Fysiologi - plansjer (pps)

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PHYSIOLOGY AND
PERSONALITY
MEASURES
THEORY
Cato Grønnerød
PSY
FYSIOLOGI OG
PERSONLIGHET
MÅLING
TEORIER
Cato Grønnerød
PSY1006
FYSIOLOGISK TILNÆRMING
 Hjernefunksjon
• Temporallappene
• Nevrotransmittere
 Autonome nervesystem
• Sympatiske og parasympatiske systemer
 Hormonelt system
• Kjønnshormoner
• Adrenalin, kortisol
 Eksterne agenter
SHELDON’S PHYSIOLOGICAL
APPROACH TO PERSONALITY
 Argued that body type determines
personality
 Did not use blind ratings, most later
research failed to replicate
 Some work suggesting relationship
between body type and job choice
 Physiological personality psychologists
today do not focus on global variables such
as body type
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
HISTORISKE TEORIER
 Kroppsvæsker (Galen)
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Flegmatisk: passiv, rolig, tankefull
Sangvinsk: glad, utadvendt og livlig
Kolerisk: ustabil, aggressiv og oppfarende
Melankolsk: nedstemt og pessimistisk
 Kroppstyper (Sheldon)
• Ektomorf: intelligente, fryktsomme
• Mesomorf: populære, hardtarbeidende
• Endomorf: glade, late, skjødesløse
PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASURES
COMMONLY USED IN PERSONALITY
RESEARCH
 Electrodermal Activity (Skin Conductance)
 Cardiovascular activity
 Brain Activity
 Other measures: Biochemical analyses of
blood and saliva
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
FYSIOLOGISKE MÅLINGER
 Hudmotstand (Skin Conductance,
Electrodermal Activity)
• Elektroder eller sensorer på huden
 Kardiovaskulær aktivitet
• Blodtrykk, puls
 Hjerneaktivitet
• Elektroencefalografi, fMRI, PET
 Biokjemiske analyser av blod og slim
ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY (EDA):
SKIN CONDUCTANCE
 Most obtained by electrodes or sensors
placed on the skin surface
 Advantage: Noninvasive, no discomfort
 Disadvantage: Movement constrained
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
ELECTRODERMAL ACTIVITY (EDA):
SKIN CONDUCTANCE
 Electrodermal activity—due to increased
sweat with arousal, skin conductance of
electricity increases
 Can measure responses to various stimuli,
including sudden noises, emotionally
charged pictures, pain, anxiety, fear, guilt
 Some people show EDA in the absence of
external stimuli—associated with anxiety
and neuroticism
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
HUDMOTSTAND (EDA)
 Aktivering av autonomt nervesystem
• -> økt aktivitet i svettekjertlene
• -> økt mengde saltvann
• -> økt ledbarhet for strøm
 Responser til forskjellige stimuli
• Fight or flight-respons
• Plutselige lyder, emosjonelt ladede bilder, smerte,
angst, frykt, skyldfølelse
HUDMOTSTAND (EDA)
 EDA i fravær av eksterne stimuli
• Angst og nevrotisisme
• Fortrengning, ubevisste prosesser?
