The Addie and Arc Model

Report
The Addie and Arc
Models
By Antwanette Lewis
Kellie Love
Justin White
Jonathan Barris
THE ADDIE MODEL
BRIEF HISTORY
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ADDIE MODEL is a model of the Instructional System Design (ISD).
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ADDIE MODEL first appeared in 1975.
It was created by the Center for Educational Technology at Florida
State University for the United States Army.
It was quickly adapted by all the United States Armed Forces.
As defense machinery became more sophisticated, educational
background of entry level soldiers became low. The potential solution
to this problem was finding a form of systems approach to training.
The Army chose this model.
The ADDIE MODEL is specifically orientated towards the use of
behavioral performance objectives and criterion-referenced tests.
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ADDIE MODEL
The ADDIE MODEL consists of five phases:
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Analysis: In this phase, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals
and objectives, the audience’s needs, learning environment, any constraints,
delivery options, and time limit.
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Design: In this phase, the designer identifies the specific learning objectives;
storyboards and other materials are made; and strategies for teaching,
resources, and assessments are determined.
ADDIE MODEL
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Development: In this phase, the creation of content and learning materials
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Implementation: In this phase, the plan is put into action and a procedure for
training the learner and teacher is developed. Students will have access to the
materials needed.
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Evaluation: In this phase, there are two parts: formative and summative
Formative evaluation: present in each stage of the ADDIE process
Summative evaluation: consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced
items and providing opportunities for feedback from users.
USES of the ADDIE MODEL
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The best use of the ADDIE MODEL is to use for training situations where
things do not typically change in the process.
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ADDIE MODEL allows for perfection of a system.
The ADDIE MODEL would work well for:
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long term, open ended projects
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company training an employee

Teachers who want to develop a “unit of study”
STRENGTHS and WEAKNESSES of ADDIE
MODEL
STRENGTHS:
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Helps show weaknesses in concepts or processes
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Provides feedback from learner to allow for revisions
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Effective for training type situations
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Encourages a “perfected” system
WEAKNESSES:
Not a model, but a framework
Not flexible; Does not allow you to add in lessons or ideas as they present
themselves
All of the steps have to be known and items you want to cover before
implementing the project or wait until the next time it is implemented.
Could take a lot of time to create and implement
VIDEOS of ADDIE MODEL
BRIEF HISTORY
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The ARCS MODEL was created by John Keller.
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The ARCS MODEL is a method for improving motivational appeal of
instructional material.
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The ARCS MODEL suggests that learning occurs effectively when learners are
engaged throughout the entire learning process, and when strategies can be put
in place to ensure that goes forward to completion.
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The ARCS MODEL can help with the following elements that affect
motivation:
Materials used
Teacher behaviors
Lesson structures that call for certain actions at the beginning, middle or end of the
lesson
Overall structure of the course with a variety of units and lessons
THE ARC MODEL
ARCS MODEL
The ARCS MODEL has 4 categories:
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Attention: Material must grab the learner’s attention
Use specific, relatable examples, create surprise, take a novel approach, use humor
if appropriate
Ask questions, brainstorm, role-play, use hands-on experience
Incorporate different materials such as web based, video, field trips
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Relevance: Material must matter to them
Explain how the lesson will benefit the learner
Identify the learner’s needs and reasons for learning, and give options to
accommodate them
Connect the learning to the learner’s life, experiences, and values
ARCS MODEL
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Confidence: Learners must believe that they can succeed
Clearly outline what is expected of the students and the criteria for evaluation
Give the learner choices and meaningful experiences to help facilitate successful
learning
Connect the learning with the student’s effort or personal ability
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Satisfaction: Learner must receive some sort of reward or reinforcement at the
end of the learning experience
Encourage and support the learner’s fundamental enjoyment of learning
Provide positive reinforcement and motivational feedback
Be consistent, not just within the framework of the assignment, but from one
assignment to another
USES OF the ARCS MODEL
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Designed as a global learning model to be effective both in the classroom and
in professional learning environments.
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The model is fluent enough that it can be adapted to the level of the learners in
the group and enough flexibility to be relevant at the type of learner and
learning environments have evolved and changed.
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Keller’s suggestions of story-telling makes the materials relatable.
STRENGHTS and WEAKNESSES of the
ARCS MODEL
STRENGHTS:
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Keeps the learner engaged for the duration of the learning experience
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Is an active learning model that encourages learner participation
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Is flexible and can be incorporated into a wide variety of learning experiences
including training, professional development, and classroom regardless of
whether the student is in regular education, special education, or higher
education
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Continues to be relevant over time
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Easy to apply
WEAKNESSES:
May require the facilitator to completely re-think his or her approach to instruction
Presents difficulties if there are learners of different levels of motivation in the
group
VIDEOS

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