Getting to Know AICE: General Paper

Report
Writing the AICE: General Paper—
THE DISCURSIVE
INTRODUCTION
AICE: GP/9
2013-2014
FIRST, a Quick REVIEW…
IDENTIFYING THE GP PROMPT STYLE
 BRAINSTORMING DISCURSIVELY
GP Plan of Attack
 FOUR ESSENTIAL STEPS TO SUCCESS:
 Know your prompt: select prompts where you are
absolutely certain of the meaning of every word and of the
particular demands and emphasis of the question.
 Plan Ahead/Brainstorm: draw up an essay plan which
sets up your main points in a logical sequence. Consistently
move from general point to specific example.
 Think globally: support major points with illustrative
examples drawn from appropriate local, national or
international sources.
 Minimize Errors/Revise: Leave at least 10 minutes to run
through a mechanical check of English in each sentence.
REVIEW:
Identifying the Prompt and its Limits
 First, identify what style of prompt it is.
 Then, interpret the wording of the prompt by looking for
words that are either broad and will need to be narrowed for
the purposes of your essay, and/or if there are words that
limit your essay reach already.
Defining the Parameters of an Essay
A. Technology is more a curse than
blessing in the workplace. Do
 avv
you agree? (PERSUASIVE)
 Technology
 Curse
 Blessing
 Workplace
B. In what ways can advertising
be useful and entertaining?
(EXPOSITORY)
 Advertising
 Useful
 Entertaining
 Media
C. How far do the media have the
right to probe into a person’s
private life? (DISCURSIVE)
 Person
 Private Life
REVIEW:
Generating Ideas for Your Brainstorm
 The best way to brainstorm?
Think GP RELEVANCE…!!!
State,
national, international
Past history, current events
Consider all academic categories
 Use the Hand Approach to help you…
THUMB:
SCIENCE and
TECHNOLOGY
INDEX:
GOVERNMENT
and POLITICS
MIDDLE:
ENVIRONMENT
RING:
SOCIAL
RELATIONSHIPS
“History repeats itself.”
Discuss.
PINKY:
MEDIA, SPORTS
and
ENTERTAINMENT
Think about political issues that emanate from a source
of power, control and authority
Use your
pointer
finger.
You are the
body politic!
Your middle finger is surrounded by two other
fingers as the ENVIORNMENT is surrounded by
countless other elements. The environment is in the
midst of it all!
The Ring Finger: Love and Marriage
The domain of
love, marriage,
family, and social
networks:
Relationships are
associated with
the ring finger
The
fifth
!!
(+)
(-)
B
A
TOPIC
 primary example
* details
 secondary example
* details
TOPIC
 primary example
* details
 secondary example
* details
PROMPT
A
B
TOPIC
 primary example
* details
 secondary example
* details
TOPIC
 primary example
* details
 secondary example
* details
REVIEW: Discursive Brainstorm
 You will have a maximum of 10 minutes to
complete this preliminary brainstorm.
 Using the discursive brainstorm style we learned,
choose ONE of the following two prompts below and
create a brainstorm for it.
1. Do politicians have any influence?
2. How far is it possible for societies to provide equal
opportunities for all their citizens??
The Discursive Essay:
THE
INTRODUCTION
Purpose of the Introduction
 Introductions are similar to a first
impression…it is important to impress the
reader right away so that he/she sticks around
to read the entire essay.
 It’s also important that the reader knows
exactly what to expect in the upcoming essay.
 Thus, your Intro must provide INTEREST and
DIRECTION…to accomplish this, however, it
must contain CONCRETE ideas.
The best way to learn is through
observing skill in action…let’s take a
look at some samples!
UNDERSTANDING
THE INTRO…
SAMPLES AND
ACTIVITIES PACKET
The Introduction:
General Rules
 Maintain the “GP,” objective approach…



Avoid personal input/experiences
No “I think’s” or “I feel’s” (or “in my opinions”…etc etc)
Avoid direct address of the essay task (i.e. “in my essay, I’m
going to talk about…)—it sounds robotic!
(SEE SAMPLES A and B)
 Lead the reader in the right direction…



