Writing the AICE General Paper: AICE: GP-9/PAVICH 2012-2013 Credits: Jill Pavich, NBCT [email protected] AICE: General Paper (8004), grade 9 @ Boca Raton Community High School PowerPoint Credits (2012): Boca Raton Community High School, team collaboration Sources: Teaching the General Paper: Strategies That Work, By Teachers, For Teachers. National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University. Edited by Caroline Ho, Peter Teo, Tay May Yin (2006) Currently out of print Cambridge International Exams, AICE Program at Cambridge University www.cie.org.uk/qualifications/academic/uppersec/alevel Learning the Ways of GP DAY 1 INITIAL ACTIVITY Brainstorm #1 Packet Page 2 You will have a maximum of 10 minutes to complete this preliminary brainstorm. Choose ONE of the following two prompts below and brainstorm ideas that you would include in an essay on that given topic. 1. “People always respond to crisis when it’s too late.” Do you agree? 2. How far is it possible for societies to provide equal opportunities for all their citizens?? Brainstorm #1: Take a look at your brainstorm; now share some of your ideas with the class. Consider the ideas we’ve shared…what ideas (those we’ve listed on the board), would sound super clever in an essay? Which are our favorites? Why? What characteristics do these ideas have in common that would make them the “best” points to raise in an essay? Brainstorming: LESSON #1… When writing a GP essay, the best way to prove your point is to have, well, PROOF!! Proof exists in the form of examples, and examples must be CONCRETE in order for the reader to “see” your point! (Events that actually exist in space and time!) Abstract ART might be fun, but abstract LANGUAGE just muddles up clear communication! CONCRETE EXAMPLES: Arguing that… ‘People Respond to Crisis When it’s Too Late’: Arguing that… ‘Equal Opportunities for Citizens Exists’: Hurricane Katrina Title IX 9/11 terrorist attack 14th Amendment Global warming Women’s voting rights CONCRETE EXAMPLES Con’t: TURN TO YOUR PARTNER: Now come up with as many concrete examples as you can to prove the opposite side of the arguments we discussed on the previous slide. “It’s possible for people to respond to crisis BEFORE it’s too late. For example…” “Society DOESN’T always provide equal opportunity for all citizens. For instance, …” What is “GP” ??? DAYS 2-3 THE CAMBRIDGE TEST… WHAT DOES IT LOOK LIKE? WHAT DOES IT WANT FROM ME? What is AICE? What is GP? AICE: GP: Which means that your “Paper,” or essay, is about “General” topics that span the curriculum, from science and math all the way to literature and the arts. Topics for composition: Historical, social, economic, political and philosophical. Science, including its history, philosophy, general principles and applications. Environmental issues and mathematical topics. Literature and language, arts and crafts. AIMS of the AICE: GP Have students read and then paraphrase You are taking this class: …to increase your academic skills so you can: think rationally, persuade logically, analyze carefully, interpret accurately and evaluate fairly! …to learn more about the global topics that drive your society because, eventually, you will be the adults in charge of it! …to become a mature thinker who can clearly express him/herself in any situation! …to better understand and appreciate individual, societal and cultural diversity/differences! …and to become an independent, critical reader and writer! AIMS OF THE GP… What is the point of this class again? Put it into your own words… Those of you that can articulate it back to me best will WIN my favor for the day (and maybe a bonus point or two or some other guilty treat ;-) The Exam: A Sample Test Observation Packet Page 3 Administered in MAY/June and Oct./Nov. WRITTEN examination, in 2 HOURS The exam paper is divided into sections, each section comprising five questions (thus giving you 15 options!!!). Candidates must choose two questions, each from a section. Each essay is weighted at 50% of the final mark. Each essay written carries up to 30 marks for and up to 20 marks for Use of English/ . SECTION 1: Historical, Social, Economic, Political and Philosophical the role of history and war; terrorism the role of the individual in society – the family, marriage, peer pressure, social class cultural changes – youth and drug culture education and welfare sport, leisure, international competition wealth; changes in work practice the