NUT3_Diet Therapy

Report
DIET
THERAPY
1

Fad weight loss diets encourage short-term
changes in eating behaviour and as a result,
weight lost on these diets is often regained.
They often suggest avoiding particular foods
or food groups which can mean missing out
on important nutrients.

A fad weight loss diet is any diet that
promises fast weight loss without any
scientific basis. These diets often eliminate
entire food groups and as a result do not
provide a wide range of important nutrients.

Diets that encourage fast weight loss
usually have little effect on levels of body
fat. The initial weight lost on a fad diet is a
combination of fluid, muscle and a little fat.

When speaking about losing weight, we
should probably talk about fat loss rather
than weight loss as fluid and muscle are
important components of body weight and
it is generally not desirable to reduce their
levels.

When very little food is eaten, the body
begins to break down muscle to meet
energy (kilojoule) needs. Unfortunately,
this occurs much more readily than the
breakdown of fat stores.

Breaking down muscle leads to a loss of
water, creating the illusion of rapid weight
loss.

Additionally, breaking down muscle leads
to a lowered metabolic rate meaning that
when the diet is stopped, it is much easier
for the body to gain fat than it was prior to
going on the diet. As a result, over time,
people
can
diet
themselves
fatter.
Weight loss diets often encourage a shortterm change in eating behaviour, rather
than encouraging changes that can be
sustained
in
the
long-term.

We are continually bombarded with a range
of misleading wonder-cures for weight loss.
Australians spend millions of dollars each
year in their attempts to lose weight. It is
estimated that at least 40% Australian
women and 20% Australian men are "on a
diet"
at
any
one
time.
Dietition’s Association of Australia

With an understanding of what fad diets are
and what they claim to do you can effectively
understand those your clients have tried and
both counsel them as to the nutritional
benefits / deficits of these diets and advise
them as to how best to deal with the effects
of following these fad diets.

Therefore, a list of the common fad diets you
will meet and need to have an understanding
of in private practice is given in the next
slide.
FAD DIET COMPILATION – a top 20
Anti-aging diet
Low fat diet
Atkins diet
Macrobiotic diet
Blood type diet
Mediterranean diet
Feingold diet
Ornish diet
Fit For Life diet
Pritikin diet
Fruitarian diet
Scarsdale diet
Grapefruit diet
Separation diet
High carbohydrate diet
South Beach Diet
Israeli army diet
Vegetarian diet
Low carbohydrate diet
Zone diet

Draw up a chart as shown below and fill it
in as you work your way through the
following information relating to the most
common / popular diets available to
people.
Diet name
Advantages
Disadvantages
ANTI-AGING DIET

What is aging? (Katic,M., Kahn,CR. 2005, ‘The role of insulin and IGF-1 signally in
longevity’, Cellular and Molecular Life Science, vol.62, iss.3, pp.320-43)
o
“Aging is the progressive loss of
physiological functions that increases the
probability of death. This decline in
function occurs both within individual
cells and within the organism as a whole.
Life expectancy (or average lifespan)
depends highly on both the biology of
aging and the life circumstances of the
organism”

“Evolutionarily
speaking,
very
few
organisms or animals were allowed to age,
since mortality from starvation, predators,
infection,
diseases
or
environmental
stresses often resulted in death before the
biology of aging could play a role”

“Now, with the development of good
principles of hygiene, a wide range of
effective medicines and relatively abundant
food, the average lifespan in many developed
countries is 80 or more years.”

“With this increase in lifespan, causes of
death have also changed, with infectious
diseases and trauma being replaced by
cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes
mellitus and diseases of the elderly such as
Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases.”

“Almost 50 years ago, Denham Harman
noted parallels between effects of aging
and of ionising radiation. He suggested that
free radicals produced during aerobic
respiration cause cumulative oxidative
damage, resulting in aging and ultimately
death.”

