DIET THERAPY 1 Fad weight loss diets encourage short-term changes in eating behaviour and as a result, weight lost on these diets is often regained. They often suggest avoiding particular foods or food groups which can mean missing out on important nutrients. A fad weight loss diet is any diet that promises fast weight loss without any scientific basis. These diets often eliminate entire food groups and as a result do not provide a wide range of important nutrients. Diets that encourage fast weight loss usually have little effect on levels of body fat. The initial weight lost on a fad diet is a combination of fluid, muscle and a little fat. When speaking about losing weight, we should probably talk about fat loss rather than weight loss as fluid and muscle are important components of body weight and it is generally not desirable to reduce their levels. When very little food is eaten, the body begins to break down muscle to meet energy (kilojoule) needs. Unfortunately, this occurs much more readily than the breakdown of fat stores. Breaking down muscle leads to a loss of water, creating the illusion of rapid weight loss. Additionally, breaking down muscle leads to a lowered metabolic rate meaning that when the diet is stopped, it is much easier for the body to gain fat than it was prior to going on the diet. As a result, over time, people can diet themselves fatter. Weight loss diets often encourage a shortterm change in eating behaviour, rather than encouraging changes that can be sustained in the long-term. We are continually bombarded with a range of misleading wonder-cures for weight loss. Australians spend millions of dollars each year in their attempts to lose weight. It is estimated that at least 40% Australian women and 20% Australian men are "on a diet" at any one time. Dietition’s Association of Australia With an understanding of what fad diets are and what they claim to do you can effectively understand those your clients have tried and both counsel them as to the nutritional benefits / deficits of these diets and advise them as to how best to deal with the effects of following these fad diets. Therefore, a list of the common fad diets you will meet and need to have an understanding of in private practice is given in the next slide. FAD DIET COMPILATION – a top 20 Anti-aging diet Low fat diet Atkins diet Macrobiotic diet Blood type diet Mediterranean diet Feingold diet Ornish diet Fit For Life diet Pritikin diet Fruitarian diet Scarsdale diet Grapefruit diet Separation diet High carbohydrate diet South Beach Diet Israeli army diet Vegetarian diet Low carbohydrate diet Zone diet Draw up a chart as shown below and fill it in as you work your way through the following information relating to the most common / popular diets available to people. Diet name Advantages Disadvantages ANTI-AGING DIET What is aging? (Katic,M., Kahn,CR. 2005, ‘The role of insulin and IGF-1 signally in longevity’, Cellular and Molecular Life Science, vol.62, iss.3, pp.320-43) o “Aging is the progressive loss of physiological functions that increases the probability of death. This decline in function occurs both within individual cells and within the organism as a whole. Life expectancy (or average lifespan) depends highly on both the biology of aging and the life circumstances of the organism” “Evolutionarily speaking, very few organisms or animals were allowed to age, since mortality from starvation, predators, infection, diseases or environmental stresses often resulted in death before the biology of aging could play a role” “Now, with the development of good principles of hygiene, a wide range of effective medicines and relatively abundant food, the average lifespan in many developed countries is 80 or more years.” “With this increase in lifespan, causes of death have also changed, with infectious diseases and trauma being replaced by cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes mellitus and diseases of the elderly such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.” “Almost 50 years ago, Denham Harman noted parallels between effects of aging and of ionising radiation. He suggested that free radicals produced during aerobic respiration cause cumulative oxidative damage, resulting in aging and ultimately death.” “It has been know for almost 100 years that, in general, species with higher metabolic rates have shorter maximum lifespan, i.e. They age faster”. “Calorie restriction, the selective reduction of energy intake without compromising other essential nutrients, is the most powerful