Jeet

Report
Malware Reverse Engineering
Man In The Browser (MITB)
Jeet Morparia
Software Engineer, Malware Analysis and Response
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Agenda
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Today’s malware landscape
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Reverse engineering a malware
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Man In The Browser
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Today’s malware landscape
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Though ‘spams’
have
decreased,
‘malicious
attacks’ have
increased!
Use of more
and more webtoolkits
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>50% increase in
unique variants of
malware
>10k unique
malicious web
domains
~50% increase in
mobile
vulnerabilities
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2 main reasons for
this trend:
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Part of large
organizations ecosystem providing
stepping stone to
larger attack
-
Less defended
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Reverse Engineering A Malware
Black boxing and White boxing
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Analysis of a malware
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HIEW
VIRTUAL
MEMORY
FILE
PROPERTIES
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Presentation Identifier Goes Here
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PACKED
CODE
UPX Packed Sections
UNPACKED
CODE
Unpacked Sections
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Embedded Resources
Version Information
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Monitoring
Tools
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OllyDbg
Break
Points
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IDA PRO
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Man In The Browser
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Man-in-the-middle (MiM)
Transfer $2500 to Mom
E
D
Transfer $10000 to Trudy
D
E
E
D
D
E
Transferred $10000 to Trudy
Transferred $2500 to Mom
ALICE
TRUDY
BOB
End User
Attacker
Bank server
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Man-in-the-browser (MITB)
ALICE’S Browser
Transfer $10000 to Trudy
Transfer $2500 to Mom
Transferred $10000 to Trudy
Transferred $2500 to Mom
ALICE
BOB
Captured form data
End User
Bank server
Infect Alice’s system
with a Trojan
TRUDY
Attacker
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CLEAN BROWSER
- No extra fields
- Just the required information
INFECTED BROWSER
- Extra fields e.g.: PIN
PIN:
- Asks for critical information
usually not required
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MiM vs MITB
Parameters
MiM
MITB
Hardware/Software
requirements
Usually requires
compromised hardware
Injects malicious software
(Trojan) in web browser
Communication
Has to deal with secure
communication
Immune to secure
communication such as SSL
Targets
Targets are directed or
location-based
Targets can be anywhere on
the internet
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Purpose of MITB
• Subvert secure communication, SSL
• Steal and modify form data
• Didn’t I say MONEY !
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Types of MITB
Hooking Windows API
• Trojan.Clampi
Using BHO (Browser Helper
Objects) in IE ---OR--- Using
Firefox Extensions
• Trojan.Neloweg
Using Self Signed
Certificates
• Trojan.Tatanarg
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MITB by hooking Windows APIs
What is a hook ?
A piece of code that intercepts function calls to modify function of the application.
{- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -}
HOOKING
FUNCTION
ORIGINAL
FUNCTION
{- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -}
Hooks itself to original API when its called
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• InternetReadFile
• InternetWriteFile
Monitors and hooks several API calls monitored by
Windows DLL, urlmon.dll
Can be detected
by scanning for
injected process
{- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -}
{- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -}
3
2
Trojan.Clampi injects malicious thread into IE browser
• InternetOpenA
{- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -}
1
• InternetConnectA
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Grab data from IE browser before its encrypted, hence
overcoming SSL
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MITB using BHO/ Browser extension
• Trojan.Neloweg
– Sets up Namespace and associates it with Winsock2
– Loads the dll in memory when any program tries to connect to the
internet using Winsock2
– No process injection needed !
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• The dll file creates the browser extension files if its running
under Firefox.exe
– %ProgramFiles%\Mozilla Firefox\chrome\error.manifest
– %ProgramFiles%\Mozilla Firefox\chrome\error.jar
– %ProgramFiles%\Mozilla Firefox\components\nsLego.js
– %ProgramFiles%\Mozilla Firefox\components\nsILEgo.xpt
• Error.jar contains the main code for form grabbing.
• Can be detected by in browser security software which block
APIs form browser extensions. Eg Trusteer Rapport.
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MITB using self signed certificates
• Trojan.Tatanarg
– Much like MiM: Creates proxy service between bank and client
– On the bank side of proxy: Outbound traffic encrypted using bank
credentials
– On the browser side of proxy: Encrypt traffic using its own credentials
– Can be detected by scanning injected process
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Other MITB prevention/detection techniques
• Client-side java-script to encrypt some fields before the form
grabbing component
– Already broken
• Multi factor authentication
– Already broken
• Out of band transaction verification (OOB)
– Verifying the transaction over a channel other than the browser
• Web frauds detection
– Automated checks for fraud detection patterns by the banks
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Summary of MITB
MITB
Hooking win APIs
BHO
Self signed
certificate
Trojan name
Trojan.Clampi
Trojan.Neloweg
Trojan.Tatanarg
Injected process
required ?
Yes
No
Yes
Encrypts/decrypts
secure
communication ?
No
No
Yes
Detection
Scan injected
browser process
In browser security
Scan injected
browser process
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Conclusion
• Attackers are using newer ways to infect machines
– Targeted attacks
– Use of web tool kits
• Comprehensive analysis of a malware involves combination of
black-boxing and white-boxing techniques
• MITB is an innovative way used by attackers to break security
• MITB prevention is still work in progress (Good research
project!)
• Malware reverse engineering as a profession has a broad scope
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Reverse engineering tools
• Hex View
– http://www.hiew.ru/
• Unpacking tools
– http://www.woodmann.com/collaborative/tools/index.php/Category:Unpacking_Tools
• Resource hacker
– http://www.angusj.com/resourcehacker/
• Monitoring tools
– http://www.woodmann.com/collaborative/tools/index.php/Category:Monitoring_Tools
• OllyDbg
– http://www.ollydbg.de/
• IdaPro
– http://www.hex-rays.com/
• Process Dumper
– http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/details.aspx?id=4060
– http://www.woodmann.com/collaborative/tools/index.php/Category:Process_Dumpers
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References
• http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security_respo
nse/whitepapers/inside_trojan_clampi.pdf
• http://www.symantec.com/content/en/us/enterprise/media/security_respo
nse/whitepapers/Trojan_Neloweg_Bank_Robbing_Bot_in_the_Browser.pdf
• http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/banking-proxy-trojantatanarg
• http://www.symantec.com/threatreport/
• https://www.owasp.org/index.php/OWASP_Anti-Malware__Knowledge_Base#Appendix_A:_Security_Considerations_about_Authentica
tion_Solutions_and_Malware
• http://www.scis.ulster.ac.uk/~kevin/IJACI-Vol4No1-maninbrowser.pdf
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VIDEO
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=USCHPIQB8_Y
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Thank you!
Jeet Morparia
[email protected]
Copyright © 2012 Symantec Corporation. All rights reserved. Symantec and the Symantec Logo are trademarks or registered trademarks of Symantec Corporation or its affiliates in
the U.S. and other countries. Other names may be trademarks of their respective owners.
This document is provided for informational purposes only and is not intended as advertising. All warranties relating to the information in this document, either express or implied,
are disclaimed to the maximum extent allowed by law. The information in this document is subject to change without notice.
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