“It has been know for almost 100 years
that, in general, species with higher
metabolic rates have shorter maximum
lifespan, i.e. They age faster”.

“Calorie restriction, the selective reduction
of energy intake without compromising
other essential nutrients, is the most
powerful intervention known to retard
biological aging in mammals, as assessed
by the extension of mean and maximum
lifespan, reduced incidence or progression
of age associated diseases and preserved
physiological
function
and
molecular
fidelity with age.” (Rae,M. 2004, ‘It’s never too late: Calories Restriction is
Effective in Older Mammals’, Rejuvenation Research, vol.7, pp.3-8)
ATKINS DIET

In 1972, Robert Atkins, as one of the first
pioneers of the low-carbohydrate diet, turned
the nutritional world upside down when he
proposed that too much carbohydrate, rather
than too much fat, may actually cause people
to gain weight. (McGuire & Beerman 2007 p.352)

The Atkins diet is based on the ‘hunter and
gatherer’ style diet. It severely restricts
refined carbohydrates, while allows liberal
meats, vegies, salads, cheese, fish, eggs,
nuts and seeds......... 41 clinical trials as
of March 2005 and the most critics. The
consumer starts on a severe carb
restriction, then a gradual increase in
‘good’carbs
until
the
weight
loss
normalises. (Eddy,S. 2005, ‘Food as Medicine’, Health Schools Australia, p.58)

It is said that A recent publication of a new
Food Guide Pyramid by the Harvard School
of Nutrition gives some credence to Atkins’
theories  What are your thoughts on this
pyramid?
CABBAGE SOUP DIET
http://www.faddiet.com/cabsoupdietp.html


The cabbage soup can be eaten at any time
you feel hungry during the day, and you can
eat as much as you wish as often as you like.
Ingredients:
o 6 Large Green Onions
o 2 Green Peppers
o 1-2 Cans Diced Tomatoes
o 1 Bunch Celery
o 1 Package Lipton Onion Soup Mix
o 1-2 Cubes of Buillion (if desired)
o 1 head cabbage

Day One:
o
Fruit: Eat all of the fruit you want (EXCEPT
BANANAS). Eat only your soup and the fruit
for the first day. For drinks- unsweetened
teas, cranberry juice and water.

Day Two:
o Vegetables:
• Eat until you are stuffed will all fresh, raw
or cooked vegetables of your choice.
• Try to eat leafy green vegetables and stay
away from dry beans, peas and corn.
• Eat all the vegetables you want along
with your soup.
• At dinner, reward yourself with a big
baked potato with butter.
• Do not eat fruit today.

Day Three:
o Mix Days One and Two: Eat all the soup,
fruits and vegetables you want.
o NO BAKED POTATO.

Day Four:
o Bananas and Skim Milk: Eat as many as
eight bananas and drink as many glasses of
skim milk as you would like on this day,
along with your soup. This day is supposed
to lessen your desire for sweets.

Day Five:
o Beef And Tomatoes: Ten to twenty ounces
of beef and up to six fresh tomatoes.
o Drink at least 6 to 8 glasses of water this
day to wash the uric acid from your body.
Eat your soup at least once this day.
o You may eat broiled or baked chicken
instead of beef (but absolutely no skin-on
chicken).
o If you prefer, you can substitute broiled
fish for the beef on one of the beef days
(but not both).

Day Six:
o Beef and Vegetables. Eat to your heart's
content of beef and vegetables this day.
You can even have 2 or 3 steaks if you like,
with leafy green vegetables. NO BAKED
POTATO. Eat your soup at least once.

Day Seven:
o Brown rice, unsweetened fruit juices and
vegetables: Again STUFF,STUFF,STUFF
yourself. Be sure to eat your soup at least
once this day.
FEINGOLD DIET
(http://www.feingold.org/pg-overview.html)

Many learning and behaviour problems
begin in the grocery trolley!