intervention known to retard biological aging in mammals, as assessed by the extension of mean and maximum lifespan, reduced incidence or progression of age associated diseases and preserved physiological function and molecular fidelity with age.” (Rae,M. 2004, ‘It’s never too late: Calories Restriction is Effective in Older Mammals’, Rejuvenation Research, vol.7, pp.3-8) ATKINS DIET In 1972, Robert Atkins, as one of the first pioneers of the low-carbohydrate diet, turned the nutritional world upside down when he proposed that too much carbohydrate, rather than too much fat, may actually cause people to gain weight. (McGuire & Beerman 2007 p.352) The Atkins diet is based on the ‘hunter and gatherer’ style diet. It severely restricts refined carbohydrates, while allows liberal meats, vegies, salads, cheese, fish, eggs, nuts and seeds......... 41 clinical trials as of March 2005 and the most critics. The consumer starts on a severe carb restriction, then a gradual increase in ‘good’carbs until the weight loss normalises. (Eddy,S. 2005, ‘Food as Medicine’, Health Schools Australia, p.58) It is said that A recent publication of a new Food Guide Pyramid by the Harvard School of Nutrition gives some credence to Atkins’ theories What are your thoughts on this pyramid? CABBAGE SOUP DIET http://www.faddiet.com/cabsoupdietp.html The cabbage soup can be eaten at any time you feel hungry during the day, and you can eat as much as you wish as often as you like. Ingredients: o 6 Large Green Onions o 2 Green Peppers o 1-2 Cans Diced Tomatoes o 1 Bunch Celery o 1 Package Lipton Onion Soup Mix o 1-2 Cubes of Buillion (if desired) o 1 head cabbage Day One: o Fruit: Eat all of the fruit you want (EXCEPT BANANAS). Eat only your soup and the fruit for the first day. For drinks- unsweetened teas, cranberry juice and water. Day Two: o Vegetables: • Eat until you are stuffed will all fresh, raw or cooked vegetables of your choice. • Try to eat leafy green vegetables and stay away from dry beans, peas and corn. • Eat all the vegetables you want along with your soup. • At dinner, reward yourself with a big baked potato with butter. • Do not eat fruit today. Day Three: o Mix Days One and Two: Eat all the soup, fruits and vegetables you want. o NO BAKED POTATO. Day Four: o Bananas and Skim Milk: Eat as many as eight bananas and drink as many glasses of skim milk as you would like on this day, along with your soup. This day is supposed to lessen your desire for sweets. Day Five: o Beef And Tomatoes: Ten to twenty ounces of beef and up to six fresh tomatoes. o Drink at least 6 to 8 glasses of water this day to wash the uric acid from your body. Eat your soup at least once this day. o You may eat broiled or baked chicken instead of beef (but absolutely no skin-on chicken). o If you prefer, you can substitute broiled fish for the beef on one of the beef days (but not both). Day Six: o Beef and Vegetables. Eat to your heart's content of beef and vegetables this day. You can even have 2 or 3 steaks if you like, with leafy green vegetables. NO BAKED POTATO. Eat your soup at least once. Day Seven: o Brown rice, unsweetened fruit juices and vegetables: Again STUFF,STUFF,STUFF yourself. Be sure to eat your soup at least once this day. FEINGOLD DIET (http://www.feingold.org/pg-overview.html) Many learning and behaviour problems begin in the grocery trolley! Did you know that the brand of ice cream, cookie, and potato chip you select could have a direct effect on the behaviour, health, and ability to learn for you or your children? The Feingold Program (also known as the Feingold Diet) is a test to determine if certain foods or food additives are triggering particular symptoms. It is basically the way people used to eat before "hyperactivity" and "ADHD" became household words, and before asthma and chronic ear infections became so very common. Numerous studies show that certain synthetic food additives can have serious learning, behaviour, and/or health effects for sensitive people. Dr. Feingold began his work on linking diet with behaviour back in the 1960's. He soon saw that the conventional wisdom about this condition was not accurate. At that time most doctors believed that children outgrew hyperactivity, that only one child in a family would be hyperactive, and that girls were seldom affected. Parents using the Feingold Diet also saw that these beliefs were not accurate. Years later, the medical community revised their beliefs, as well. The Feingold Program eliminates these additives: o Artificial (synthetic) colouring