importance and impact of tourism on a country – implications for the economy, employment public transport, environmental concerns aid provision the State and its institutions; development of State, democracy postimperialism, nationalism minority groups, pressure groups freedom of speech, action, thought Judiciary matters of conscience, faith, tolerance, equality. SECTION 2: Science, Geography, Math medical dilemmas and issues of research and ethics; concept of progress in science drug manufacture and provision diet, health education old and new industries spin-offs from space industry; weaponry information and communications technology; the Internet environmental concerns; renewable energy resources; climate change migration; population dynamics feeding the global population; farming techniques for the twentyfirst century public transport and travel the uses and applications of mathematics in everyday life. SECTION 3: Literature , Language, Arts and Crafts literature, biography, diary, science fiction language – heritage, tradition, dialect the global media – tv, radio, satellite; influence and controls; effects on lifestyle, culture and habits cultural dilution and diversification; advertising; role models censorship; privacy; the right to know; freedom of the press, etc. uses and abuses traditional arts and crafts; creativity; national heritage/preservation; effects of tourism architecture; painting; fashion; photography; sculpture; music; heritage, etc. ESSAY STYLES Expository…you will learn to EXPLAIN something Persuasive…you will learn to logically ARGUE something Discursive…you will learn to CONSIDER BOTH SIDES of something before you judge it THREE Basic Essay Styles Packet Page 4 EXPOSITORY GOAL: to provide information; to objectively EXPLAIN, define, clarify or interpret… UNIQUENESSES: doesn’t require an argument! Just tell it like it is! Examples of Expository prompts: What does the theatre offer that the cinema does not? (Section 3) PERSUASIVE GOAL: to take a specific stance on an issue in order to CONVINCE the reader to adopt your way of thinking; to anticipate and refute opposing arguments UNIQUENESSES: biased! Takes ONE side and defends that side ONLY!! Never supports the opposition, not even for a minute. Examples of Persuasive prompts: Should teenagers be more actively involved in politics? (Section 1) Essay Styles Con’t… The third style of essay is, perhaps, brand new to you… DISCURSIVE (most advanced…6 paragraphs, oh my!) GOAL: asks you to consider BOTH sides of a single issue, objectively analyzing each before arriving at any kind of value judgment. Basic Layout: Begin with a neutral introduction, provide evidence for the case, provide evidence against the case, conclude by either adopting one side of the argument or maintaining a neutral (middleof-the-road) standpoint. Examples of Discursive prompts: To what extent is your society effectively dealing with crime? (Section 1) How far is globalization affecting family life in your country? (Section 1) Pairs Activity: Prompt Identification Packet Page 3 View the Sample Test and carefully consider each prompt. Discussing your thoughts with a partner, determine whether the prompt is: • EXPOSITORY, • PERSUASIVE, or • DISCURSIVE Underline any key words that help you to arrive at your answer. Write your answer in the left-hand margin of the test next to the prompt. Prompt Identification: Section 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “Violence is the only effective weapon available to people who are oppressed.” To what extent do you agree? “Politics have no appeal to the younger generation since it has no impact on their lives.” Discuss. Violence in modern society is on the rise. Explain why. “History repeats itself.” Do you agree? “To be different is to be condemned by society.” How far do you agree? KEY: Section 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. “Violence is the only effective weapon available to people who are oppressed.” To what extent do you agree? (Discursive) “Politics have no appeal to the younger generation since it has no impact on their lives.” Discuss. (Discursive) Violence in modern society is on the rise. Explain why. (Expository) “History repeats itself.” Do you agree? (Persuasive) “To be different is to be condemned by society.” How far do you agree? (Discursive) Prompt Identification: Section 2 6. What is the biggest threat to our world today and 7. 8. 9. 