Did you know that the brand of ice cream,
cookie, and potato chip you select could
have a direct effect on the behaviour,
health, and ability to learn for you or your
children?


The Feingold Program (also known as the
Feingold Diet) is a test to determine if certain
foods or food additives are triggering
particular symptoms.
It is basically the way people used to eat
before "hyperactivity" and "ADHD" became
household words, and before asthma and
chronic ear infections became so very
common.

Numerous studies
show that certain
synthetic
food
additives
can
have
serious
learning,
behaviour, and/or
health
effects
for
sensitive
people.


Dr. Feingold began his work on linking diet
with behaviour back in the 1960's. He soon
saw that the conventional wisdom about this
condition was not accurate. At that time most
doctors believed that children outgrew
hyperactivity, that only one child in a family
would be hyperactive, and that girls were
seldom affected. Parents using the Feingold
Diet also saw that these beliefs were not
accurate.
Years later, the medical community revised
their beliefs, as well.

The Feingold Program eliminates these
additives:
o Artificial (synthetic) colouring
o Artificial (synthetic) flavouring
o Aspartame
(Nutrasweet, an artificial
sweetener)
o Artificial (synthetic) preservatives BHA,
BHT, TBHQ

In the beginning (Stage One) of the
Feingold Program, aspirin and some foods
containing salicylate are eliminated. Most
people can eventually tolerate at least
some of these salicylates.

This dietary program is often referred to as
a program because fragrances and nonfood items which contain the chemicals
listed above are also eliminated.

Food additives are not new.
o Artificial colours have been around for more
than 100 years. (Originally they were made
from coal tar oil.) And children have been
eating artificially coloured and flavoured
products for decades.
o But then . . . most children ate these
additives infrequently. They got an
occasional lollipop from the bank or
doctors. Cotton candy was found at the
circus. Easter eggs were given at Easter and
candy canes at Christmas.

Today . . . the typical child growing up in
this country is exposed to these powerful
chemicals all day, every day.
A child in the 1940’s
A child in the 21st Century
White toothpaste
Multicoloured toothpaste, perhaps with sparkles
Oatmeal
Multi-flavoured and coloured oatmeal
Corn Flakes
Coco Pops / Sugar Frosties etc
Toast, butter and jam
Pop tarts
Cocoa made with natural ingredients
Cocoa made with artificial flavouring, & some with
dyes.
Naturally whipped cream
Fancy whipped cream
No vitamins
Space ship vitamins with colours and flavours
White powder or bad tasting liquid medicine
Bright pink, flavoured chewable tablets or liquid
medicine
Water for drinking
Soft drink with artificial colour, flavour, caffeine,
aspartame etc
School lunch  Meat loaf, freshly made mashed
potatoes, vegetable. Milk, cupcake made from scratch.
School lunch Highly processed foods loaded with
synthetic additives, no vegetable. Chocolate milk with
artificial flavour.
FRUITARIAN DIET

Fruitarianism is a strict form of vegan diet
that is limited to eating the ripe fruits of
plants and trees. Fruitarians (frugivores or
fructarians) eat, in principle only, the fruit
of plants.

As with other dietary practices, such as
vegetarianism and raw foodism, some
people consider themselves fruitarians
even if their diet is not 100% fruit.

According to these people, as long as the
percentage is higher than 50%, they are
(predominantly)
fruitarian.
Usually
fruitarians who include foods other than
fruit follow a vegan diet.

Some fruitarians will eat only what falls (or
would fall) naturally from a plant, that is:
foods that can be harvested without killing
the plant. These foods consist primarily of
culinary fruits, nuts, and seeds.

Some do not eat grains, believing it is
unnatural to do so and some fruitarians feel
that it is improper for humans to eat seeds.
Others believe they should eat only plants
that spread seeds when the plant is eaten.
Others eat seeds and some cooked foods.

The Fruitarian Diet and lifestyle includes
avoiding all cooked food and consider it
non healthy for the individual and pollutant
to the environment.