 Fordeler
• Ikke-invaderende
• Kjenner ingenting
 Ulemper
• Begrenset bevegelighet
• ”Påklistret” følelse
CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY
 Blood pressure—measure of, e.g., stress
reactivity
 Heart rate—increases with anxiety, fear,
arousal, cognitive effort
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
CARDIOVASCULAR ACTIVITY
 Cardiac reactivity—greater than normal
increase in blood pressure and heart rate
when performing task such as backward
serial subtraction
• Associated with Type A personality—impatience,
competitiveness, hostility
• Cardiac reactivity (and Type A) associated with
coronary heart disease
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
KARDIOVASKULÆR AKTIVITET
 Blodtrykk
• Diastolisk trykk: mellom hjerteslag
• Systolisk trykk: maksimum trykk ved hjerteslag
• Øker ved stress
 Puls
• Øker ved fight-flight-aktivering
• angst, frykt, generell aktivering
KARDIOVASKULÆR AKTIVITET
 Hjertereaktivitet
• Både blodtrykk og puls øker ved kognitive
anstrengelser
• Særlig koblet med stress
 Type A-personlighet
• Fiendtlighet, utålmodighet, konkurranseinnstilling
• Øker risiko for hjerteproblemer
BRAIN ACTIVITY
 Brain spontaneously produces small
amounts of electrical activity; can be
 measured by electrodes on scalp—
electroencephalograph (EEG)
 Evoked potential technique—uses EEG, but
the participant is given a stimulus and the
researcher assess specific brain response
to stimulus
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
BRAIN ACTIVITY
 Brain imaging techniques—map structure
and function of brain
• Positron emission tomography (PET)
• Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
HJERNEAKTIVITET
 EEG: elektroencefalogram
• Elektroder som registrerer små elektriske signaler i
hjernen
• Aktivitetsmønstre i forskjellige deler av hjernen
• Evoked potential: reaksjoner på stimulering
 PET: Positron Emission Tomography
 fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance
Imaging
HJERNEAKTIVITET
 Canli et al. (2001)
• fMRI mens personer så på positivt og negativt
emosjonelt ladede bilder
• Nevrotisisme korrelerte med økt aktivering i
temporallappene ved negative bilder
• Ekstroversjon korrelerte med økt aktivering i
temporallappene ved positive bilder
ANDRE FYSIOLOGISKE MÅL
 Immunsystem
• Endres ved stress og emosjoner
 Testosteron
• Uhemmede, aggressive og risikofylte atferdsmønstre
 Kortisol
• Høyere nivåer hos sjenerte barn
 MAO: Monoaminoksidase
• Sensation Seeking
PHYSIOLOGICALLY BASED
THEORIES OF PERSONALITY
 Extraversion-Introversion
 Sensitivity to Reward and Punishment
 Sensation Seeking
 Neurotransmitters and Personality
 Morningness-Eveningness
 Brain Asymmetry and Affective Style
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
FYSIOLOGIBASERTE
FORSKJELLER
FYSIOLOGIBASERTE
PERSONLIGHETSTEORIER
 Ekstroversjon-Introversjon
 Sensitivitet for belønning og straff
 Sensation Seeking
 Nevrotransmittere og personlighet
 A- og B-mennesker
 Hjerneasymmetri og affektiv stil
EXTRAVERSION-INTROVERSION
 Measured by Eysenck Personality
Questionnaire (EPQ)
 High extraversion: Talkative, outgoing, likes
meeting new people and going to new
places, active, bored easily, hates routine
 Low extraversion: Quiet, withdrawn, prefers
being alone or with a few friends to large
crowds, prefers routines, prefers familiar to
unexpected
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
EKSTROVERSJON –
INTROVERSJON
 Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
 Høy ekstroversjon
• Snakkesalig, utadvendt, liker sosiale sammenhenger
og nye steder, aktiv, kjeder seg lett, hater rutine
 Lav ekstroversjon (Introversjon)
• Stille, tilbaketrukket, foretrekker å være alene eller
med få venner, liker rutiner og det kjente frafor det
ukjente
EYSENCK’S THEORY
 Introverts have a higher level than
extraverts of activity in the brain’s
ascending reticular activating system
(ARAS)
 People strive to keep ARAS activity at
optimal level—introverts work to decrease
and avoid stimulation; extraverts work to
increase and seek out stimulation
EYSENCKS TEORI
 Introverte har et høyere aktiveringsnivå i
retikulærsubstansen (RS) enn ekstroverte
 Forsøker å holde ARAS-aktivitet på et
optimalt nivå
• Introverte demper og unngår stimulering
• Ekstroverte øker og søker stimulering
EYSENCK’S THEORY
 Research indicates that introverts and
extraverts are NOT at different resting
levels, but introverts ARE more reactive to
moderate levels of stimulation than
extraverts
 This work led Eysenck to revise his
theory—the difference between introverts
and extraverts lies in arousability, not in
baseline arousal
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
EYSENCKS TEORI
