/boiled shrimp (28.2%)
Baked/broiled salmon (54.2%)
Beef tenderloin (48.7%)
Low-fat yogurt (23%)
52
Water Soluble Vitamins
 Biotin


–
Involved in fatty acid synthesis
Deficiency causes skin disease and hair loss
 Panthothenic


acid
Found in many foods
Essential for metabolism of carbohydrates,
protein, alcohol and fat
53
Vitamin C
 High
in citrus fruits, limes, (Limeys)
 Very inexpensive to add to food, marketing
tool. Antioxidant
 Anti-oxidant, helps immune system,
improve iron absorption
 Deficiency leads to bleeding gums,
hemorrhages
 In supplements as ascorbic acid – in most
multivitamins – check the label!
Vitamin C cont.
 Highly
sensitive to air, water and
temperature! Fresh, raw form is best
QUICK: ORANGE
SOURCES
Raw bell peppers (291%)
Steamed broccoli (84.8%)
Boiled cauliflower (91.5%)
Strawberries (136%)
Romaine lettuce (44.8%)
Papaya (313.1%)
Grapefruit, oranges,
cantaloupe, raspberries…
55
Minerals
 Issues
 Absorption
 Bioavailability
56
Minerals
 Percent








of Body weight
Calcium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sulfur
Sodium
Chloride
Magnesium
Iron
2%
1%
0.3%
0.2%
0.1%
0.1%
0.05%
0.04%
Sodium and Chloride
 Small
amount is essential to live; excessive
consumption  increase blood pressure
(stroke, heart disease…)
 Ideally, limit sodium to 1500mg a day;
maximum 2300mg
 Most sodium intake from processed and
pre-packaged foods (food preservative,
enhance taste) – check labels!
Sodium & Chloride
cont.
NATURALLY LOW CONTENT
Fruits
Vegetables
Fat-free or low-fat dairy
Fresh seafood and meat
products
HIGH SODIUM CONTENT
Un-salted anything
Salad dressing
Soy sauce / ketchup
Chips/Pretzles
Fast food
Processed food
Potassium
 Reduces
blood pressure, help muscle and
nerve function
 Kidney strictly regulates levels of potassium
 Significant loses when cooked
 Athletes – support muscles
 Adults – 4700mg a day (so figure a bit less
for teens)
Potassium cont.
QUICK: BANANA
SOURCES
Baked sweet potato (20%)
Baked potato (17%)
Non-fat yogurt (17%)
Various fish
Banana (12%)
Spinach (12-20%)
Iron
 Oxygen
transport in blood,
 regulate cell growth
 Two forms: heme (absorbed better)
and nonheme (most dietary iron)
 14-18 men 11mg; women 15mg
 19+ men 8mg, women 18mg
 Iron deficiency anemia (too few red
blood cells)
Iron cont.
HEME SOURCES
NONHEME SOURCES
Chicken liber (70%)
Fortified cereal (100%)
Oysters (25%)
Fortified oatmeal (60%)
Turkey (8-10%)
Boiled soybeans (50%)
Beef (20%)
Kidney or lima beans (25%)
Tuna (4%)
Spinach (10-20%)
Calcium
 Bone
health, nerve and muscle function
 Intake over 3000mg daily can lead to
hypercalcemia
 Not affected by cooking or storage
 Vitamin D accelerates absorption,
potassium reduces urinary excretion
Calcium cont.
 To
improve absorption, take with meals – food in
stomach - > hydrochloric acid, which breaks
down calcium carbonate
SOURCES
Milk
Boiled spinach (24.5%)
Turnip/collard/mustard greens
Low-fat yogurt (44.7%)
Mozzarella cheese, part-skim (18.3%)
65
Calcium
Risk Factors- By Mayo Clinic staff
Your gender.
Age.
Race.
Frame size.
Eating disorders.
Low calcium intake.
Excess soda consumption (Ca:P ratio).
The link between osteoporosis and caffeinated sodas isn't clear, but
caffeine may interfere with calcium absorption and its diuretic effect
may increase mineral loss. In addition, the phosphoric acid in soda
may contribute to bone loss.
Bone density can be improved at any time.
67
Soda is the devil’s drink
 Extra
calories
 Poor nutrient density
 Interferes with
calcification
 Replaces more
nutritious drinks
68
Minerals
 Sulfur

Necessary for collagen formation
 Magnesium

Abundant in plants
Fortification vs Enrichment
 Fortification
- restores lost
nutrients due to processing
– adds nutritional value to
meet a specific standard
 Enrichment
Old London
Restaurant Style Croutons. Seasoned
Sourdough.
Enriched Bread,
[Enriched Flour
(Flour,
Niacin,
Ferrous Sulfate,
Thiamin Mononitrate,
Riboflavin,
Folic Acid),
Water,
Yeast,
Sugar,
Salt,
Partially Hydrogenated Soybean Oil ,
Vinegar,
Ascorbic Acid]
Bean Oil with BHT added as a Dextrin

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