10. why? Human beings should look forward to the next century with pessimism, not optimism. Discuss. Should every country have the right to possess weapons of war? Explain the impact of technology on the environment. How important is numeracy in today’s society? KEY: Section 2 6. What is the biggest threat to our world today and 7. 8. 9. 10. why? (Expository) Human beings should look forward to the next century with pessimism, not optimism. Discuss. (Discursive) Should every country have the right to possess weapons of war? (Persuasive) Explain the impact of technology on the environment. (Expository) How important is numeracy in today’s society? (Discursive) Prompt Identification: Section 3 11. “A book has one purpose: to entertain.” Evaluate 12. 13. 14. 15. this statement. What music appeals to you and why? To what extent does art broaden our horizons? “Libraries are not necessary in a modern world.” What is your view? Assess the claim that an uncensored press is dangerous. KEY: Section 3 11. “A book has one purpose: to entertain.” Evaluate 12. 13. 14. 15. this statement. (Discursive) What music appeals to you and why? (Expository) To what extent does art broaden our horizons? (Discursive) “Libraries are not necessary in a modern world.” What is your view? (Persuasive) Assess the claim that an uncensored press is dangerous. (Discursive) Essay Prompts…THE RULES Packet Page 5 Here are your GOLDEN RULES when getting ready to respond to a prompt: GOLDEN RULE #1… Once a Discursive, always a Discursive. You cannot downgrade a discursive essay to a single-sided persuasive! Would you want to downgrade from a suite to a twin-bed hotel room?! GOLDEN RULE #2… Persuasive is fine but add to refine! In writing a persuasive, if you find that there truly are two viable sides to the argument, you are more than welcome to upgrade to discursive! GOLDEN RULE #3… It might be expository, but there’s always a little fight in there… In essence, every time we put the pen to paper we drum up a bias of some sort…don’t let this distract you…it’s natural! I.e. What are the main environmental problems in the world and how effectively are they being handled? (expository, but your selection of global problems is automatically biased!) Learning the Ways of GP DAY 4 HOW TO INTERPRET THE PROMPT WHAT DOES IT WANT ME TO TALK ABOUT? Interpreting the Prompt Just because you’ve managed to decode the style of the essay doesn’t mean the hard part of selecting a prompt is over just yet…now you must be clear on what the prompt is asking you to say... TIPS for INTERPRETING the TASK… Sometimes these GP prompts are a lot BROADER than they initially seem… Do you consider art to be an unaffordable luxury? ART seems limited at first, but look closer…how many branches of ART exist? Let’s name as many as we can… However, sometimes GP prompts require very specific, specialized knowledge, which can also LIMIT you as a writer… Can nuclear power ever satisfy our global energy needs? Hmm…looks like you’ll need to know a specific thing or two about nuclear energy, eh? PRACTICE INTERPRETING: Packet Page 5 Read the prompt below very carefully and answer the following questions: What STYLE of essay is it? How do you know? What words in the prompt are actually pretty BROAD? Are there any words in the prompt that are pretty specific, those that set LIMITS to the content of your essay? How far are minority groups treated fairly in your society? Prompt Interpretation DISCURSIVE Style required BROAD: gender, ethnicity/ racial background, sexual orientation, educational background, etc. How far are minority groups treated fairly in your country? CLARIFY: Whose definition of “fair”? (i.e. the Consitution’s) LIMITED: Discuss U.S.A. only! (unless you distinguish another location as your “birth country” perhaps…) Prompt Interpretation Practice Packet Page 3 Take a second look at the test…using a highlighter or a different-colored pen, identify valuable TRIGGER WORDS that open up OR set limits to the prompt. WIDE-OPEN INTERPRETATION/BROAD TERMS: Should teenagers be more actively involved in politics? Teens in America? China? Cuba? Canada? Politics regarding the elections? Human rights? Education? The environment? LIMITS SET/LIMITING TERMS: Consider the case for and against stem cell research. Very specific…you may only talk about stem cell research, no other kind of scientific innovation. Other words that tend to LIMIT: always, only, alone, certain, most, etc. Prompt Picking: Terms to Consider Closely 