Energy systems & the continuum

Report
Background info…

The body needs a steady supply of energy to
produce the muscular contractions that are
essential for sport, as well as to perform all the
other functions needed to stay alive, such as
digestion of foods, circulation and repairing
tissues.

For movement to occur, the body must transfer
stored chemical energy to mechanical
energy. The body does this by breaking down a
high energy compound called Adenosine
Triphosphate (ATP)
Task…
1)Research what is ATP within the
energy system (what it looks like
and what function it serves.
- What are the 3 energy
systems and some
background information
on each system.
Adenosine
Triphosphate and
energy production
• ATP
– Energy is produced by breaking down the foods that we eat in
our diet
– Made up of one Adenosine molecule, attached to 3 phosphate
molecules
• These are bound together by high energy bonds
• Adenosine
molecule
• 3 phosphate
molecules
•
In order to get the energy, we need to:
– Break down the bond between the
second and third phosphate
molecules.
• The bond between the
outer of the 3 phosphate
molecules needs to be
broken.
•
The breakdown leaves us with a second
compound – Adenosine diphosphate (ADP)
and a loose phosphate molecule
•We must reattach these
molecules in order to remake
ATP. We need energy to do this.
• Adenosine
molecule
• 2 phosphate
molecules
•
So Adenosine
Triphosphate
breaks down
• We use this
energy to move
and to keep our
body systems
going.
• Adenosine
Diphosphate + a loose
phosphate molecule
• This
breakdown
produces
energy
Merit
•
We know that the splitting of the
outer bond of the ATP molecules
releases energy.
– This energy stimulates the myosin cross bridge to the
active site on the actin filament. According to sliding
filament theory, this then stimulates movement.
Merit
•
The problem is that the muscles only store a small
amount of the energy compound ATP
– Probably only enough for a few contractions at a high intensity, such
as a few seconds of flat out running
– Therefore, in a game situation, we must continually resynthesize
ATP in order to supply a constant source of energy.
•To do this, we must attach
the ADP and the phosphate
again to make ATP, so that
the ATP can again be broken
down and the energy
released
•The problem is that:
resynthesizing ADP into ATP
requires energy and needs 1
of the 3 different energy
systems to do this.
We will look at the different
energy systems in later tasks.
Task…
Make an A4 poster, presenting what you
have learned from todays lesson on ATP.
- Use the PowerPoint and internet to produce
the poster… using information that has been
synthesised by yourself and also having
sourced your own pictures and illustrations.
The 3 energy systems…
Creatine
Phosphate system
CP
(Phospocreatine
system- PC)
 Lactic Acid System
 Aerobic System

Task 2 – The CP System PASS

CP stands for Creatine Phosphate

The muscles contain more CP stores than ATP stores.

The aim of the CP system is to create ATP from ADP + P

The CP bond is broken down so that the loose P can join the 2 P Ps in
ADP to create ATP.
C
P
+
A
P
P
A
P
P
P
+
C

This energy system is used for exercise of a high intensity & short
duration (approx. 6 seconds).

Once the CP stores have run out, the CP system cannot work. We have
to wait for more CP to be made (resynthesized). After the CP stores have
run out, we must use a different energy system.
Task 2 – The CP System
MERIT
 Key Features:


It is fast & immediate CP is stored in the muscle & so there
ready & waiting! Its used in the early stages of high intensity exercise.
Because of the limited stores of ATP & CP, it can only last approx. 8-
10 seconds (ATP=2 sec CP=6sec). After this we
fatigue.

A limitation with the CP System is that stores (of ATP & CP) run out
very quickly. To resynthesize (make more) them, requires
aerobic energy which takes a lot longer.

