2003 FRQ Questions Mitch White

Report
AP US Government and Politics
2003 FRQs
By Mitch White
[email protected]
Marist Summer Institute
July 14, 2010
2003 AP US Gov FRQ #1
• Presidential approval ratings fluctuate over
the course of each presidential administration.
– A. Identify two factors that decrease presidential
approval ratings, and explain why each factor has
that effect.
– B. Identify two factors that decrease presidential
approval ratings, and explain why each factor has
that effect.
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
2
Essential Questions
• What factors increase and decrease
presidential approval ratings?
• How or why do these factors change
presidential approval ratings?
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Vocabulary
• Presidential Approval Rating:
– The percentage of Americans who approve of the
way the President is handling his job as President
– As measured by a poll, most notably the Gallup
Poll
– Presidential approval drives presidential influence,
and his ability to get things done (especially
getting legislation passed).
– See Wilson, pp. 423-424
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Presidential Approval Ratings
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FACTORS THAT CAN DECREASE PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS
Presidential
Scandals
Expectations
Gap
• Almost always lower presidential approval
• Exs: Watergate, Iran-Contra, Monica Lewinsky
• May be exceptions for especially good handling (e.g. “Checkers”)
• Result of overly-ambitious campaign promises
• Exs: Carter (change D.C.), Bush 41 (“no new taxes”)
Decline in
Popularity
over term
(time)
• Approval usually goes down overtime as “honeymoon” wears off
• Exs: All Presidents from HST through BHO EXCEPT:
• Ford (Special case), Reagan & Clinton (Unusually gifted politicians)
Bad
Economic
Conditions
• President gets the blame (regardless of underlying causes)
• Exs: Carter, Bush 41, Obama
FACTORS THAT CAN DECREASE PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS
•
•
•
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•
•
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•
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FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS
Use of
Media
(“Spin”)
• Effective use of media (radio, TV, newspapers, Internet) can
increase ratings above what they otherwise would be
• Exs: Kennedy, Reagan
• Note: Ineffective use of media does not in itself lower ratings
Good
Economic
• President gets the credit (regardless of underlying causes
• Exs: Eisenhower 1st term, Reagan (post-1982), Clinton
• Note: Ineffective use of media does not in itself lower ratings
Conditions
Reelection
(Campaign
Effect)
Most
Foreign
Policy
Problems /
Crises
• Effect of running / making oneself attractive
• Exs: Nixon in 1972, Reagan in 1984
• Crises almost always raise popularity in the short term
• Obvious exs: Release of Iranian hostages (RWR), 9/11 (GWB)
• Less obvious exs: Bay of Pigs Invasion (JFK), Failed Iran hostage
rescue attempt (JEC)
• But NOTE: Sustained international failures over a long period of
can devastate presidential popularity (Vietnam, LBJ)
FACTORS THAT CAN INCREASE PRESIDENTIAL APPROVAL RATINGS
•
•
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•
•
•
•
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HOW or WHY
• Each explanation must include either how by…)
or why (because…) the factor causes change in
approval ratings, e.g.:
– By allowing Americans to see the President in a
positive light, the effective use of media can increase
presidential approval ratings. (HOW)
– International problems usually increase presidential
approval ratings (at least in the short term), because
Americans want to feel unified behind their leader in
times of foreign crises (WHY)
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
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2003 AP US Gov FRQ #2
• Citizens often chose to participate in the
political process in ways other than voting
– A. Identify two forms of participation in the
political process other than voting
– B. Explain two advantages of each form of
participation you identified in (A).
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Essential Questions
• What are the ways (other than voting) that
citizens can participate in the political
process?
• What are the advantages of each form of
participation?