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. “Violence is the only effective weapon available to people who are oppressed.” To what extent do you agree? “Politics have no appeal to the younger generation since it has no impact on their lives.” Discuss. Violence in modern society is on the rise. Explain why. “History repeats itself.” Do you agree? “To be different is to be condemned by society.” How far do you agree? What is the biggest threat to our world today and why? Human beings should look forward to the next century with pessimism, not optimism. Discuss. Should every country have the right to possess weapons of war? Explain the impact of technology on the environment. How important is numeracy to today’s society? “A book has one purpose: to entertain.” Evaluate this statement. What music appeals to you and why? To what extent does art broaden our horizons? “Libraries are not necessary in a modern world.” What is your view? Assess the claim that an uncensored press is dangerous. Interpreting: Defining Essay Parameters Some people believe that all wars are unjust; or that war is justifiable under certain circumstances. Discuss your view. What do you mean by WAR in YOUR essay? Physical war: Iraq, Afghanistan, Vietnam, WWII Verbal war: Iran, North Korea (nuclear weapons communication); Tibetan Monks (religious freedom; peaceable protest) Packet Page 6 What do you mean by JUST vs. UNJUST? Just: for the greater good, for utilitarian purposes, for democratic reasons, to further humanity, to prevent disaster? Unjust: the sacrifice of people/resources isn’t worth it, worth avoiding because it impedes upon rights, or because it hinders progress? What do you mean by CIRCUMSTANCES? Financial gain, delicacy of human life, progress of society, preservation of tradition/law/morals Partner Practice: Defining Parameters Packet Page 7: Defining Parameters Prompt Style? Identify and interpret BROAD terms. Identify and interpret terms that would LIMIT your essay. Discuss the possibilities! Defining the Parameters of an Essay A. Technology is more a curse than blessing in the workplace. Do avv you agree? Technology Curse Blessing Workplace B. In what ways can advertising be useful and entertaining? Advertising Useful Entertaining Media C. How far do the media have the right to probe into a person’s private life? Person Private Life Tips and Scoring DAY 5… • CAMBRIDGE’S “RECYCLING” PROGRAM • THE ESSAY RUBRIC • LEARNING REFLECTION ACTIVITIES Seeing Double: Prompt Recycling Packet Page 8 Want to know a TOP SECRET bit of information? The AICE: GP Exam RECYCLES prompts!! (How ‘green’ of them…!) If AICE recycles the prompt, how can YOU recycle the content?? __________________________________________ Technology is more a curse than a blessing in the workplace. Do you agree? Discuss the view that the Internet can be more harmful than helpful. Are mobile phones more of a nuisance than a benefit? ‘The benefits of technology can only be enjoyed by the rich.’ Do you agree? In what ways can the use of modern technology improve learning? To what extent has technology affected your country’s development? SCORING Packet Pg. 810: Rubrics The AICE: General Paper exam grades you on two aspects of the final product essay: CONTENT (30 points) CONVENTIONS (20 points)……………………..2 ESSAYS = 100pts max BAND 1 = BEST BAND 5 = WORST View the RUBRICS in your packet for a quick understanding of the scoring process; annotate according to your teacher’s instructions. Score the sample essays your teacher shares with you! DISCUSS: Preliminary OBSERVATIONS What style of prompt appeared most often on a single test? Based on this observation, what conclusions about AICE: GP can you draw? Did you initially catch the complexities of some of the prompts as a result of specified wording? From the list, how many prompts would you feel comfortable writing about? What do you feel confident about? Worried about? How, would you imagine, might be some of the best ways to prepare for this exam? What else would you like to add? Ask? A Return to Brainstorm #1 1. “People always respond to crisis when it’s too late.” Do you agree? 2. How far is it possible for societies to provide equal opportunities for all their citizens?? Let’s go back to that initial Brainstorm #1 now that you are much more aware of the GP approach… With your partner, try to add more specific to your brainstorm…Use a to add ideas. For , continue to add more ideas…research examples that could apply by using reputable websites or other text references such as the newspaper or news magazines. AICE/8004: General Paper-9 WRITING THE ESSAY: LET’S GET STARTED!! LP’s:approx. 