o Artificial (synthetic) flavouring o Aspartame (Nutrasweet, an artificial sweetener) o Artificial (synthetic) preservatives BHA, BHT, TBHQ In the beginning (Stage One) of the Feingold Program, aspirin and some foods containing salicylate are eliminated. Most people can eventually tolerate at least some of these salicylates. This dietary program is often referred to as a program because fragrances and nonfood items which contain the chemicals listed above are also eliminated. Food additives are not new. o Artificial colours have been around for more than 100 years. (Originally they were made from coal tar oil.) And children have been eating artificially coloured and flavoured products for decades. o But then . . . most children ate these additives infrequently. They got an occasional lollipop from the bank or doctors. Cotton candy was found at the circus. Easter eggs were given at Easter and candy canes at Christmas. Today . . . the typical child growing up in this country is exposed to these powerful chemicals all day, every day. A child in the 1940’s A child in the 21st Century White toothpaste Multicoloured toothpaste, perhaps with sparkles Oatmeal Multi-flavoured and coloured oatmeal Corn Flakes Coco Pops / Sugar Frosties etc Toast, butter and jam Pop tarts Cocoa made with natural ingredients Cocoa made with artificial flavouring, & some with dyes. Naturally whipped cream Fancy whipped cream No vitamins Space ship vitamins with colours and flavours White powder or bad tasting liquid medicine Bright pink, flavoured chewable tablets or liquid medicine Water for drinking Soft drink with artificial colour, flavour, caffeine, aspartame etc School lunch Meat loaf, freshly made mashed potatoes, vegetable. Milk, cupcake made from scratch. School lunch Highly processed foods loaded with synthetic additives, no vegetable. Chocolate milk with artificial flavour. FRUITARIAN DIET Fruitarianism is a strict form of vegan diet that is limited to eating the ripe fruits of plants and trees. Fruitarians (frugivores or fructarians) eat, in principle only, the fruit of plants. As with other dietary practices, such as vegetarianism and raw foodism, some people consider themselves fruitarians even if their diet is not 100% fruit. According to these people, as long as the percentage is higher than 50%, they are (predominantly) fruitarian. Usually fruitarians who include foods other than fruit follow a vegan diet. Some fruitarians will eat only what falls (or would fall) naturally from a plant, that is: foods that can be harvested without killing the plant. These foods consist primarily of culinary fruits, nuts, and seeds. Some do not eat grains, believing it is unnatural to do so and some fruitarians feel that it is improper for humans to eat seeds. Others believe they should eat only plants that spread seeds when the plant is eaten. Others eat seeds and some cooked foods. The Fruitarian Diet and lifestyle includes avoiding all cooked food and consider it non healthy for the individual and pollutant to the environment. Contrary to Fruitarian Diet, cooked food is considered to be causing unbalanced nutrition, all kinds of disease, mood swings, cravings for synthetic nutrients and chemicals, decrease of vitality, loss of external beauty and loss of inner happiness, depreciation for life and lack of wisdom. As already mentioned, in a fruitarian diet, the only parts of plants used are the fruit, nuts, seeds and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant. In other words, ‘culinary’ fruit (apples, oranges, pears etc) and ‘botanical’ fruit or seed-containing reproductive parts of flowering plants (beans, berries, capsicums, cucumbers, grains, nuts, peas, pumpkins, seeds, squash, tomatoes, and the like), can be eaten, but not carrots, potatoes or spinach etc., which require destruction of the plant. A true fruitarian believes that removal of a vegetable from its roots (say a potato or a lettuce leaf) injures it, which is against the fruitarian concept of causing no death or injury to anything in order to consume part of it (the tomato and avocado are considered either fruit or vegetable, and thus are exceptions to this rule). WHAT DO YOU THINK? WHAT DO YOU SEE AS THE PROS AND CONS OF THIS TYPE OF DIET? GRAPEFRUIT DIET (http://www.healthnetwork.com.au/weight-loss/grapefruit-diet.asp) The grapefruit diet plan, also called the Hollywood diet, began during the 1930s and became infamous during the 70’s. Its popularity declined after the Mayo Clinic expressed disapproval of its process, regarding