 Forsøk viser at introverte og ekstroverte
ikke ligger på forskjellig hvilenivå
 Men: introverte er mer reaktive for moderate
stimuleringsnivåer
 Eysenck reviderte sin teori
• Forskjellen mellom introverte og ekstroverte ligger i
aktiverbarhet, ikke i hvilenivå
EYSENCK’S THEORY
 When given a choice, extraverts prefer
higher levels of stimulation than introverts
 Geen (1984): Introverts and extraverts
choose different levels of stimulation, but
equivalent in arousal under chosen
stimulation
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
EYSENCKS TEORI
 Når de får velge foretrekker ekstroverte
høyere stimuleringsnivå enn introverte
 Geen (1984)
• Introverte og ekstroverte velger forskjellig
stimuleringsnivå
• Ekvivalent aktivering under den valgte stimuleringen
EYSENCKS TEORI: GEEN (1984)
SENSITIVITY TO REWARD AND
PUNISHMENT
 Personality based on two hypothesized
brain systems
 Behavioral Activation System (BAS):
Responsive to incentives (cues to reward)
and regulates approach behavior
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
FØLSOMHET FOR BELØNNING
OG STRAFF
 To systemer i hjernen
 Behavioral Activation System (BAS)
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Mottakelig for incentiver, tegn på belønning
Regulerer tilnærmingsatferd
Produserer impulsivitet
Hemmer tilbaketrekning
Øker aktivering jo nærmere målet personen kommer
Lærer best ved belønning
SENSITIVITY TO REWARD AND
PUNISHMENT
 Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS):
Responsive to cues to punishment,
frustration, uncertainty, and motivates
ceasing, inhibiting, or avoidance behavior
 Active BIS produces anxiety, active BAS
produces impulsivity
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
FØLSOMHET FOR BELØNNING
OG STRAFF
 Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
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•
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Mottakelig for tegn på straff og frustrasjon
Regulerer tilbaketrekkingsatferd
Produserer angst
Hemmer tilnærming
Lærer best ved straff
 Under separat nevral kontroll
 To ulike læringssystemer
SENSITIVITY TO REWARD AND
PUNISHMENT
 Integration with Eysenck’s model: Impulsive
= high extraversion, moderate neuroticism;
Anxious = moderate introversion, high
neuroticism
 According to Gray, impulsive people do not
learn well from punishment because of
weak BIS; learn better from reward—
supported by research
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
FØLSOMHET FOR BELØNNING
OG STRAFF
 Integrasjon med Eysencks modell
• Høy BAS/Impulsiv = høy ekstroversjon?
• Høy BIS/Engstelig = høy nevrotisisme?
SENSATION SEEKING
 Tendency to seek out thrilling, exciting
activities, take risks, avoid boredom
 Early sensory deprivation research
 Hebb’s theory of optimal level of arousal
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
SENSATION SEEKING
 Tendens til å oppsøke spennende
aktiviteter, ta risiko, unngå kjedsomhet
 Hebbs teori om optimalt aktiveringsnivå
• Hvis underaktivert er aktivering belønnende
• Hvis overaktivert er mindre aktivering belønnende
• Vitalbalanse?
SENSATION SEEKING
 Zuckerman: High sensation seekers are less
tolerant of sensory deprivation; require
much stimulation to get to optimal level of
arousal
 Zuckerman’s Sensation Seeking Scale
 Moderate positive correlation between
extraversion and sensation seeking
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
SENSATION SEEKING
 Zuckermans modell
• Sensation seekers er mindre tolerante for sensorisk
deprivasjon
• Behøver mye stimulering for å oppnå et optimalt
aktiveringsnivå
• Moderat positiv korrelasjon mellom skårer på
Zuckermans Sensation Seeking Scale og
ekstroversjon
• Høyere sensation seekers
• Opprørspoliti, fallskjermhoppere, spillere
SENSATION SEEKING
 Physiological basis for sensation seeking
• Neurotransmitters—chemicals in nerve cells are
responsible for the transmission of nerve impulse
from one cell to another
• Monoamine Oxidase (MAO)—enzyme that maintains
a proper level of neurotransmitters
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND
PERSONALITY
 Dopamine—associated with pleasure
 Serotonin—associated with depression and
other mood disorders
 Norepinepherine—associated with fight or
flight response
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
NEVROTRANSMITTERE
 Dopamin
• Assosiert med nytelse, glede, impulsivitet
 Serotonin
• Assosiert med depresjon og stemningslidelser, lav
impulsivitet
 Norepinefrin
• Assosiert med fight/flight-responsen
SENSATION SEEKING
 Physiological basis for sensation seeking
• Too little MAO = too much neurotransmitter; too much
MAO = too little neurotransmitter