1wk GP Plan of Attack FOUR ESSENTIAL STEPS TO SUCCESS: Know your Prompt: select prompts where you are absolutely certain of the meaning of every word and of the particular demands and emphasis of the question. Plan Ahead/Brainstorm: draw up an essay plan that sets up your main points in a logical sequence. Consistently move from general point to specific example. Think Globally: support major points with illustrative examples drawn from appropriate local, national or international sources. Minimize Errors/Revise: Leave at least 10 minutes to run through a mechanical check of English in each sentence. The Discursive Essay: * * * TEST YOUR PROMPT CHOICES FIRST… Once you’ve broken down the broad/limiting word choice of the prompt, run a quick test to make SURE you have enough to say about the prompt… On the prompt sheet itself, draw up a few quick T-Charts to determine how many ideas you have; THEN you can begin logically organizing them through the “official” discursive brainstorm process we’re about to learn… The Split-Web Brainstorm View the prompts; draft a quick T-Chart right on the test to see if you have enough to say before you begin your official brainstorming… Once you feel confident in the prompt you picked, take out a clean sheet of paper. Turn it “Landscape” style. Write the prompt in a box in the center of the page. Now fold the paper in half to create two columns. Each of these columns will house ideas that either agree or disagree with the prompt’s content. (+) (-) Prompt Basic Brainstorm Approach in 3 Easy Steps: Work HARD to generate ideas…then, work SMART! WORK HARD: (1)…Think of specific ideas (people, groups, situations, events, etc) that relate to the prompt you’ve selected and jot them in the proper columns either for or against (+, -). WORK SMART: (2)…Step back from these randomly scattered ideas and start categorizing them…use the Hand Approach themes to help you (3)…Look for connections among the ideas in your essay based on theme and any comparisons or contrasts you can make among the more specific ideas… Number the ideas in a LOGICAL ORDER Jot a note to yourself regarding the connection between those ideas so you don’t forget how they seamlessly relate… Animated Generic Brainstorm: In the next slide, notice there are many random ideas scattered about the brainstorm at first. Initially, you will be jotting down ideas at random also. The key is to step back from them once they’re out and begin seeing bigger picture connections among them…how can you move “seamlessly” from one idea to the next…what “big ideas” or themes do your examples have in common that will help you meaningfully shift from paragraph to paragraph? (+) (-) 3 TOPIC primary example * details secondary example * details 4 TOPIC primary example * details secondary example * details 5 TOPIC primary example * details secondary example * details 2 TOPIC primary example * details secondary example * details PROMPT 1 TOPIC primary example * details secondary example * details 6 TOPIC primary example * details secondary example * details NOW YOU TRY…PREPARE TO WRITE: IDENTIFY and INTERPRET the prompt to get a feel for your opportunities and limits set by the directions. Run a quick T-CHART TEST next to the prompt to ensure that you have enough ideas to expend your time more thoroughly on this topic. Begin setting the PARAMETERS/LIMITS of your essay by using the Discursive Brainstorm Format. LOGICALLY ORGANIZE the ideas. BEGIN writing !! Assess society’s record on human rights. Discursive prompt Good or bad… Assess society’s record on human rights. • Civil rights/liberties • Women’s rights • Gay rights • Equality: race/culture • Labor rights • Children’s rights (-) (+) Organizing Ideas Discursively… In the next slide, watch how the writer organizes this brainstorm… At first, she gets down the . Women’s rights Children’s rights Democratic rights Gay rights Labor rights Then, she starts to think about the bring these ideas together: Human Rights at Home Human Rights Abroad ideas that Organizing Ideas Discursively, Con’t… Then she begins to determine a to go in because she sees a connection among the examples and the themes: SEAMLESS TRANSITION = move from women’s rights at home to women’s rights abroad (+) (-) A B RIGHTS IN THE U.S. Women’s Rights 