Contrary to Fruitarian Diet, cooked food is
considered
to
be
causing
unbalanced
nutrition, all kinds of disease, mood swings,
cravings
for
synthetic
nutrients
and
chemicals, decrease of vitality, loss of
external beauty and loss of inner happiness,
depreciation for life and lack of wisdom.

As already mentioned, in a fruitarian diet, the
only parts of plants used are the fruit, nuts,
seeds and other plant matter that can be
gathered without harming the plant.

In other words, ‘culinary’ fruit (apples,
oranges, pears etc) and ‘botanical’ fruit or
seed-containing reproductive parts of
flowering
plants
(beans,
berries,
capsicums, cucumbers, grains, nuts, peas,
pumpkins, seeds, squash, tomatoes, and
the like), can be eaten, but not carrots,
potatoes or spinach etc., which require
destruction of the plant.

A true fruitarian believes that removal of a
vegetable from its roots (say a potato or a lettuce
leaf) injures it, which is against the fruitarian
concept of causing no death or injury to
anything in order to consume part of it (the
tomato and avocado are considered either fruit or
vegetable, and thus are exceptions to this rule).

WHAT DO YOU THINK? WHAT DO YOU SEE AS
THE PROS AND CONS OF THIS TYPE OF DIET?
GRAPEFRUIT DIET
(http://www.healthnetwork.com.au/weight-loss/grapefruit-diet.asp)

The grapefruit diet plan, also called the
Hollywood diet, began during the 1930s and
became infamous during the 70’s.

Its popularity declined after the Mayo Clinic
expressed
disapproval
of
its
process,
regarding it as unbalanced and unsafe.

As a result, it became widely considered as a
fad diet, and was shunned by many dieticians
and other health-conscious individuals.

However, in recent years, the grapefruit
diet plan is slowly regaining its popularity
after
new
findings
revealed
its
effectiveness against weight gain.

Initially designed to last from 12
to 18 days, the grapefruit diet is
comprised of accompanying every
meal with a serving of fresh
grapefruit or unsweetened
grapefruit juice.

A grapefruit diet meal is usually composed of
protein-rich foods-- like bacons and eggs-and veggies that are all low in complex
carbohydrates.

This diet plan is supposed to help a person
lose big Kg’s in a short amount of time.
However, for this diet plan to be truly
successful, a person is required to take up
only 800 calories per day.

This diet plan also requires drinking 8 glasses
of water every day, as well as limitless
amount of black coffee.

Moreover, a person going through the
grapefruit diet should avoid eating inbetween meals.
Sample Meal Plan:
 Breakfast  2 eggs, 2 slices of bacon,
black coffee, 1/2 grapefruit or 8 ounces
grapefruit juice
 Lunch  Salad with salad dressing, unlimited meat,
and 1/2 grapefruit or 8 ounces grapefruit juice
 Dinner  Red or green vegetables (except starchy
ones such as peas, beans, corn, sweet potatoes) or
salad, unlimited meat or fish, and 1/2 grapefruit or 8
ounces grapefruit juice
 Bedtime snack  8 ounces skim milk

In the Grapefruit Diet you can use all the
butter and salad dressing you desire and
prepare foods in any method, including fried.
Grapefruit juice must be unsweetened.

Any food or beverage not on the diet is not
allowed. Snacking is only permitted after
dinner.

Drink 8 glasses of water daily. Eat all of the
approved foods.

While grapefruit is a very nutritious lowcalorie fruit (66-84 calories per serving),
loaded with vitamin C and fibre, it is not a
mysterious fat burner. The low glycaemic
index, high fibre, and low calorie nature of
the fruit may reduce insulin levels and help
dieters feel full and eat fewer calories.

WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS DIET?
WHICH OF THE PREVIOUS DIETS DOES IT
REMIND YOU OF?
ISRAELI ARMY DIET
(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israeli_Army_diet)

The Israeli Army diet was a fad diet that
was popular in the 1970s. It was promoted
as being based on the diet used by the
Israel Defence Forces for new recruits but
had no connection with the Israeli Army.

The diet lasted for eight days with the
dieter only eating one type of food for two
days each.
o Days One - Two: Apples (black tea/coffee
allowed)
o Days
Three - Four: Cheese (black
tea/coffee allowed)
o Days
Five - Six: Chicken (black
tea/coffee allowed)
o Days
Seven - Eight: Salad (black
tea/coffee allowed)

If the dieter followed the regimen for the full
eight days, he or she would enjoy a shortterm weight loss. However, as this regime
was not sustainable over the long term, the
person undertaking the diet soon regained
the weight as he or she returned to their
normal diet. In addition, the lack of variety in
the diet meant that many people failed to
complete the diet regimen. As well, the diet
was not a balanced diet providing the dieter
with their nutritional needs such as calories,
protein and vitamins.

For these reasons, nutritionists and doctors
were critical of the Israeli Army diet and it
declined in popularity. It is now regarded
as a classic fad diet like the grapefruit diet
or the cabbage soup diet.
MACROBIOTIC DIET
(Biesalski,H & Grimm,P. 2004, Pocket Atlas of Nutrition, Thieme)

Macrobiotics is a nutritional doctrine based
on Zen Buddhism. Its founder, Ohsawa
(1893-1966) ignoring available nutritional
knowledge, postulated an increasingly
restrictive 10-step nutritional plan with a
final goal of the lowest possible fluid
intake.

It divides all foods into opposite forces (yin
and yang), to be consumed in a particular
ratio.

This diet caused huge nutrient deficiencies
and long term growth retardation in
children and several deaths.

Modifications made it more like a
vegetarian diet with small fish and
seaweed components and therefore less
hazardous.
http://www.womenfitness.net/macrobiotic_diet.htm

Macrobiotics is largely based on the
Chinese philosophy of two opposing yet
complementary forces of nature, present
within all people - 'yin' and 'yang'.
o
The inner regions of the body, including
the bones, blood, and internal organs,
are more yang or contracted, while the
peripheral regions, including the skin and
hair, are more yin or expanded.
o
Foods are classified into yin and yang
categories, according to their tastes,
properties, and effects on the body.
o
Eating these foods is thought to make it
easier to achieve a more balanced
condition within the natural order of life.
o
Foods considered either extremely yin or
extremely yang are avoided.
http://www.womenfitness.net/macrobiotic_diet.htm

Foods with a high yin
content include sugar, tea,
alcohol,
coffee,
milk,
cream, yoghurt and most
herbs and spices.

Foods with a high yang
content include red meat,
poultry, fish and shellfish,
eggs, hard cheeses and
salt.

Foods that are thought to contain a
harmonious balance of yin and yang are:
wholegrain cereals, fresh fruit, nuts and
seeds, leafy vegetables and pulses (beans,
peas and lentils).

Macrobiotic principles also govern food
preparation and the manner in which food
is eaten. Recommendations in this area
include:
o
o
o
o
o
o
o
Avoid using a microwave oven to prepare food
Cook rice in a pressure cooker
Eat only when hungry
Chew food completely
Eat in an orderly
Relaxed manner using good posture
Keep the home in good order, especially where
food is prepared.

Fluid Intake Should be governed by thirst.
o Only teas made from roasted grains, dandelion
greens, or the cooking water of soba noodles are
generally considered acceptable.
o
o
o
All teas with aromatic fragrances or caffeine are
avoided.
Drinking and cooking water must be purified.
Not recommended are tropical or semitropical
fruits and fruit juices, soda, artificial drinks and
beverages, coffee, and coloured tea.