it as unbalanced and unsafe. As a result, it became widely considered as a fad diet, and was shunned by many dieticians and other health-conscious individuals. However, in recent years, the grapefruit diet plan is slowly regaining its popularity after new findings revealed its effectiveness against weight gain. Initially designed to last from 12 to 18 days, the grapefruit diet is comprised of accompanying every meal with a serving of fresh grapefruit or unsweetened grapefruit juice. A grapefruit diet meal is usually composed of protein-rich foods-- like bacons and eggs-and veggies that are all low in complex carbohydrates. This diet plan is supposed to help a person lose big Kg’s in a short amount of time. However, for this diet plan to be truly successful, a person is required to take up only 800 calories per day. This diet plan also requires drinking 8 glasses of water every day, as well as limitless amount of black coffee. Moreover, a person going through the grapefruit diet should avoid eating inbetween meals. Sample Meal Plan: Breakfast 2 eggs, 2 slices of bacon, black coffee, 1/2 grapefruit or 8 ounces grapefruit juice Lunch Salad with salad dressing, unlimited meat, and 1/2 grapefruit or 8 ounces grapefruit juice Dinner Red or green vegetables (except starchy ones such as peas, beans, corn, sweet potatoes) or salad, unlimited meat or fish, and 1/2 grapefruit or 8 ounces grapefruit juice Bedtime snack 8 ounces skim milk In the Grapefruit Diet you can use all the butter and salad dressing you desire and prepare foods in any method, including fried. Grapefruit juice must be unsweetened. Any food or beverage not on the diet is not allowed. Snacking is only permitted after dinner. Drink 8 glasses of water daily. Eat all of the approved foods. While grapefruit is a very nutritious lowcalorie fruit (66-84 calories per serving), loaded with vitamin C and fibre, it is not a mysterious fat burner. The low glycaemic index, high fibre, and low calorie nature of the fruit may reduce insulin levels and help dieters feel full and eat fewer calories. WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS DIET? WHICH OF THE PREVIOUS DIETS DOES IT REMIND YOU OF? ISRAELI ARMY DIET (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_Army_diet) The Israeli Army diet was a fad diet that was popular in the 1970s. It was promoted as being based on the diet used by the Israel Defence Forces for new recruits but had no connection with the Israeli Army. The diet lasted for eight days with the dieter only eating one type of food for two days each. o Days One - Two: Apples (black tea/coffee allowed) o Days Three - Four: Cheese (black tea/coffee allowed) o Days Five - Six: Chicken (black tea/coffee allowed) o Days Seven - Eight: Salad (black tea/coffee allowed) If the dieter followed the regimen for the full eight days, he or she would enjoy a shortterm weight loss. However, as this regime was not sustainable over the long term, the person undertaking the diet soon regained the weight as he or she returned to their normal diet. In addition, the lack of variety in the diet meant that many people failed to complete the diet regimen. As well, the diet was not a balanced diet providing the dieter with their nutritional needs such as calories, protein and vitamins. For these reasons, nutritionists and doctors were critical of the Israeli Army diet and it declined in popularity. It is now regarded as a classic fad diet like the grapefruit diet or the cabbage soup diet. MACROBIOTIC DIET (Biesalski,H & Grimm,P. 2004, Pocket Atlas of Nutrition, Thieme) Macrobiotics is a nutritional doctrine based on Zen Buddhism. Its founder, Ohsawa (1893-1966) ignoring available nutritional knowledge, postulated an increasingly restrictive 10-step nutritional plan with a final goal of the lowest possible fluid intake. It divides all foods into opposite forces (yin and yang), to be consumed in a particular ratio. This diet caused huge nutrient deficiencies and long term growth retardation in children and several deaths. Modifications made it more like a vegetarian diet with small fish and seaweed components and therefore less hazardous. http://www.womenfitness.net/macrobiotic_diet.htm Macrobiotics is largely based on the Chinese philosophy of two opposing yet complementary forces of nature, present within all people - 'yin' and 'yang'. o The inner regions of the body, including the bones, blood, and internal organs, are more yang or contracted, while the peripheral regions, including the skin and hair, are more yin or expanded. o