Provide appropriate expository, persuasive, or
discursive “spin” in the opening paragraph
Set limits in your essay…you can’t tackle the world in 600800 words, so what WILL you cover?
Organize your ideas in the intro to reflect the order in which
they’ll appear in the body
(SEE SAMPLES C, D and E)
The Introduction:
General Rules
 Ideas in the intro MUST be CONCRETE…
 Avoid vague language; don’t “beat around the bush”
 Avoid abstract ideas; be direct in what you intend to discuss
 Avoid stating the obvious (the “duh” factor); this wastes
valuable time and space!
 Avoid wishy-washy language
 Avoid rhetorical questions; get down to the answers!
 Provide concrete images that create a brief, clear
picture of the topic, so the reader can begin to digest
your intentions right away…otherwise, they won’t
believe what you’re asserting and won’t likely read
on!
(SEE ACTIVITY F)
Connect with your Reader…
DIAL A-T-T!!
Formula for an
Impeccable Introduction…
A
-
ATTENTION-GETTER
T
-
TRANSITION TO TOPIC
T
-
THESIS STATEMENT
Sample GP Discursive Introduction:
Find A-T-T
“Some people believe that all wars are unjust; others believe that
war is justifiable under certain circumstances.”
Discuss your view.
According to Greek philosopher and historian Plato, “only the dead
have seen the end of war.” While conflict will continue to boldly
present itself for years to come, the justification for unleashing such
harm upon one’s enemy is not as easy to see. Whereas wars that
are fought to defend and protect the quality of life and human
rights can be justified, wars fought on the premise of personal gain,
at the expense of others, are clearly unjust. Under certain
circumstances, then, war—in this case a physical conflict between
opposing groups—can be justified in the name of honor but is not
the most viable option in the name of greed.
A-T-T…Dialed!
Attention
-getter
According to Greek philosopher and historian Plato,
“only the dead have seen the end of war.” While
conflict will continue to boldly present itself for years
to come, the justification for unleashing such harm
upon one’s enemy is not as easy to see. Whereas wars
that are fought to defend and protect the quality of life
and human rights can be justified, wars fought on the
Thesis
Statement
premise of personal gain, at the expense of others, are
clearly unjust. Under certain circumstances, then,
war—in this case a physical conflict between opposing
groups—can be justified in the name of honor but is
not the most viable option in the name of greed.
Transition
to Topic
 But remember, since the prompt for this essay is so broad, it
could address any number of ideas…
 Therefore, the reader must set limits to the discussion or
we’ll be here all month!
What do you mean by WAR in YOUR essay?
Physical war: Iraq, Afghanistan, Vietnam, WWII
Verbal war: Iran, North Korea (nuclear weapons communication); Tibetan
Monks (religious freedom; peaceable protest)
What do you mean by JUST vs. UNJUST?
Just: for the greater good, utilitarian, democratic, further humanity,
prevent history from repeating itself?
Unjust: is sacrifice of people/resources worth it, impedes upon rights,
hinders progress?
What do you mean by CIRCUMSTANCES?
Financial gain, delicacy of human life, progress of society, preservation of
tradition/law/morals
Defining Essay Parameters/
Setting Limits
quality of life
human rights
justified
personal gain
expense of others
unjust
physical conflict
honor
greed
Narrowed
Limits of
Essay/
Parameters
OPTIONS FOR ATTENTION-GETTING
 Options:

A Quotation (value/depth in comment itself or speaker)

Shocking Facts/Current Events

Realistic Anecdotes/Plausible Scenarios

Flashbacks to Historical Events/Past-to-Present Progress

Fragments for Effect (creative yet grounded)

