- Everyday Leadership

Report
Session 2.1:
Human Resource Management
Systems
Module 2:
Managing Human Resources
Leadership and Management Course for
ZHRC Coordinators and HTI Principals,
and ZHRC/HTI Management Teams
Learning Objectives
By the end of the session, participants will be able to:
 Identify areas for improvement in their human
resource management system (HRMS).
 List key benefits of an effective HRMS.
 Describe the components of HRMS.
 Describe the elements of a performance
management system.
 Identify opportunities to integrate professional
development into the HRMS.
2
Activity: HRMS True or False Exercise
 Listen to the statements about Human Resource
Management (HRM).
 Stand up if you think the statement is true.
 Sit down if you think the statement is false.
3
What is “human resource
management”?
4
Human Resource Management
The integrated use of systems, policies, and
management practices to recruit, maintain,
and develop employees to support the
organization in meeting its desired goals.
- Management Sciences for Health, 2009
The formal structure within an organization
responsible for all the decisions, strategies,
factors, principles, operations, practices,
functions, activities, and methods related to
the management of people.
-International Society for Human Resource Management/
Capacity Project, 2006
5
Activity: HRMS Quick Assessment
 Use Worksheet 2.1.2
 Work on your own to complete
Part 1: Assessment.
 Work in small groups to complete
Part 2: Identifying Areas for Improvement.
• Compare and discuss the results of your
assessment in your group.
• Identify priority areas for improvement in your
current HRMS.
6
HRM Activities
 Establish, maintain, implement, and promote:
• Systems, policies, and practice to address
employment terms and conditions
• Fair compensation system
• Performance planning and review system
• Employee data systems and personnel files
• Training strategy linked to organizational goals
• Strategies for meeting future staffing needs
• Stable and supportive work environment
• Practices which foster trust and respect
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Benefits of Effective HRMS
Improved
Capacity
Organizational
Alignment
Systematic
Planning
Manage
Change
Role/Job
Clarity
Cost
Savings
Equity in
Compensation
Defined
Support
Levels
Tap into
Skills &
Knowledge
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Components of HRMS
1. Capacity
6. Data
5. Training
2. HR Planning
HRMS
3. Personnel
Policy/Practices
4. Performance
Management
9
HRM Component 1: Capacity
 HRM capacity begins with staffing and budgeting.
 HRM Budget
• Allows for consistent planning
• Relates costs to results
• Includes personnel costs, overhead expenditures
 HR Staff
• Experienced staff dedicated to HRM
• Essential to policy development, implementation, and
long-range strategic planning
10
HRM Component 2: HR Planning
 Allows efficient use of HRM resources to support
mission and goals
• People are an organization’s most valuable asset!
 Aims for optimal use of current workforce
 Attempts to meet short- and long-term staffing needs
 Ensures that HR policies support recruitment and
retention of qualified staff
• Training requirements for new and existing staff
• Formal salary scale for each job category
• System for salary upgrades and merit awards
11
HRM Component 3:
Personnel Policies and Practices
 Framework to define terms and conditions of work
 Foundation for supervision and performance
management systems
•
•
•
•
•
Job Classification System
Compensation System
Benefits Program
Staff Retention
Recruitment, Hiring,
Transfer, & Promotion
• Non-Discrimination
Policies
• Orientation Program
• HIV/AIDS Workplace
Prevention Program
• Employee Manual
• Discipline, Grievance, &
Termination Procedures
• Relationship with Unions
• Labor Law Compliance
12
HRM Component 4: Performance Management
 Includes job descriptions, and systems for
supervision, work planning and performance
review
 Defines how people will interact with each other,
how the work supports the organization’s goals
 Job Descriptions
• Describe what employees do, how they work with
each other, and their positions in the organization
• Should be reviewed and updated regularly, as
organisation grows and changes.
13
Performance Management, cont’d
 Staff Supervision
• System for supervisor and employee to jointly monitor
performance
• May involve professional development
• HR can offer training in supervisory skills
 Work Planning & Performance Review
• Work plans and performance objectives should be
jointly developed with employee & supervisor
• Performance reviews utilize work plans & objectives
• OPRAS is central to this process, and shows
individual contributions toward organization’s goals
14
HRM Component 5: Training
 Identify Training Needs
• Focus on individuals, groups/teams, or organization
• Assess needs by soliciting information, observing
staff, and studying data
• Surveys, interviews, checklists, customer/client
responses, employee records, policy reviews, future
trends/opportunities analysis, etc.
 Staff Training
• Develops staff and organizational capacity
• Addresses gaps in knowledge, skills, & performance
• Improves motivation, morale, & commitment
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Training, cont’d
 Management & Leadership Development
• Key for sustainability
• Help to address organizational challenges
• Develop management & leadership skills at all levels
• Prepare for leadership succession
 Links to External Training
• Pre-service or In-service training based on skills
needed in the workplace
• Allows up-grading of skills and knowledge
16
HRM Component 6: Data
 Organizations need data to track staff,
and to project employment needs.