Some disadvantages of the macrobiotic diet
include:
o At its most extreme, the macrobiotic diet
does not supply adequate amounts of
vitamin B12 for a healthy nervous system,
iron for healthy blood, and vitamin D,
which is needed for the absorption of
calcium. As a deficiency in iron and B12
can lead to anaemia, supplements should
be considered.
o
The macrobiotic diet should never be used
by pregnant or breastfeeding women,
people who are ill or anyone with special
dietary requirements.
o
It is also unsuitable for children. The bulky
nature of the diet can lead to malnutrition
in youngsters, and slow growth rates right
through to adolescence.
o
They are generally low in energy, protein,
and fat.

Passions flare when the subject of
macrobiotics is discussed.
(http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0876/is_n56/ai_9164652)
o
o
Its advocates endorse the diet to be in
full harmony with nature and human
needs.
Herman Aihara and Michio Kushi brought
it to the United States and expanded
macrobiotic thought to include ideas on
world
government
and
peace,
meditation, and diagnosis of health
problems.
o
Among its proponents are practitioners
who believe that cancer can be cured by
a strict macrobiotic diet.
o
The
American
Medical
Association
considers it "a major health problem."
MEDITERRANEAN DIET

The diet is from the Greek island of Crete
where Cretans and other Greeks live longer
than any other populations in the world and - they are 20% less likely to die of
coronary artery disease than most Western
countries. They also have 1/3 less
cancer. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7)

As early as in the 1950’s, the “Seven
Countries Study” found that, compared to
Northern
Europe
and
the
US,
Mediterranean countries had very low
levels of heart disease. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7)

The Mediterranean food consumption
patterns had a high proportion of various
vegetables, grains, plant oils (olive oil in
particular), fish, small amounts of animal
fats and meat. (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7)

People whose data was collected in the
1950’s and 1960’s are still followed within
the framework of this study. They show
that in the Mediterranean the amounts of
saturated fatty acids consumed increase
with increasing wealth, lessening the
preventative properties of the diet. (Biesalaki & Grimm
2004 pp.6-7)


In principle, the traditional Mediterranean
diet is largely transferable to Western
Industrialised nations, since a great variety
of food is available. It just requires a
continuation of the high level intake of
monounsaturated (olive oil) and n-3-fatty
acids (fish). (Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.6-7)
Therefore, what are the fat and fish options that
would allow this to happen in a Western nation?

Key features of the Mediterranean diet:
o High consumption of breads, pasta, rice,
couscous, polenta, bulgur and potatoes
o
High consumption of fruits (3-4 pieces a
day), legumes and vegetables (5
different varieties)
o
Moderate amounts
steamed fish
of
grilled
and
o
Moderate amounts of olive oil - consumed
with fresh vegetables and on salads
o
Small portions of lean red meat with no
visible fat, new fashioned pork
o
Alcohol in small amounts
o
Regular physical activity
o
High intake of antioxidants

Recommended olive oil:
o Extra virgin olive oil
(highly recommended)
o Any commercial brand
of olive oil – in dark
glass and cold pressed

Fats to avoid:
o Butter
o Margarine
Lard/dripping
ORNISH DIET

Dr. Dean Ornish is a US cardiologist who
has written two books about losing weight
- Dr. Dean Ornish's Program for Reversing
Heart Disease and Eat More, Weigh Less.

This is an extremely low fat, low calorie
diet. Only 10% of the total calories are to
come from fats of any type.

The theory is that fats are the cause of
atherosclerosis and the only way to rid this
build up is to severely restrict fats.

There has been some concession that some
oils, such as fish, may be beneficial.

Read through the diet basics over the next
2 slides and establish the pros and cons of
this diet.