1920’s Suffragette Movement Habeus Corpus/Fair Trial Rights “innocent until proven guilty”; “protection against cruel and unusual punishment”; “Miranda Rights” RIGHTS IN THE U.S. Gay Rights “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy; Proposition 8 Religious Rights Mosque-building in NYC Assess society’s record regarding human rights. A B RIGHTS ABROAD Labor Rights Honda Factory Strike; Child Labor policies Democratic Rights Botswana—new dem. gov’t; Afghanistan—efforts to instill democratic values RIGHTS ABROAD Women’s Rights Iraq-wearing the abaya as trad’l garb; China’s one-child policy Children’s Rights Child soldiers in: - Somalia - Sierra Leone Generating Ideas But how do I find ideas?? Think GP RELEVANCE…!!! State, national, international Past history, current events Consider all academic categories Use the Hand Approach to help you… THUMB: SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY INDEX: GOVERNMENT and POLITICS MIDDLE: ENVIRONMENT RING: SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS PROMPT PINKY: MEDIA, SPORTS and ENTERTAINMENT “History repeats itself.” Discuss. SCI/TECH: Repeats— nuclear threats with USSR then and Iran now are similar Doesn’t— innovative military technology i.e. drones of today replace kamikazi missions of old GOV’T: ENVIRON.: Repeats—economic slump: the Great Depression and the 2008 Recession. Doesn’t—terrorist invasion ie. 9/11 heightened awareness and security precautions Repeats—effects of oil spills on ecosystem i.e. Exxon Valdez and Deepwater Horizon Doesn’t— pesticide damage awareness…to avoid repeat offenses (i.e. Silent Spring) SOCIAL: Repeats—religious unrest in ie. Irish Catholics then similar to Muslim Americans now Doesn’t—women’s rights i.e. suffragette movement; political leadership “History repeats itself.” Discuss. ENTERTAINMENT: Repeats—violence in sports ie. Political riots during Yugoslavic war then and terrorist threats at recent World Cup (Uganda) now Doesn’t—reality t.v. phenomenon in 21st century Now You Try It: Writing the discursive essay requires one to think BEYOND one’s own personal world. Look at the prompt below: “The truth should always be told, whatever the cost.” Discuss. As an AICE student, you must elevate your discussion of this topic beyond the personal realm… TASK: Bring “GP Relevance” to your essay by applying the Hand Approach to this prompt. THUMB: Science and Technology Medical field TELL THE TRUTH… Hippocratic Oath VS. WITHHOLD Placebo THE TRUTH… Effect INDEX: Government and Politics TELL THE TRUTH… Obama’s “open door” policy VS. WITHHOLD THE TRUTH… FDR, who hid his polio to avoid appearing “weak” to the public eye MIDDLE: Environment TELL THE TRUTH… Al Gore’s, An Inconvenient Truth VS. WITHHOLD THE TRUTH… Resource-rich areas that reveal such truths/ discoveries may be taken advantage of as a result RING: Social Relationships TELL THE TRUTH… AIDS patients VS. WITHHOLD THE TRUTH… “Don’t Ask, Don’t Tell” Policy (note: recently abolished…) PINKY: Media, Sports and Entertainment TELL THE TRUTH… Libel/Slander VS. WITHHOLD THE TRUTH… Gambling for sport and the “poker face” HANDY WORK: Collaborative Exploration As a group, take a look at the essay prompt options; pick one that you can all agree upon. Divvy out research responsibilities for tonight… Each student is responsible for finding and for a single finger…print and bring in your sources for credit! Tomorrow, we go live on the big post-it sheets! Each group will draw their HAND, and decorate each finger with the (+) and (–) ideas you researched. Then you will present your findings while we feverishly jot down these valuable ideas! You never know when a similar prompt could show up in the future, so note-taking is key! ESSAY #1: A Practice Revision Using the Hand Approach SAMPLE Essay In Class Observations Whole Class Editing/Adjustments Pairs Editing/Adjustments INDIVIDUAL Revisions Homework Using the strategies we’ve practiced, revise TWO of your own body paragraphs from Essay #1! Provide a primary and a secondary example, as our brainstorm requests; Apply the Hand Approach to add GP Relevance to your work; Check for grammar, spelling and punctuation errors, and upgrade word choice. WHAT DID WE LEARN? NOW WE KNOW WHAT THE QUESTION IS ASKING US (BY BREAKING DOWN THE PROMPT) AND WE KNOW HOW TO GENERATE IDEAS (THAT ARE “GP RELEVANT”)… NEXT STEP? WE WILL LEARN HOW TO ACTUALLY PUT THIS DIRECTION AND THESE IDEAS INTO AN ESSAY!!! GET READY TO ROCK, GP-STYLE!