Foods are classified into yin and yang categories, according to their tastes, properties, and effects on the body. o Eating these foods is thought to make it easier to achieve a more balanced condition within the natural order of life. o Foods considered either extremely yin or extremely yang are avoided. http://www.womenfitness.net/macrobiotic_diet.htm Foods with a high yin content include sugar, tea, alcohol, coffee, milk, cream, yoghurt and most herbs and spices. Foods with a high yang content include red meat, poultry, fish and shellfish, eggs, hard cheeses and salt. Foods that are thought to contain a harmonious balance of yin and yang are: wholegrain cereals, fresh fruit, nuts and seeds, leafy vegetables and pulses (beans, peas and lentils). Macrobiotic principles also govern food preparation and the manner in which food is eaten. Recommendations in this area include: o o o o o o o Avoid using a microwave oven to prepare food Cook rice in a pressure cooker Eat only when hungry Chew food completely Eat in an orderly Relaxed manner using good posture Keep the home in good order, especially where food is prepared. Fluid Intake Should be governed by thirst. o Only teas made from roasted grains, dandelion greens, or the cooking water of soba noodles are generally considered acceptable. o o o All teas with aromatic fragrances or caffeine are avoided. Drinking and cooking water must be purified. Not recommended are tropical or semitropical fruits and fruit juices, soda, artificial drinks and beverages, coffee, and coloured tea. Some disadvantages of the macrobiotic diet include: o At its most extreme, the macrobiotic diet does not supply adequate amounts of vitamin B12 for a healthy nervous system, iron for healthy blood, and vitamin D, which is needed for the absorption of calcium. As a deficiency in iron and B12 can lead to anaemia, supplements should be considered. o The macrobiotic diet should never be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women, people who are ill or anyone with special dietary requirements. o It is also unsuitable for children. The bulky nature of the diet can lead to malnutrition in youngsters, and slow growth rates right through to adolescence. o They are generally low in energy, protein, and fat. Passions flare when the subject of macrobiotics is discussed. (http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0876/is_n56/ai_9164652) o o Its advocates endorse the diet to be in full harmony with nature and human needs. Herman Aihara and Michio Kushi brought it to the United States and expanded macrobiotic thought to include ideas on world government and peace, meditation, and diagnosis of health problems. o Among its proponents are practitioners who believe that cancer can be cured by a strict macrobiotic diet. o The American Medical Association considers it "a major health problem." MEDITERRANEAN DIET The diet is from the Greek island of Crete where Cretans and other Greeks live longer than any other populations in the world and - they are 20% less likely to die of coronary artery disease than most Western countries. They also have 1/3 less cancer. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7) As early as in the 1950’s, the “Seven Countries Study” found that, compared to Northern Europe and the US, Mediterranean countries had very low levels of heart disease. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7) The Mediterranean food consumption patterns had a high proportion of various vegetables, grains, plant oils (olive oil in particular), fish, small amounts of animal fats and meat. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7) People whose data was collected in the 1950’s and 1960’s are still followed within the framework of this study. They show that in the Mediterranean the amounts of saturated fatty acids consumed increase with increasing wealth, lessening the preventative properties of the diet. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7) In principle, the traditional Mediterranean diet is largely transferable to Western Industrialised nations, since a great variety of food is available. It just requires a continuation of the high level intake of monounsaturated (olive oil) and n-3-fatty acids (fish). (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7) Therefore, what are the fat and fish options that would allow this to happen in a Western nation? Key features of the Mediterranean diet: o High consumption of breads, pasta, rice, couscous, polenta, bulgur and potatoes o High consumption of fruits (3-4 pieces a day), legumes and vegetables (5 different varieties) o Moderate amounts steamed fish of grilled and o Moderate amounts of olive oil - consumed with fresh vegetables and on salads o Small portions of lean red meat with no visible fat, new fashioned pork o Alcohol in small amounts o Regular physical activity o High intake of antioxidants Recommended olive oil: o Extra virgin olive oil (highly recommended) o Any commercial brand of olive oil – in dark glass and cold pressed Fats to avoid: o Butter o Margarine Lard/dripping ORNISH DIET Dr. Dean Ornish is a US cardiologist who has written two books about losing weight - Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing Heart Disease and Eat More, Weigh Less. This is an extremely low fat, low calorie diet. Only 10% of the total calories are to come from fats of any type. The theory is that fats are the cause of atherosclerosis and the only way to rid this build up is to severely restrict fats. There has been some concession that some oils, such as fish, may be beneficial. Read through the diet basics over the next 2 slides and establish the pros and cons of this diet. The following can be eaten whenever you are hungry, until you are full: o Beans and legumes o Fruits -- anything from apples to watermelon, from raspberries to pineapples o Grains o Vegetables These should be eaten in moderation: o Non-fat dairy products skim milk, nonfat yoghurt, non-fat cheeses, non-fat sour cream, and egg whites o Non-fat or very low-fat commercially available products from Life Choice frozen dinners to Haagen-Dazs frozen yoghurt bars and fat-free desserts (but if sugar is among the first few ingredients listed, put it back on the shelf) These should be avoided: o Meat of all kinds red and white, fish and fowl (if we can't give up meat, we should at least eat as little as possible) o Oils and oil-containing products, such as margarine and most salad dressings o Avocados and Olives o Nuts and seeds o Dairy products (other than the non-fat ones above) o Sugar and simple sugar derivatives -honey, molasses, corn syrup, and highfructose syrup o Alcohol o Anything commercially prepared that has more than two grams of fat per serving PRITIKIN DIET SCARSDALE DIET The Scarsdale Diet was a book written in the 1970s. Dr Herman Tarnower ran a clinic in the town of Scarsdale, and (like so many other doctor-designed plans) created the diet for overweight patients. The book has always been a huge seller, and is still popular today. Like many diets of this kind - the calorie recommendations are too low. While weight loss will occur, it is neither healthy, or sustainable in the long-term. The Scarsdale Diet has the following nutrient ratio - the only diet exactly like this. It contains 43% protein, 22.5% fat, and 34.5% carbohydrate. Dr Tarnower claims this level of diet brings about the process of ketosis. Indeed the diet is low calorie (about 1000 per day), and has very strict rules during the first two weeks. After the first phase, the calorie limit is lifted a little (the "keep-trim" program). The supposed weight loss is 9kg in just 14 days. The classic Scarsdale Diet Rules of the road: o Drink at least 4 glasses of water or diet soda per day. o You can add the following to your foods: herbs, salt, pepper, lemon, vinegar, Worcestershire, soy sauce, mustard & ketchup Examples of a days food / drink intake: Day 1 o Breakfast coffee or tea with sugar substitute & 1/2 grapefruit o Lunch any amount of lean beef, chicken or fish + tomato salad + coffee or tea o Dinner broiled fish + tomato and lettuce salad + grapefruit or melon Day 2 o Breakfast coffee or tea with sugar substitute & 1/2 grapefruit o Lunch any amount of fruit salad + coffee o Dinner hamburger (without bread) and all the cooked vegetables you desire Day 3 o Breakfast coffee or tea with sugar substitute & 1/2 grapefruit o Lunch tuna salad + grapefruit or melon o Dinner 2 lean pork chops + mixed green salad + coffee Day 4 o Breakfast coffee or tea with sugar substitute & 1/2 grapefruit o Lunch 2 eggs + cottage cheese + 3 oz. squash + 1 toast + coffee o Dinner chicken ( grilled or broiled w/o skin ) + spinach or green pepper + coffee SEPARATION DIET THEORY (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.310-311) An American Physician, Dr. Hay, published his theory of the Separation diet in 1907 where he claimed that acidification of the body is the cause of all diseases of civilisation. He divided foods according to their alkalinising (fruit, vegetables etc), neutral (whole grains