The following can be eaten whenever you
are hungry, until you are full:
o Beans and legumes
o Fruits
-- anything from apples to
watermelon,
from
raspberries
to
pineapples
o Grains
o Vegetables

These should be eaten in moderation:
o Non-fat dairy products  skim milk, nonfat yoghurt, non-fat cheeses, non-fat
sour cream, and egg whites
o
Non-fat or very low-fat commercially
available products  from Life Choice
frozen dinners to Haagen-Dazs frozen
yoghurt bars and fat-free desserts (but if
sugar is among the first few ingredients
listed, put it back on the shelf)

These should be avoided:
o Meat of all kinds  red and white, fish and
fowl (if we can't give up meat, we should at
least eat as little as possible)
o
Oils and oil-containing products, such as
margarine and most salad dressings
o
Avocados and Olives
o
Nuts and seeds
o
Dairy products (other than the non-fat ones
above)
o
Sugar and simple sugar derivatives -honey, molasses, corn syrup, and highfructose syrup
o
Alcohol
o
Anything commercially prepared that has
more than two grams of fat per serving
PRITIKIN DIET
SCARSDALE DIET

The Scarsdale Diet was a book written in
the 1970s. Dr Herman Tarnower ran a clinic
in the town of Scarsdale, and (like so many
other doctor-designed plans) created the
diet for overweight patients.

The book has always been a huge seller,
and is still popular today.

Like many diets of this kind - the calorie
recommendations are too low. While
weight loss will occur, it is neither healthy,
or sustainable in the long-term.

The Scarsdale Diet has the following
nutrient ratio - the only diet exactly like
this. It contains 43% protein, 22.5% fat,
and 34.5% carbohydrate.

Dr Tarnower claims this level of diet brings
about the process of ketosis. Indeed the
diet is low calorie (about 1000 per day),
and has very strict rules during the first
two weeks. After the first phase, the calorie
limit is lifted a little (the "keep-trim"
program).

The supposed weight loss is 9kg in just 14
days.
The classic Scarsdale Diet
 Rules of the road:
o
Drink at least 4 glasses of water or diet
soda per day.
o
You can add the following to your foods:
herbs, salt, pepper, lemon, vinegar,
Worcestershire, soy sauce, mustard &
ketchup
Examples of a days food / drink intake:
 Day 1
o Breakfast  coffee or tea with sugar
substitute & 1/2 grapefruit
o
Lunch  any amount of lean beef,
chicken or fish + tomato salad + coffee
or tea
o
Dinner  broiled fish + tomato and
lettuce salad + grapefruit or melon

Day 2
o Breakfast  coffee or tea with sugar substitute &
1/2 grapefruit
o Lunch  any amount of fruit salad + coffee
o Dinner  hamburger (without bread) and all the
cooked vegetables you desire

Day 3
o Breakfast  coffee or tea with sugar substitute &
1/2 grapefruit
o Lunch  tuna salad + grapefruit or melon
o Dinner  2 lean pork chops + mixed green salad +
coffee

Day 4
o Breakfast 
coffee or tea with sugar
substitute & 1/2 grapefruit
o Lunch  2 eggs + cottage cheese + 3 oz.
squash + 1 toast + coffee
o Dinner  chicken ( grilled or broiled w/o
skin ) + spinach or green pepper + coffee
SEPARATION DIET THEORY
(Biesalaki & Grimm 2004 pp.310-311)

An American Physician, Dr. Hay, published
his theory of the Separation diet in 1907
where he claimed that acidification of the
body is the cause of all diseases of
civilisation.

He divided foods according to their
alkalinising (fruit, vegetables etc), neutral
(whole grains etc) and acidifying (meat
etc) properties.



According to Hay, the body’s proper
acid/base balance can only be achieved /
maintained by consuming 80% alkinalising
and 20% acidifying food.
In 1933, he published another book – A New
Health Era – where he presented his theory of
the chemical laws of digestion.
According to him, the human body is unable
to digest and process carbohydrates and
proteins simultaneously.

Therefore they must not be consumed
together but may be consumed together
with neutral foods.

This means that, for example, meats with
vegetables may by consumed at lunch and
potatoes with vegetables for dinner. For
adults one concentrated meal per day is
enough and children over 6 months are
allowed 2.

