The Industrial Revolution brings change to Colonial Victoria Marion Littlejohn Education Officer, Sovereign Hill Museum HTAV Annual Conference, July, 2012. Year 9 The Making of the Modern World Depth Study 1 Making a Better World? Choose ONE 1 The Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914) 2 Movements of Peoples (c. 1757 – 1914) 3 Progressive Ideas and Movements (1750 – 1914) Making a Better World ? (1750 – 1914) Content description Students investigate …the experiences of men, women and children during the Industrial Revolution, and their changing way of life The Industrial Revolution (1750 – 1914) The technological innovations that led to the Industrial Revolution, and other conditions that influenced the industrialisation of Britain (the agricultural revolution, access to raw materials, wealthy middle class, cheap labour, transport system, and expanding empire) and of Australia Elaborations •the impact of steam, gas and electricity on people’s way of life •The experiences of men, women and children during the Industrial Revolution •The population movements and changing settlement patterns •changes to the cities and landscape in European countries and Australia as the Industrial Revolution continued to develop, using photos •The short and long-term impacts of the Industrial Revolution, including global changes in landscapes, transport and communication The Australian Curriculum; Year 9 - History George Baxter, News from Australia 1854 Pierre Edouard Frere, Washing Day c. 1837 [Penny post 1848] Beginnings of the Industrial Revolution A revolution in agriculture in Britain in the 1700s created conditions that favored the Industrial Revolution. • Farmers began growing new crops and using new technology such as the seed drill and the iron plow. • Increased food production improved people's diet and health, which in turn contributed to rapid population growth. • More efficient farming methods (enclosures) meant that fewer people were needed to farm. • As a result, unemployed farmers created a large new labor force. Why Britain took the lead. • It had plentiful iron and coal resources and a good transportation system (canals). • It was a leading commercial power so merchants had the capital to invest in new enterprises. • It had colonies that supplied raw materials and bought finished goods. • The British government encouraged improvements in transportation and used its navy to protect British trade. • Political stability – secure property rights encourages investment • British ideal that people could move ahead in society by hard work and talent. The Protestant Work Ethic. The Industrial Revolution began in the textile industry. Between 1733 and 1793, inventors produced new machines, such as the flying shuttle, the Spinning Jenny, and a water-powered loom, for spinning and weaving of wool and cotton. New machines led to the growth of the factory system, which brought workers and machines together in one place. By the late 1700s, steam began to replace water as a source of power after James Watt greatly improved Thomas Newcomen’s 1712 steam engine. Steam engines gave a boost to two other industries that were essential to the Industrial Revolution; coal and iron. Replica of Richard Trevithick's 1804 locomotive at the National Waterfront Museum, Swansea. 1808 Trevithick charged one shilling at his Steam Circus to view his “Catch me who can” steam locomotive. c.f. What is happening in NSW in 1808? 1829 George Stephenson’s Rocket successfully pulled an open carriage carrying 30 passengers at 45 kph. Rocket (with some post 1829 innovations) as preserved in the Science Museum, London. Benefits of rail travel • ability to transport fresh meat, milk, eggs & vegetables → better diet → improved health • Information/news spreads faster - newspapers and letters delivered next day in UK • Shrinking world • Cheaper transport costs → cheaper goods → raising sales → more jobs • Population more mobile, day return ticket to seaside now possible William Powell Frith - Life at the Seaside (Ramsgate Sands) 1854. Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859) Brunel’s Great Western railway linking London to Bristol included this twomile-long Tunnel at Box; then the longest railway tunnel in the world. The first train ran in 1838. A famous Great Western engine, the "Vulcan," built in 1837 SS Great Britain Launch of the SS Great Britain by HRH Prince Albert in 1843 The Crystal Palace, Hyde Park, London. 1851 1851 THE GREAT EXHIBITION Queen Victoria opens the Great Exhibition in the Crystal Palace. Hyde Park, London, 1851 North Transept – waiting for the Queen India Agriculture Machinery Moving machinery The Port Phillip District of NSW 1835 - 1851 S.T. Gill, Homeward Bound The Forest Creek Diggings, Mount Alexander, Port Phillip 1852, The London Illustrated News, 3rd July 1852 Colonization spread Britain’s Industrial Revolution to Australia. Henry O’Neil, The Parting Cheer Between 1852 and 1875 the ss Great Britain made 32 round trips to Australia bringing 15,000 passengers. 2% of present day Australians are descended from a Great Britain passenger. S.T. Gill, Deep Sinking Ballaarat, 1852 Star of the East Quartz Gold Mine, Ballarat c.1890s Water wheel at Chewton Stamper Batteries, crushing ore to release gold Phoenix Foundry Ballarat, 1873 B class locomotive, Ballarat Ballarat 1872 by William Bardwell. Early stripper/harvester c. 1883 H.V. McKay Sunshine Harvester factory showing harvester combs, comb teeth, wheels and other metal parts are being packed for shipment c1918 Reproduced courtesy of Museum Victoria Ballarat station 1903. A load of Sunshine Harvesters leaving Hugh V. McKay’s Ballarat works for export to Argentina Both train and farm machinery made in Ballarat. 1858 “the Great Stink” Joseph Bazalgette, Chief Engineer of the London Metropolitan Board of Works, proposes to build 82 miles of intercepting sewers, that will link with over 1,000 miles of underground street sewers. Teaching resources http://www.teacherlink.org/content/social/instructional/industrialrevolution/home.html Useful outline for teaching a unit on the Industrial Revolution in England – some of the links no longer work http://www1.umassd.edu/ir/welcome.cfm Interesting site from University of Massachusetts Dartmouth which contains an excellent Image Gallery http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/IndustrialRevolution.htm Amazing site produced to support the UK History curriculum with easily searchable sections on History topics from Romans to World War 2 Google Images – type in Industrial Revolution and go ballistic!!