Allusion to well-known persons, places, things, ideas

Target the Topic—General to Specific
(SEE SAMPLE SET G)
Attention-Getting Approach:
According to Greek philosopher and historian
Plato, “only the dead have seen the end of war.”
While conflict will continue to boldly present itself
Quote
for years to come, the justification for unleashing
such harm upon one’s enemy is not as easy to see.
General
Whereas wars that are fought to defend and
protect the quality of life and human rights can be
TO
justified, wars fought on the premise of personal
gain, at the expense of others, are clearly unjust.
Under certain circumstances, then, war—in this
case a physical conflict between opposing
groups—can be justified in the name of honor but
is not the most viable option in the name of greed.
Specific
Approaching the
DISCURSIVE Intro:
Think about it…
 Since a discursive essay will
discuss BOTH sides of an
issue, the introduction must
INTRODUCE BOTH SIDES of
the issue as well!
Introducing…A-T-T
A -
ATTENTION-GETTER
Concrete image(s) that grab the reader’s
attention and draw them immediately into
the topic. For a discursive essay, you will likely need
TWO of these, one (+) and one (-). This establishes your
case that there are two ways of looking at the topic.
T -
TRANSITION TO TOPIC
Connect the opening image(s) with the topic of the
prompt.
T -
THESIS STATEMENT
The main idea of your essay; always indicates that
there are two sides to the issue; may set limits to
the essay by identifying themes for topic
exploration.
The 6-Sentence-ish Approach to A-T-T!
 2 Sentences……
to establish an introductory image in favor of the prompt
 2 Sentences……
to establish an opening image against the prompt
 1 Sentence…….
to establish a connection between (and transition between!)
the attention-getting images and the prompt’s topic
 1 Sentence……
to indicate the main idea, or thesis statement, of the essay.
(A) Label the introductory images that reflect the two sides of the issue.
Then label the Transition to Topic (T), and the Thesis (T).
As a result of America’s rapidly increasing obesity rate, Army
leaders at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, have agreed to take a
different approach to physical-training for new recruits since most
applicants are not as healthy as they used to be. Instead of
traditional sit-ups and crunches, trainers are pursuing yoga and
pilates routines, a decision that will likely have a greater impact on
soldier preparation and fitness long-term. Meanwhile, park rangers
at various national parks across the nation can’t seem to agree with
the actions of modern hikers and adventure seekers; these
individuals are abusing cell phone technology while in the
wilderness, which negates the purpose of “getting back to nature.”
Though arguments can be uncomfortable, they are often a necessary
means to an end.
Depending on the gravity of the situation then,
arguments can be a healthy way to find an effective solution, but
such conflict can also lead to further adversity.
Do arguments ever settle anything?
As a result of America’s rapidly increasing obesity rate, Army
(+)
leaders at Fort Jackson, South Carolina, have agreed to take a
different approach to physical-training for new recruits since
most applicants are not as healthy as they used to be. Instead of
traditional sit-ups and crunches, trainers are pursuing yoga
and pilates routines, a decision that will likely have a greater
(-)
impact on soldier preparation and fitness long-term.
Meanwhile, park rangers at various national parks across the
nation can’t seem to agree with the actions of modern hikers
and adventure seekers; these individuals are abusing cell phone
technology while in the wilderness, which negates the purpose
of “getting back to nature.” Though arguments can be
Balanced/
Neutral Thesis
uncomfortable, they are often a necessary means to an end.
Depending on the gravity of the situation then, arguments can
be a healthy way to find an effective solution, but such conflict
can also lead to further adversity.
Transition to
Topic
Is technology a blessing or a curse?
In our modern society, especially in developed
nations like the United States, technology is
gaining momentum because of its accessibility
and convenience. Companies like Apple are
finding new ways to make our global reach both
cost effective and more efficient by creating
devices like the “smart” phone. However, while
technology may be moving some fields forward,
this same innovation pushes culture and tradition
backward. Modern innovation has inspired
construction booms in places like Mecca, the
religious epicenter of the Muslim faith; these
renovations overshadow the core values of a
sacred region. Therefore, technology can have
positive effects when it seeks to enhance
communication, but it does just the opposite
when attempting to improve traditional culture.
Is technology a blessing or a curse?
(+)
Balanced/
Neutral Thesis
In our modern society, especially in developed
nations like the United States, technology is
gaining momentum because of its accessibility
and convenience. Companies like Apple are
finding new ways to make our global reach both
cost effective and more efficient by creating
devices like the “smart” phone. However, while
technology may be moving some fields forward,
this same innovation pushes culture and tradition
backward. Modern innovation has inspired
construction booms in places like Mecca, the
religious epicenter of the Muslim faith; these
renovations overshadow the core values of a
sacred region. Therefore, technology can have
positive effects when it seeks to enhance
communication, but it does just the opposite when
attempting to improve traditional culture.
Topic
(-)
TASK:
(1) Break down the prompt below, (2)
brainstorm it discursively, then (3) write an
introductory paragraph for it using the
strategies you’ve learned.
SHOULD EVERY COUNTRY
HAVE THE RIGHT TO
POSSESS WEAPONS OF
WAR?

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