The theory is that separating these foods
leads to improved digestion: proteins can be
broken
down
more
easily
without
carbohydrates, and vice versa.

Not combining proteins and starches at the
same meal is the main principle of the
diet.
Proteins are concentrated animal
proteins such as meat, poultry, fish and
cheese.
Carbohydrates are concentrated
starches such as grains, cereals, bread,
potatoes, and sugars.

Fruit is best taken alone at breakfast time
(the sugars ferment if fruit sits on top of an
evening meal) and don't mix columns 1 and
3 (next slide).

QUESTION – What does this mean for our
humble sandwich and many of our
desserts???

The acid – base balance according to Hay:
Alkalising
Balanced
Acidifying
Not used
Fruit
Nuts
Meat
White flour
Vegetables
Fresh legumes
Fish
White sugar
Potatoes
Millet
Sausage
Refined oils
Milk
Whole-grain
Peanuts
Refined fats
Yoghurt
Wheat germ
Asparagus
Alcohol
Cream
Butter
Brussel sprouts
Soybeans
Etc.
Vegetable broth
Herbs
Etc.
SOUTH BEACH DIET

The South Beach Diet was created by Dr.
Arthur Agatston, a highly respected
cardiologist.

This diet works in phases, the first two for
a specific timeframe and the third phase for
life.

With this new approach, people can stop
counting calories, stop weighing food
portions, and stop feeling as though they
are deprived from eating good-tasting and
satisfying food!

The plan has three, normal-size meals and
two snacks each day.

According to the advertising –
o
What makes the South Beach Diet
different is that it teaches a way of life
where
you
rely
on
the
right
carbohydrates and fats.
o
This new way of eating allows you to live
contently without eating the bad
carbohydrates and fats.
o
In contrast, when a person eats bad
carbohydrates and fats they feel hungrier,
causing them to eat more, which causes
weight gain.
o
In exchange for eating right, you become
healthier and can enjoy an 4 – 7 kg weight
loss in just two weeks!

There are basically three phases in SB Diet.
o
You eat normal portion sizes in Phase 1,
but all carbohydrate are restricted.
• For instance, rice, bread, fruit, pasta
and baked goods are completely off
limits.
• Also off limits are sweets, cookies,
cakes and ice cream. This is the
strictest phase in the diet and will last
for two weeks.
o
After the 14 day period, you then move into
phase 2.
• With phase 2, there is no set period of
time. It continues until all of the weight
you want to lose is gone.
•
In Phase 2, some of the banned food are
slowly introduced while weight loss
continue to around 1-2 pounds per week.
You should remain on it until you lost
your desired amount of weight.
•
During phase 2, some foods that were
prohibited in phase 1, may gradually
be re-introduced. However, they need
to be consumed in moderation. Other
foods, such as white rice should be
avoided all together.
o
Phase 3 is for maintenance
and should be followed for
life. During this phase, you
are allowed to begin to eat
more normally. Many of the
restrictions
that
were
imposed during phase 1 and
2 are lifted. Should the
weight begin to climb,
simply return to Phase 1.
o
Why has this diet become so popular?
o
What are your views on this diet from a
nutritional perspective?

According to http://www.southbeach-diet.info/
o
It seems the South Beach Diet is even
working for Bill Clinton and his travelling
entourage.
o
Jamie Oliver's famous London restaurant,
named Fifteen, had to make last minute
changes to their menu options making
them South Beach Diet friendly.
o
The makers of popular Oreo cookies and
macaroni cheese, Kraft Foods Inc, have
added a South beach Diet range of foods to
its line-up.
• The South beach diet range includes
cereals, pizzas, wraps, and entrees.
• The Kraft Foods line up was not marketed
as a "low carb food" range, but rather
focus on healthy amounts of the "right
carbs" and the "right fats".

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