Founded By Huey Newton and Bobby Seal 1966-1982 w Its original name was , “The Black Panther Party for Self Defense.” The black panther was used as the symbol because it was a powerful image the organization initially espoused a doctrine calling for armed resistance to societal oppression in the interest of African-American justice Its objectives and philosophy changed radically during the party's existence. While the organization's leaders passionately espoused socialist doctrine, the party's black nationalist reputation attracted an ideologically diverse membership. (timeline.com) WE WANT FREEDOM. WE WANT POWER TO DETERMINE THE DESTINY OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES. 1. 2. WE WANT FULL EMPLOYMENT FOR OUR PEOPLE. WE WANT AN END TO THE ROBBERY BY THE CAPITALISTS OF OUR BLACK AND OPPRESSED COMMUNITIES. 3. 4. WE WANT DECENT HOUSING, FIT FOR THE SHELTER OF HUMAN BEINGS. 5. WE WANT DECENT EDUCATION FOR OUR PEOPLE 6. WE WANT COMPLETELY FREE HEALTH CARE FOR All BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE. 7. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO POLICE BRUTALITY AND MURDER OF BLACK PEOPLE 8. WE WANT AN IMMEDIATE END TO ALL WARS OF AGGRESSION WE WANT FREEDOM FOR ALL BLACK AND OPPRESSED PEOPLE NOW HELD IN U. S. FEDERAL, STATE, COUNTY, CITY AND MILITARY PRISONS AND JAILS. WE WANT TRIALS BY A JURY OF PEERS FOR All PERSONS CHARGED WITH SO-CALLED CRIMES UNDER THE LAWS OF THIS COUNTRY. 9. WE WANT LAND, BREAD, HOUSING, EDUCATION, CLOTHING, JUSTICE, PEACE AND PEOPLE'S COMMUNITY CONTROL OF MODERN TECHNOLOGY (Black Panter.org) 10. slogan "survival pending revolution." free breakfast programs free clinics grocery giveaways the manufacture and distribution of free shoes education programs legal aid programs senior transport and service programs(Libcom.org) Called counter-intelligence program known as COINTELPRO, the FBI directed its field offices and local police to destroy the Party. Armed with that definition and all the machinery of the federal government, J. Edgar Hoover directed the FBI to wage a campaign to eliminate the Black Panther Party altogether(Timeline.com) Hoover pledged that 1969 would be the last year of the Party's existence. Through the use of informants, agents provocateur and covert activities involving mayhem and murder.(BlackPanther.Org) From police raiders who smashed breakfast programs eggs on the floors of churches Intimidation and other such tactics were being employed to undermine the Party's support, to break the spirit and commitment of Party supporters and family members.(BlackPanther.org) In October of 1967, Huey Newton was shot, arrested and charged with the murder of a white Oakland cop, John Frey Young whites, angry and disillusioned with America over the Vietnam war, raised their voices with young, urban blacks, to cry in unison: "Free Huey!" Newton was convicted of voluntary manslaughter, though after three years in prison he was released when his conviction was reversed on appeal. During later years Newton would boast to friend that he had in fact murdered officer John Frey and never regretted it (Blackpanther.org) In April 1968, the party was involved in a gun battle, in which Panther Bobby Hutton was killed. Cleaver, who was wounded, later said that he had led the Panther group on a deliberate ambush of the police officers, thus provoking the shoot-out. December 4, 1969, two Panthers were killed when the Chicago Police raided the home of Panther leader Freed Hampton.-The raid had been orchestrated by the police in conjunction with the FBI; during this era the FBI was complicit in many local police actions. Hampton was shot and killed, as was Panther guard Mark Clark. Cook County State's Attorney Edward, his assistant and eight Chicago police officers were indicted by a federal grand jury over the raid, but the charges were later dismissed. (Wikipedia) On August 22, 1989, Newton was fatally shot in West Oakland by 24-yearold BGF member and drug dealer Tyrone Robinson shortly after Newton left a crack house. Newton was shot three times in the head which killed him. Robinson was convicted of the murder in 1991 and sentenced to 32 years in prison for the crime. Robinson said that Newton pulled a gun when the two met at a street corner in the neighborhood, but the police found no evidence that Newton was armed. Newton's last words, as he stood facing his killer, were, "You can kill my body, and you can take my life but you can never kill my soul. My soul will live forever!" He was then shot two times in the face by Robinson (Wikipedia) significant disagreements among the Party's leaders over how to confront ideological differences led to a split within the party. Certain members felt the Black Panthers should participate in local government and social services, while others encouraged constant conflict with the police. For some of the Party's supporters, the separations among political action, criminal activity, social services, access to power, and grass-roots identity became confusing and contradictory as the Panthers' political momentum was bogged down in the criminal justice system. These (and other) disagreements led to a split. The Party eventually fell apart due to rising legal costs and internal disputes By 1980, Panther membership had dwindled to 27, and the Panthersponsored school closed in 1982 after it became known that Newton was embezzling funds from the school to pay for his drug addiction (Wikipedia) Photo from (Mindfully.org) Works Cited BlackPanther.Org/Legacynews.com. n.d. LibCom.org. n.d. Mindfully.org. n.d. RozPaynewww.news.reel.org. n.d. Time Line.com. n.d. Wikipedia. n.d.