File

Report
Image
The orange sections summarize key
information and vocabulary terms are
underlined.

All life depends on energy, or the
ability to do work, in order to
function.
 The original source of all
energy on Earth is the sun.
 All cells are constantly needing
and using energy.
 Energy is stored in the
chemical bonds of compounds
such as carbohydrates [sugars]
and lipids [fats] found in living
things.
http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2005/images
/sun-soho011905-1919z.jpg

The ATP created during cellular respiration is one of
the most important compounds within cells because
it is used to store/release energy. Adenosine Tri
Phosphate (AKA ATP)
Think of ATP as a fully charged battery, ready to do
work for the cell.
 When the last phosphate bond in the compound are
broken in ATP, energy is released.

http://www.ustboniface.m
b.ca/cusb/abernier/Biologi
e/Module1/Images/atp.jpg
Observe the simulation; breaking off the last
phosphate creates ADP (Adenosine Di Phosphate) and
releases energy to be used in the cell.
 Sketch it!
http://student.ccbcmd.edu/biotutorials/en
ergy/images/atp.gif

two energy equations that relate to
energy for living things are photosynthesis in
autotrophs, which makes glucose [C6H1206],
and cellular respiration, which converts
glucose to ATP.
http://desertbruchid.net/Scanned_download_f_Fall2010_f/0
5_Photo_CellResp_Relation.GIF
 The

Draw a plant in your notebook. Take a minute to
brainstorm anything and everything that you know about
photosynthesis, adding arrows to what goes “in” and what
comes “out”.

Photosynthesis is the process by which autotrophs
create glucose using carbon dioxide, water, and
energy from the sun. Animation Scene 1
 The chemical equation for photosynthesis:
6CO2 + 6H2O + Sunlight a C6H12O6 + 6O2
(Carbon Dioxide) (Water)
(Energy)
(Glucose)
http://www.ap.stmarys.ca/~ishort/Images/Earth/Atmos/pho
tosynthesis.jpg
(Oxygen)

Chloroplasts are the organelles where
photosynthesis occurs in eukaryotes,
prokaryotes photosynthesize differently – we
will review that later.
 Chlorophyll is the main pigment that absorbs
light energy from the sun within the
chloroplasts.
 Animation Scene 2
http://botit.botany.wisc.edu/images/13
0/Ferns/Gametophyte_Images/Chloropl
asts_MC.low.jpg
Turn and talk to
your table mates:
How has the artist
represented the
equation for
photosynthesis in
this image?
Image
Sketch a simplified
diagram of a
chloroplast in your
notebooks, include the
following labels:
Thylakoid
Stroma
Image

Light Dependent Reaction: (Requires water and
sunlight)
 Takes place in a the thylakoid, a sac-like
membranes within the chloroplast where
chlorophyll absorbs the light energy
 Light energy transferred to electrons in the
electron transport chain
 Move to the stroma; uses NADP+ and 2 electrons to
make NADPH
 One water molecule is split to produce ATP and
release oxygen from the chloroplast
 Animation Scene 3
Image

Light Independent Reaction:
 Calvin Cycle (Without light)
 Takes place in the stroma (gel like material outside
the thylakoid membranes in the chloroplast)
 Series of reactions that use CO2 + ATP to make
glucose to use for energy
 Overview Animation
http://www.chimicare.org/curiosita/wpcontent/uploads/2011/11/schemasemplificato-fotosintesi-in-un-cloroplasto.gif

Cyanobacteria are
photosynthetic
prokaryotes – but how do
they photosynthesize
without chloroplasts?
 oldest known fossils,
3.5+ billion years old
 contain chlorophyll and
have thylakoid-like
plasma membranes
with multiple layers for
photosynthesis
http://photosynthesis.sbcs.qmul.ac.uk/
mullineaux/CellBiol.html