etc) and acidifying (meat etc) properties. According to Hay, the body’s proper acid/base balance can only be achieved / maintained by consuming 80% alkinalising and 20% acidifying food. In 1933, he published another book – A New Health Era – where he presented his theory of the chemical laws of digestion. According to him, the human body is unable to digest and process carbohydrates and proteins simultaneously. Therefore they must not be consumed together but may be consumed together with neutral foods. This means that, for example, meats with vegetables may by consumed at lunch and potatoes with vegetables for dinner. For adults one concentrated meal per day is enough and children over 6 months are allowed 2. The theory is that separating these foods leads to improved digestion: proteins can be broken down more easily without carbohydrates, and vice versa. Not combining proteins and starches at the same meal is the main principle of the diet. Proteins are concentrated animal proteins such as meat, poultry, fish and cheese. Carbohydrates are concentrated starches such as grains, cereals, bread, potatoes, and sugars. Fruit is best taken alone at breakfast time (the sugars ferment if fruit sits on top of an evening meal) and don't mix columns 1 and 3 (next slide). QUESTION – What does this mean for our humble sandwich and many of our desserts??? The acid – base balance according to Hay: Alkalising Balanced Acidifying Not used Fruit Nuts Meat White flour Vegetables Fresh legumes Fish White sugar Potatoes Millet Sausage Refined oils Milk Whole-grain Peanuts Refined fats Yoghurt Wheat germ Asparagus Alcohol Cream Butter Brussel sprouts Soybeans Etc. Vegetable broth Herbs Etc. SOUTH BEACH DIET The South Beach Diet was created by Dr. Arthur Agatston, a highly respected cardiologist. This diet works in phases, the first two for a specific timeframe and the third phase for life. With this new approach, people can stop counting calories, stop weighing food portions, and stop feeling as though they are deprived from eating good-tasting and satisfying food! The plan has three, normal-size meals and two snacks each day. According to the advertising – o What makes the South Beach Diet different is that it teaches a way of life where you rely on the right carbohydrates and fats. o This new way of eating allows you to live contently without eating the bad carbohydrates and fats. o In contrast, when a person eats bad carbohydrates and fats they feel hungrier, causing them to eat more, which causes weight gain. o In exchange for eating right, you become healthier and can enjoy an 4 – 7 kg weight loss in just two weeks! There are basically three phases in SB Diet. o You eat normal portion sizes in Phase 1, but all carbohydrate are restricted. • For instance, rice, bread, fruit, pasta and baked goods are completely off limits. • Also off limits are sweets, cookies, cakes and ice cream. This is the strictest phase in the diet and will last for two weeks. o After the 14 day period, you then move into phase 2. • With phase 2, there is no set period of time. It continues until all of the weight you want to lose is gone. • In Phase 2, some of the banned food are slowly introduced while weight loss continue to around 1-2 pounds per week. You should remain on it until you lost your desired amount of weight. • During phase 2, some foods that were prohibited in phase 1, may gradually be re-introduced. However, they need to be consumed in moderation. Other foods, such as white rice should be avoided all together. o Phase 3 is for maintenance and should be followed for life. During this phase, you are allowed to begin to eat more normally. Many of the restrictions that were imposed during phase 1 and 2 are lifted. Should the weight begin to climb, simply return to Phase 1. o Why has this diet become so popular? o What are your views on this diet from a nutritional perspective? According to http://www.southbeach-diet.info/ o It seems the South Beach Diet is even working for Bill Clinton and his travelling entourage. o Jamie Oliver's famous London restaurant, named Fifteen, had to make last minute changes to their menu options making them South Beach Diet friendly. o The makers of popular Oreo cookies and macaroni cheese, Kraft Foods Inc, have added a South beach Diet range of foods to its line-up. • The South beach diet range includes cereals, pizzas, wraps, and entrees. • The Kraft Foods line up was not marketed as a "low carb food" range, but rather focus on healthy amounts of the "right carbs" and the "right fats".