The orange sections summarize key
information and vocabulary terms are
All life depends on energy, or the
ability to do work, in order to
 The original source of all
energy on Earth is the sun.
 All cells are constantly needing
and using energy.
 Energy is stored in the
chemical bonds of compounds
such as carbohydrates [sugars]
and lipids [fats] found in living
The ATP created during cellular respiration is one of
the most important compounds within cells because
it is used to store/release energy. Adenosine Tri
Phosphate (AKA ATP)
Think of ATP as a fully charged battery, ready to do
work for the cell.
 When the last phosphate bond in the compound are
broken in ATP, energy is released.
Observe the simulation; breaking off the last
phosphate creates ADP (Adenosine Di Phosphate) and
releases energy to be used in the cell.
 Sketch it!
two energy equations that relate to
energy for living things are photosynthesis in
autotrophs, which makes glucose [C6H1206],
and cellular respiration, which converts
glucose to ATP.
 The
Draw a plant in your notebook. Take a minute to
brainstorm anything and everything that you know about
photosynthesis, adding arrows to what goes “in” and what
comes “out”.
Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs
create glucose using carbon dioxide, water, and
energy from the sun. Animation Scene 1
 The chemical equation for photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight a C6H12O6 + 6O2
(Carbon Dioxide) (Water)
Chloroplasts are the organelles where
photosynthesis occurs in eukaryotes,
prokaryotes photosynthesize differently – we
will review that later.
 Chlorophyll is the main pigment that absorbs
light energy from the sun within the
 Animation Scene 2
Turn and talk to
your table mates:
How has the artist
represented the
equation for
photosynthesis in
this image?
Sketch a simplified
diagram of a
chloroplast in your
notebooks, include the
following labels:
Light Dependent Reaction: (Requires water and
 Takes place in a the thylakoid, a sac-like
membranes within the chloroplast where
chlorophyll absorbs the light energy
 Light energy transferred to electrons in the
electron transport chain
 Move to the stroma; uses NADP+ and 2 electrons to
make NADPH
 One water molecule is split to produce ATP and
release oxygen from the chloroplast
 Animation Scene 3
Light Independent Reaction:
 Calvin Cycle (Without light)
 Takes place in the stroma (gel like material outside
the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast)
 Series of reactions that use CO2 + ATP to make
glucose to use for energy
 Overview Animation
Cyanobacteria are
prokaryotes – but how do
they photosynthesize
without chloroplasts?
 oldest known fossils,
3.5+ billion years old
 contain chlorophyll and
have thylakoid-like
plasma membranes
with multiple layers for
Cellular respiration occurs
in the mitochondria of ALL
eukaryotes, while
photosynthesis occurs only
in plants and other
photosynthetic life.
 It releases energy by
breaking down glucose
and other food molecules,
most often in the
presence of oxygen.
 Animation Scene 1
The chemical equation for cellular respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 a 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP
(Water) (Carbon Dioxide) (Energy)
Sketch a simplified diagram of a
mitochondrion in your
notebooks, include the
following labels:
(L) Image ; (R) Image
 Glycolysis:
Takes place in the cytoplasm
Reaction converts glucose (using ATP) in to 2
molecules of pyruvic acid [C3H4O3].
Pyruvic acid then moves through the
mitochondrial membrane, converts to acetyl-CoA
and gives off CO2. Animation Scene 2
Biology – The Dynamics of Life, pg. 232
Biology – The Dynamics of Life, pg. 232
Citric Acid Cycle [AKA Kreb’s Cycle]:
 Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion
 Complicated reactions convert acetyl-CoA to
ATP and CO2
 Uses multiple enzymes and ATP to carry out the
 Uses NAD+ and FAD as electron carriers to
create NADH and FADH2
 Animation Scene 3
Electron Transport Chain:
 Takes place in the folds of the cristae of the
 Complicated reactions move NADH and FADH2
through transport proteins within the
membrane to create ATP and H2O
 End result = 36 ATP molecules for every glucose
 Animation Scene 4
Prokaryotes need ATP
to fuel cell processes –
but how do they create
ATP without
 process occurs in
membranes and the
There are times when mitochondria within your
cells cannot get enough O2 to support the cells’
energy needs.
 Anaerobic respiration is respiration to create ATP
in the absence of oxygen, known as fermentation.
 Fermentation produces many items found in the
 Types of Fermentation:
 Lactic acid fermentation
 Alcoholic fermentation
Lactic Acid Fermentation
 Fermentation that mainly occurs in the muscle
cells of animals and a few other types of cells
 Lactic acid is produced during this form of
respiration; it is filtered out in the liver of
 Causes muscles to be sore after a hard workout
 Dairy industry uses LAF in bacteria to make
 Other microbe fermentation creates soy sauce
from soy beans
 End result = 2 ATP molecules for every glucose
Alcoholic Fermentation
 Fermentation that mainly occurs in yeast and a
few types of bacteria
 Ethanol [a type of alcohol] is produced during
this form of respiration; it is toxic waste released
by the yeast in to their surroundings
 Wine industry uses AF to make wine; yeasts die
in the wine vat when the alcohol concentration
reaches 14%
 End result = 2 ATP molecules for every glucose
 Video
Fossil record indicates that eukaryotes first appeared ~2 billion+
years ago – how did these cells containing complex organelles,
Endosymbiotic Theory, first proposed by Lynn Margulis of the
University of Massachusetts, suggests that chloroplasts and
mitochondria [w/ their own DNA & ribosomes] – historically, were
prokaryotic organisms that lived within [“living together”] other,
larger cells, slowly evolving over time to live as one organism.
Video 1
Video 2
Dr. Lynn Petra Margulis,
Evolutionary Biologist,

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