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Ways citizens participate in political
process (other than voting)
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2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
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Ways citizens participate in political
process (other than voting)
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-
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
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Ways citizens participate in political
process (other than voting)
-
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
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Ways citizens participate in political
process (other than voting)
Litigation
Protest
Contacting
• No large number of people necessary (one person can
originate)
• Appeal to principle / law as opposed to public opinion
• Ex: Brown v. Board of Education
• Public attention and sympathy
• Low cost, often immediate response
• Ex: Montgomery Bus Boycott
• Direct access to leaders, magnification of numbers
• Target specific actors and policy areas
• Ex: Letter to the editor, writing a congresswoman
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Ways citizens participate in political
process (other than voting) cont.
Campaign work /
voter registration
• Multiply individual interest
• Training ground
• Ex: Freedom Summer
Running / holding
political office
• Direct influence on political decision-making
• Ability to set policy agenda
• Exs: Ralph Nader (2000), Harvey Milk
Political
discussions
• Bring others’ attention to the issues
• Multiply influence
• Exs: Discussing abortion with a friend
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Ways citizens participate in political
process (other than voting) cont.
Membership
in political
organization
• Solidarity with like-minded individuals
• Magnifying effect and impact
• Exs: NRA, NAACP, ACLU, AARP, NORML
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
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2003 AP US Gov FRQ #3
• Using the data in the graph above and your knowledge of United
States politics, perform the following tasks:
– Identify two trends shown in the graph.
– Explain how each of the following contributes to the difference
between the federal and the state and local lines in the graph.
• Block grants
• Federal mandates
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Essential Question
• Which level(s) of government are growing the
fastest and what are the factors driving this
growth?
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FRQ #3 Vocabulary
• Block Grants (see Edwards, pp. 86-88)
– Federal money given to states (or local communities) without a
specific purpose or category. The grantee can spend the money
using its own discretion within a broad area such as community
development or social services.
– Compare categorical grants, which represent federal money
sent to state and local governments with specific requirements
of how that money will be spent.
• Federal Mandates
– Federal laws or regulations that require states and/or localities
to take some action which will cost money, but without all (or in
some cases, any) of the necessary federal money attached.
– Exs: ADA, NCLB
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Trends
• Remember – in order to qualify as a trend, your answer must span more than
one data point!
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Acceptable Trends
Federal Level
Stays Constant
State/local
levels show
general increase
State / local
show decline
after 1990
Widening gap
between the
two lines
Federal level
dropped until
1947
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Block Grants
States able to obtain
increased resources
from Federal
government /
definition of block
grants
Led to
Increases in state and
local hiring
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Federal Mandates
Shift of responsibility
to states / definition
of federal mandates
Led to
Increases in state and
local hiring
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2003 AP US Gov FRQ #4
• Both party leadership and committees in
Congress play key roles in the legislative process
– A. Define two of the following elements of the
congressional committee system and explain how
each influences the legislative process
• Specialization
• Reciprocity/logrolling
• Party representation on committees
– B. Identify two ways party leadership in Congress can
influence the legislative process, and explain how
each way influences the process.
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Essential Question
• How does Congressional leadership and
committees influence the legislative process?
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2003 FRQ #4 Vocabulary
• Specialization
– Members of Congress develop policy expertise
• Reciprocity / logrolling
– Vote trading / exchanges
– Bargaining
• Party representation on committees
– Representation is reflective of the chamber as a
whole
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Reciprocity /
logrolling
Specialization
Party representation
on committees
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Reciprocity /
logrolling
Specialization
• Development of
Expertise
• Independence
from Executive
Branch
• More attention
paid to legislation
• Division of labor
• Better legislation
(Explain HOW)
•
•
•
•
Speeds process
Government more
expansive (can do
more)
More porkbarrel
spending (linked to
reciprocity)
Note: Electoral
success NOT
accepted (doesn’t
influence legislative
process)
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
Party representation
on committees
• Party pushes its
own agenda
• Party determines
leadership on
committees
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Party Leadership
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•
•
•
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Assignment of members to committees
Assignment of committee chairs
Agenda-setting (rules committee)
Party discipline
Leadership use of media
Recognition on floor
Leadership control of electoral support
Note: Explain HOW above influences legislative process
2003 AP US Government & Politics FRQs
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