• High sensation seekers have low levels of MAO,
producing a need for stimulation to reach the optimal
level of arousal
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
SENSATION SEEKING
 Monoaminoxidase (MAO)
• Enzym som regulerer signalstoffnivået i
nervesynapsen ved nedbryting
• For mye MAO = for lite signalstoff
• For lite MAO = for mye signalstoff
 Høy sensation seeking relatert til lavt MAOnivå i blodet
 Lavere hemning og kontroll -> høyere
impulsivitet
• Ikke søking mot optimalt nivå
NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND
PERSONALITY
 Cloninger’s Tridimensional Personality
Model
• Novelty seeking—low levels of dopamine
• Harm avoidance—low levels of serotonin
• Reward dependence—low levels of norephinepherine
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
NEVROTRANSMITTERE
 Cloningers tredimensjonale
personlighetsmodell
• Søking etter noe nytt (novelty seeking): lavt
dopaminnivå
• Unngåelse av skade: lavt serotoninnivå
• Avhengighet av belønning: lavt norepinefrinnivå
 Type 4 dopaminreseptorgenet (D4DR)
• Visse kombinasjoner på genet knyttet til novelty
seeking
MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS
 Being a “morning-type” or “evening-type”
of person is a stable characteristic
 Due to differences in underlying biological
rhythms
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS
 Many biological processes fluctuate around
a 24-25 hour cycle—circadian rhythm; e.g.,
body temperature, endocrine secretion
rates
 But wide individual differences are in the
circadian rhythm, identified through
temporal isolation studies
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS
 Individuals with shorter circadian rhythms
hit peak body temperature and alertness
earlier in day, get sleepy earlier, than
individuals with longer rhythm
 Individuals with shorter rhythm tend to be
morning persons; individuals with longer
rhythms tend to be evening persons
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
MORNINGNESS-EVENINGNESS
 Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire
 Cross-cultural replication and
documentation of stability of characteristic
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND
AFFECTIVE STYLE
 Left and right sides of the brain are
specialized, with asymmetry in control of
psychological functions
 Using EEG, can measure brain waves, such
as alpha wave—an inverse indicator of brain
activity
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
HJERNEASYMMETRI OG
AFFEKTER
 Hjernens høyre og venstre deler er
spesialiserte, kontrollerer forskjellige
psykologiske funksjoner
 EEG: alfabølger
• Jevne bølger på 8-12 Hz
• Rolig, avslappet, uoppmerksom
• Invers indikator på hjerneaktivering
BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND
AFFECTIVE STYLE
 Left frontal hemisphere is more active than
the right when a person is experiencing
pleasant emotions; right is more active than
left with unpleasant emotions
 Patterns replicated in adults, children, and
infants
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
HJERNEASYMMETRI OG
AFFEKTER
 Ved positive affekter
• Venstre frontale cortex mer aktiv
 Ved negative affekter
• Høyre frontale cortex mer aktiv
 Samme mønster funnet hos voksne, barn,
spebarn og aper
BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND
AFFECTIVE STYLE
 Research indicates that the tendency to
exhibit asymmetry (favoring left over right,
or right over left activation) is a stable
individual characteristic
 Dispositionally positive persons show
greater left frontal EEG activity;
dispositionally negative persons show
greater right frontal EEG activity
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
HJERNEASYMMETRI OG
AFFEKTER
 Tendens til å vise asymmetri er en stabil
individuell karakteristikk over tid
 Disposisjonelt positive personer (BASpreferanse) viser større venstresidig
aktivitet
 Disposisjonelt negative personer (BISpreferanse) viser større høyresidig aktivitet
BRAIN ASYMMETRY AND
AFFECTIVE STYLE
 Conclusion: Person’s affective lifestyle may
have origins in, or be predicted by a pattern
of asymmetry in frontal brain activation
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
 Study of personality can be approached
biologically
 Two ways to think about how physiological
variables are useful in personality theory
and research…
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
SUMMARY AND EVALUATION
 Use physiological measures as variables
that may be correlated with personality
traits
 View physiological events as providing
causal substrate for personality trait
© 2008 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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