Examples of exercises that use the CP system:
Task 3 – The Lactic Acid System
PASS
•The Lactic Acid System is
anaerobic meaning it doesn’t use Oxygen (O²)
•It gets energy from the break down of Glucose molecules (stored within the muscles),
this is known as “Glycolysis”
•It releases energy very quickly and is required when the activity is intense!!
Glucose
Glucose – 6 Phosphate
This reaction
produces 3
ATP
Pyruvic Acid
Pyruvic Acid
Lactic Acid
Glucose is
converted to
Glucose-6
Phosphate in
order to
resynthesize
ATP…to do
this requires
1 ATP
Lactic Acid is a waste
product of this energy
system. Lactic Acid is what
gives you a “stitch” during
exercise!
Task 3 – The Lactic Acid System
MERIT
- Only 5% of Glucose is broken down by the Lactic Acid System. The other 95% is
broken down by the Aerobic Energy System.
-
The Lactic Acid System is used from 10 sec (after the CP System runs out) up to
approx 1-3 minutes.
-
This system is required as the body does not have time to deliver oxygen
(Anaerobic Glycolysis).
Glucose
Glucose – 6 Phosphate
This reaction
produces 3
ATP
Glycolytic Enzymes
Pyruvic Acid
Glucose-6
Phosphate is
broken down by
Glycolytic Enzymes
to produce Pyruvic
Acid
Pyruvic Acid
Lactic Acid
Lactic Acid accumulates and
diffuses into the muscles and
blood, causing discomfort (stitch)
& fatigue, so needs to be
removed by the CV system. Lactic
Acid also inhibits further
breakdown of Glucose.
Task 4 – The Aerobic Energy
System PASS

ATP is produced very slowly by the Aerobic System, it is very sluggish
compared to the CP & Lactic Acid Systems.

Energy comes from breaking down glucose & fats.

The aerobic system produces
This is a huge
amount more than
the other energy
systems

- 38 ATP when breaking down a Glucose molecule
- 129 ATP when breaking down a Fat molecule
Waste products are H²O(water) & CO² (carbon dioxide) and heat (lost through sweat)
which don’t inhibit further Glycolysis (unlike Lactic Acid as a waste
product).
Carbon Dioxide & Water are
waste products of Aerobic
Exercise!
This type of energy production can be used for hours.
It is used when exercising at low intensity
for long durations. For example:

Jogging, lasting 90 minutes, a marathon, long distance sports
Task 5 - The Krebs Cycle & Electron Transfer Chain MERIT
(part of The Aerobic Energy System)
During the Lactic Acid System, Pyruvic Acid is produced. This then enters the mitochondria for the Krebs Cycle.
Acetyl CoA
Pyruvic Acid
The Pyruvic Acid
comes from the
Lactic Acid
System
Repeat Cycle…
Oxaloacetate
Citric Acid
(6 carbon compound)
H²O
H²O, CO² &
Hydrogen are all
waste products from
the Krebs Cycle.
2 ATP are
produced
Pyruvic Acid is
converted into
Acetyl CoA
CO²
5 carbon
compound
4 carbon
compound
ATP
ATP
CO²
Task 5 – The Krebs Cycle & Electron Transfer Chain
MERIT
(part of The Aerobic Energy System) cont…
Following on from the Krebs Cycle…
Remember
Hydrogen was a
waste product from
the Krebs Cycle
Hydrogen
Splits into…
electron
•These then move out of the
mitochondria, then move back into the
Mitochondria
proton
It is the movement of the
electrons & protons that creates
huge amounts of energy.
Mitochondria
In this case
•They then combine with Oxygen to
produce H²O (water).
34 ATP
molecules are produced!!
Task:
P7/
M4
You should have designed now an
information Page/ Leaflet/ Poster on
the following:
- ATP/ ADP
- The Creatine Phosphate (CP) energy
System
- The Lactic Acid energy System
- The Aerobic energy System
The energy Continuum
Look on the page next and
complete the energy continuum
that each sport/activity may sit
upon…
Energy Continuum
Graph
A graph to show
the different
duration times
that each energy
system offers an
individual/athlete.
Task…
Pass
Find a picture of these sports and place
them on the continuum below in
accordance to the energy requirements:
·
Weight lifting
·
Marathon running – middle of
the race
·
100m Sprint – start
·
100m sprint – middle
·
100m sprint - end
·
Football player sprinting down
the wing half way through a game
·
Football player jogging up for a
corner
·
Shot putt
·
400m run
·
400m swim
·
100k cycle
Merit
explain why you
have chosen
that position on
the continuum for
each of the
different sporting
actions.
Describe each of the energy systems
named BELOW and relate the energy systems
to their use in different sport and exercise
activities. Describing / Explaining and Analysing
amount of ATP
produced and recovery times
the
Examine each energy
system and explain
its use in a variety of
sport and exercise
activities
of each.
Energy systems:
1)
2)
3)
4)
5)
ATP splitting and synthesis
Phosphocreatine (CP) system
Lactic acid system
Aerobic system
Energy continuum
Analyse three
different energy systems and
their use in a wide variety of
sport and exercise activities

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