 Data supports all other components
of HRMS
 Employee Tracking System
• Captures basic information about staff
• Number of staff, position location, salary level, year
of hire gender, age, rate of attrition & absenteeism
• Data should be up-to-date and readily available
• These data inform HR planning processes
17
Data, cont’d
 Personnel Files
• Essential data on employee work history
• Track individual employee performance, promotion,
salary history
• Require policies on confidentiality, employee access
 Computerization of Data
• Accessible, accurate, and timely data is essential
for good planning
• Many electronic systems simplify HRMS data
collection
• Managers should update databases regularly
18
Employee-Responsive HRMS
 A well-planned and implemented HRMS improves
staff performance and motivation.
 An employee-responsive HRMS addresses key
concerns:
• Am I being treated fairly?
• What am I supposed to do?
• How well am I doing my job?
• Does my work matter?
• How can I develop within
this organization?
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Workforce Planning
 A workforce plan focuses on ensuring an
adequate number of staff with appropriate
skills, who are available, where and when they
are needed.
 Based on assumptions & predictions about future
• Expectations of growth, increased demands, etc.
• Short-term and long-term (1, 5, 10, 20 years, etc.)
 Relies heavily on existing HRMS data.
 Conducted annually and reviewed regularly
 Should include stakeholders in planning processes
20
Steps in Forecasting Supply and Demand
1. Determine requirements/demand
•
2.
3.
4.
5.
Number, type, and location
of staff needed
Analyze current supply
Estimate losses/attrition
Calculate future needs
Plan for Replacement and Recruitment
•
•
Developing existing staff (internal)
Recruitment of new staff (external)
21
Performance Management System
 Sets performance standards to reflect mission,
strategic plans, operational plans
 Answers three key questions:
• What am I supposed to be doing?
• How well am I doing it?
• Does it matter to the organization?
22
Advantages of
Performance Management System
 Reinforces organizational
goals & priorities
 Communicates the
organization’s work values
 Defines the work that each person does, and
how it relates to the organizational mission
 Provides information on expected level of
performance
 Provides information about performance, and
how it influences compensation decisions
23
Elements of
Performance Management (PM) System
1. Current job descriptions
2. Effective supervisory system
3. System for periodic performance planning and
review for each employee
4. Means for identifying and addressing staff
training and development needs
24
PM Element 1: Job Descriptions
 Job Descriptions are used for
• Hiring, Orientation, Supervision & Performance
Review, Operations, Salary
Key Elements of a Job Description
•
•
•
•
•
Job title, post or location, supervisor
Date the job description was developed
Summary
Job Duties
• Description of all employee responsibilities
• Divided into major areas of responsibility
Skills & Qualifications Required
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PM Element 2: Supervisory System
 Effective supervisors are the key to a successful
performance management system.
 A supervisory system provides:
• Foundation for performance management
• Bridge between the organization and the employee
• Communication of organizational goals and priorities
• Guidance on how work supports goals
• Capacity and skill development to do the work
• Tools for accountability and performance
assessment
26
PM Element 3: Planning and Review System
 Organizational processes should
be standardized
 Standard Documentation
• Employee’s name, title, duty station, supervisor,
date and signature spaces
 Performance Plan and Performance Review
sections
• Discussed and completed by supervisor and
employee
 Open Performance Review and Appraisal System
(OPRAS) provides standard guidance
27
Planning and Review System, cont’d.
Performance
Plans
• Performance
objectives
• Supervisor action
plan
• Development plan
Performance
Reviews
• Achievement of
objectives
• Overall performance
• Supervision &
communication
28
PM Element 4: Training & Development
 Investing in training & development can:
• Help new staff develop skills, master protocols,
and understand expectations
• Strengthen skills of current staff
• Address gaps in performance
• Improve staff motivation and retention
 Training is appropriate only when performance
problems result from lack of skill.
• Alternatives include other professional
development activities, improved supervision,
changing incentives, etc.
29
Training & Development, cont’d
 Managers help to determine when and what
type of training is needed to address
performance gaps.
• Formal, Informal, or Refresher Training
• Challenging assignments, structured on-the-job
learning, mentoring, rotational assignments, etc.
30
How do we grow professionally?
 The five most impactful ways that we grow
professionally are:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Challenging assignments
Activities away from work
Supervision & Mentoring (i.e., one’s boss)
Learning through setbacks & hardship
Training
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Helping Others Grow
 Supervisors play a role in
staff development by:
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Coaching employees
Giving constructive feedback
Offering insight, information, and advice
Offering challenging assignments
Guiding professional development
Allotting time and resources for development
Ensuring opportunities to apply skills and learning
32
Guiding Questions
for Professional Development
What does my team most need to
learn, given the strategic direction of
the organization?
How do we want to learn it?
What do I most need to
learn?
How will I learn it?
33
Activity: Professional Development Ideas
SelfDevelopment
(Individuals)
Group
Development
(Teams)
Organization
Development
34
Discussion: Professional Development
 What types of professional
development activities have
you participated in?
• How did they impact your career?
 What challenges do you face in
implementing professional
development in your workplace?
 Do you have suggestions for
overcoming these challenges?
35
Key Points
 A well planned and implemented HRMS improves
performance and motivation.
 Forecasting staffing needs is an art, not a science.
 An effective performance management system
connects the work of individuals, teams, and
departments with organizational goals and
priorities.
 Strategic professional development can improve
staff motivation and performance, and can be done
for low- or no-cost.
36

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