Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells (and viruses)

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PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC
CELLS (AND VIRUSES)
Cell Biology Standard 1c
Students know how prokaryotic
cells, eukaryotic cells (including
those from plants and animals),
and viruses differ in complexity
and general structure.
PROKARYOTIC CELLS (BACTERIA)
 Bacteria
 Simplest
cells
 No membranebound organelles
 No nucleus

DNA is found in
“nucleoid region”
 pro
= before
karyo = nucleus
EUKARYOTIC CELLS

Membrane-bound organelles

Many chemical reactions can
take place at the same time
Nucleus (Contains DNA)
 Eu = true karyo = nucleus
 Unicellular or multicellular
organisms
 2 Types: Plant & Animal
Cells

VIRUSES
Not alive
 DNA or RNA surrounded by protein

TRUE OR FALSE???
1. Viruses are living and bacteria are non-living.
 2. Both types of cells as well as viruses have
genetic material.
 3. The two types of Eukaryotic cells are plant
cells and animal cells.
 4. A prokaryotic cell does not have membrane
bound organelles like mitochondria or
endoplasmic reticulum.
 Eukaryotic cells are found in bacteria.

Eukaryotic cells are differentiated from
prokaryotic cells because eukaryotic cells
A are much smaller.
B have permeable membranes.
C have a higher rate of reproduction.
D have a nucleus.
ORGANELLES OF EUKARYOTIC CELLS
Cell Biology Standard 1d, 1e
NUCLEUS 1D




The “brain” of the cell
Contains DNA that
codes for ALL the
proteins in your body
Surrounded by the
nuclear membrane
Membrane has nuclear
pores to let mRNA out

When DNA is coiled up
it’s called chromosomes

When DNA is uncoiled
it’s called chromatin
TRANSCRIPTION 1D
 DNA
is transcribed
(copied) into
messenger RNA
(mRNA)
 mRNA
leaves
through nuclear pore
into cytoplasm
TRANSLATION 1D
 mRNA
is translated
into a protein by a
ribosome
 That’s
how your
genes (DNA) predict
your appearance
(proteins)!
The central dogma of
molecular biology
outlines the flow of
information as the
following:
A. DNA ->mRNA->
protein -> ribosome
 B. mRNA ->DNA ->
ribosome -> protein
 C. DNA -> mRNA ->
ribosome -> protein
 D. Protein -> ribosome ->
mRNA -> DNA

Translation is the
process of:
A. DNA replication
 B. ribosomes reading mRNA
code to build a protein
 C. DNA copied into mRNA
 D. mRNA copied into DNA

ORGANELLES 1E




Ribosomes: read the mRNA
and make proteins.
Rough ER : covered in
ribosomes where proteins
are made.
Golgi apparatus: packages
proteins in vesicles which
are moved to the
membrane.
Smooth ER: modifies and
detoxifies lipids. (fats,
steroids)
Which cellular organelle is responsible for
packaging the proteins that the cell
secretes?
A cytoskeleton
B cell membrane
C lysosome
D Golgi apparatus
WHICH CELLULAR ORGANELLE IS
RESPONSIBLE FOR MODIFYING AND
DETOXIFYING LIPIDS?
A
Rough ER
B Mitochondria
C Ribosomes
D Smooth ER
THE CELL MEMBRANE
Cell Biology standard 1a
Students know cells are enclosed within
semipermeable membranes that regulate their
interaction with their surroundings.
CELL MEMBRANE



Surrounds ALL cells!
Controls what enters/leaves
the cell
SEMIPERMEABLE – allows
some things through but not
others
STRUCTURE

Phospholipid bilayer
Polar heads “love” water (hydrophilic)
 Nonpolar tails “fear” water (hydrophobic)

FLUID MOSAIC MODEL
“Fluid mosaic model”
 Proteins float around like icebergs in the ocean

CELL TRANSPORT
 Molecules
can enter/leave the cell 3 ways
Diffusion
 Carrier-Facilitated (“helped”) diffusion
 Active transport

1. DIFFUSION



No energy required
Molecules move from area of high concentration
to low concentration
Diffusion of water is called “osmosis”
2. CARRIER-FACILITATED DIFFUSION
No energy required
 Molecules “helped” across by proteins from high to low
concentration

3. ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Energy required!
ATP – the “battery” of the cell
 Breaking a bond in ATP releases energy
 Can “pump” molecules from low to high concentration
building them up in the cell

The cell membrane of the red blood cell
will allow water, oxygen, carbon dioxide,
and glucose to pass through. Because
other substances are blocked from
entering, this membrane is called
A. perforated.
B. semi-permeable.
C. non-conductive.
D. permeable.
TRUE OR FALSE???
1. In both diffusion and carrier-facilitated
diffusion molecules move from high to low
concentration.
 2. The cell membrane is called the fluid mosaic
model because ribosomes float around like
icebergs in an ocean.
 3. The type of energy needed for active transport
to move molecules against the concentration
gradient from low to high is ATP.
 The cell membrane is a phospholipid bilayer
with polar heads on the inside and non polar tails
on the outside.

CELLULAR ENERGETICS
Photosynthesis and Respiration
Standards 1f and 1g
PHOTOSYNTHESIS 1F


Process where sunlight is converted into chemical
energy stored in carbohydrates (sugar)
Occurs in the
Chloroplast
CO2
+ H2O + light  C6H12O6 + O2
Carbon Dioxide +
water
+
light

Glucose
+ Oxygen
• Has
stacks of membranes called thylakoids
surrounded by space called the stroma
28
REACTIONS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Light-dependent reactions

Need light
Energy from sunlight is stored in chemical bonds of ATP
and NADPH
O2 is released from water

H2O + light  ATP + NADPH +O2


(full batteries)

Light-independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle)
Use ATP and NADPH to make glucose from CO2
 CO2 + ATP + NADPH  C6H12O6

(sugar)
Which of these best
completes this
concept map?
A an animal cell
B a prokaryotic cell
C a virus
D a plant cell
Which molecule in plant cells first
captures the radiant energy from
sunlight?
A glucose
B carbon dioxide
C chlorophyll
D adenosine triphosphate
The first stage of photosynthesis in a
chloroplast is
A. light-dependent.
B. temperature-dependent.
C. glucose-driven.
D. ATP-driven.
CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1G
Series of reactions where carbohydrates are
broken down to produce CO2 and energy (ATP)
 Occurs in the Cytoplasm & Mitochondria

C6H12O6 + O2 
Glucose
CO2
+ H2O + ATP energy
+ Oxygen  Carbon Dioxide + Water
+
ATP energy
 Matrix
is center of the mitochondria
 Cristae are folded portions of inner
membrane
3 sets of reactions
 Glycolysis – glucose split into two pyruvate
(Cytoplasm) = 2 ATP

Krebs Cycle – pyruvate broken into CO2
(matrix of the mitochondria) = 2 ATP

Electron TransportChain – most ATP produced
(cristae of the mitochondria) = 32-34 ATP
WHICH STEP OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION
PRODUCES THE MOST ATP?
A. Glycolysis
 B. Krebs Cycle
 C. Electron Transport Chain
 D. All steps produce the same amount of ATP

In aerobic respiration, the Krebs cycle
(citric acid cycle) takes place in
A. chloroplasts.
B. nuclei.
C. lysosomes.
D. mitochondria.
A cell from heart muscle would probably
have an unusually high proportion of
A. lysosomes.
B. mitochondria.
C. mRNA.
D. Golgi bodies.

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