Cellular respiration occurs
in the mitochondria of ALL
eukaryotes, while
photosynthesis occurs only
in plants and other
photosynthetic life.
 It releases energy by
breaking down glucose
and other food molecules,
most often in the
presence of oxygen.
 Animation Scene 1
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File
:Auto-and_heterotrophs.png

The chemical equation for cellular respiration:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 a 6H2O + 6CO2 + ATP
(Glucose)
(Oxygen)
(Water) (Carbon Dioxide) (Energy)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Autoand_heterotrophs.png
Sketch a simplified diagram of a
mitochondrion in your
notebooks, include the
following labels:
Cristae
Matrix
(L) Image ; (R) Image
 Glycolysis:



Takes place in the cytoplasm
Reaction converts glucose (using ATP) in to 2
molecules of pyruvic acid [C3H4O3].
Pyruvic acid then moves through the
mitochondrial membrane, converts to acetyl-CoA
and gives off CO2. Animation Scene 2
Biology – The Dynamics of Life, pg. 232
Biology – The Dynamics of Life, pg. 232

Citric Acid Cycle [AKA Kreb’s Cycle]:
 Takes place in the matrix of the mitochondrion
 Complicated reactions convert acetyl-CoA to
ATP and CO2
 Uses multiple enzymes and ATP to carry out the
process
 Uses NAD+ and FAD as electron carriers to
create NADH and FADH2
 Animation Scene 3
Image

Electron Transport Chain:
 Takes place in the folds of the cristae of the
mitochondrion
 Complicated reactions move NADH and FADH2
through transport proteins within the
membrane to create ATP and H2O
 End result = 36 ATP molecules for every glucose
 Animation Scene 4
http://www.teachersdomain.or
g/assets/wgbh/tdc02/tdc02_im
g_electronchai/tdc02_img_elect
ronchai.jpg

Prokaryotes need ATP
to fuel cell processes –
but how do they create
ATP without
mitochondria?
 process occurs in
specialized
membranes and the
cytoplasm
http://textbookofbacteriology.net/the
microbialworld/Structure.html
There are times when mitochondria within your
cells cannot get enough O2 to support the cells’
energy needs.
 Anaerobic respiration is respiration to create ATP
in the absence of oxygen, known as fermentation.
 Fermentation produces many items found in the
home
 Types of Fermentation:
 Lactic acid fermentation
 Alcoholic fermentation

http://visionhelp.files.wordpress.com/20
12/01/no-symbol.jpeg
O2

Lactic Acid Fermentation
 Fermentation that mainly occurs in the muscle
cells of animals and a few other types of cells
 Lactic acid is produced during this form of
respiration; it is filtered out in the liver of
animals
 Causes muscles to be sore after a hard workout
 Dairy industry uses LAF in bacteria to make
cheese
 Other microbe fermentation creates soy sauce
from soy beans
 End result = 2 ATP molecules for every glucose

Alcoholic Fermentation
 Fermentation that mainly occurs in yeast and a
few types of bacteria
 Ethanol [a type of alcohol] is produced during
this form of respiration; it is toxic waste released
by the yeast in to their surroundings
 Wine industry uses AF to make wine; yeasts die
in the wine vat when the alcohol concentration
reaches 14%
 End result = 2 ATP molecules for every glucose
 Video
http://academic.pgcc.edu/~kroberts/Lecture/Chapter%205/0523_ProductsOfFerment_L.jpg

Fossil record indicates that eukaryotes first appeared ~2 billion+
years ago – how did these cells containing complex organelles,
evolve?

Endosymbiotic Theory, first proposed by Lynn Margulis of the
University of Massachusetts, suggests that chloroplasts and
mitochondria [w/ their own DNA & ribosomes] – historically, were
prokaryotic organisms that lived within [“living together”] other,
larger cells, slowly evolving over time to live as one organism.

Video 1

Video 2
Dr. Lynn Petra Margulis,
Evolutionary Biologist,
1938-2011
Image
http://dontdontoperate.files.wordpress.com/2011/03/endosymb.gif

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