Canada in the Post World War Two World Canada’s Role on the International Stage 1945- Canada is one of the world wealthiest nations after the initial post-war turmoil- Canada settles into a era of prosperity -GNP has doubled since the start of the war Population grows by 1.7 million (war brides, refugees, displaced persons) A White Canada (con’t) King still wanted to preserve Canada’s fundamental character Limited immigration laws to white and Christian preferably northern European-blocking Arabs, Asians and Jews where possible (book- Strangers at the Door) Louis St. Laurent Takes Power King wins his final election in 1945 and will stay in power until Louis St. Laurent becomes Canada’s next PM in 1948 Canada Changes in Post WWII The baby boom starts –12 million to 18 million (1946-61) Suburbia is created – consumer society is created by TV Average family has 4 kids between 1945-60 Canada grows very wealthy by supplying natural resources to the US (trees, oil from Alta, hydro) 1948 Louis St. Laurent (Lib.) replaces King as PM-1948-57 Europe and Asia are once again on the brink of bankruptcy Canada/US Relations -Canada is militarily strong with the third largest navy and fourth largest air force in the world Canada and the US are closer than ever before after WWII: Odensburg Agreement 1940- Permanent Joint Defence of North America and the Hyde Park Agreement 1941Coordinated war effort for production. Canada was an important ally during WWII and a future ally to the US in the upcoming Cold War The Cold War Begins 1945 Igor Gouzenko (a clerk in the Soviet Embassy) defects with proof of a Soviet spy ring in Canada, the US and Britain. Spies are found in the Department of External Affairs, British High Commission and an MP in the LabourProgressive Party- Fred Rose (Canadian Communist Party) he is convicted of espionage for six years. There are also moles in the US State Department An Iron Curtain Descends The Soviets want the technology for the A-bomb Churchill coins the phrase an “Iron Curtain had descended on Europe”–an ominous wall of silence between the two WWII allies The Cold War was a 40 year conflict using propaganda, espionage, economic and political pressure rather than full-scale war with nuclear weapons (arms race) Western Democracy vs. the Eastern Bloc both the US and USSR divided up the globe after the war -East vs West struggle or Communist vs. Democratic -Stalin is extremely paranoid and the USSR is aggressively expansionist to include as many satellite states as possible in its “sphere of influence” by economic or military means. McCarthyism The US spent the post-war period in witch hunts looking for suspected communists. Louis St. Laurent reminded Canadians that such tactics were trademarks of a dictatorship not a democracy. Marshall Plan The US and Canada helped to rebuild war-torn Europe through the Marshall Plan which spent $13.5 billion in economic aid to get western allies “back on their feet” (1948-53) -of which Canada spent $706 million on food and equipment –Soviets wanted a weakened Europe. The Truman Doctrine The US also took control of many areas of the Pacific and Central America mainly by economic means. The “Truman Doctrine’s” goal was to contain the spread of communism. NATO 1949- Canada joins the North Atlantic Treaty (p.134) Organization (NATO) a defensive military alliance of western nations created to slow Soviet expansion. Louis St.Laurent is instrumental in NATO’s creation (as Min. of External Affairs and then PM) 12 original members – today there are 16+ members was Canada a “lap dog” of America? Or was it in position to have a say as part of an alliance? The Warsaw Pact Soviets create an alliance of satellite states known as the Warsaw Pact in 1955 in response to NATO because they had been invaded twice in the 21st century by western powers NORAD 1957- Canada joins in the North American Air Defence System (NORAD) to help protect N. America from aerial nuclear attack bombers -three lines of radar defence – Pine tree, MidCanada and Distant Early Warning or DEW line. Canada as a Middle Power Canada assumes the role of a “middle power”- “moderate mediatory middle power” in the post war era. Not a superpower but wealthy enough to have an influence. United Nations 1944-United Nations-is created as a place where nations can solve conflicts peacefully-UN Charter was drafted at Dumbarton Oaks before the end of war. The UN is founded in April 1945 in San Francisco-it had 51 original delegatestoday there are more than 150 Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All humans beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights” Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human Rights drafted by a Canadian - John Humphrey The UN goals are to: 1)promote international peace and security 2)provide a forum for international debate 3)assist economic, social and cultural development 4)expand basic human freedoms. The Security Council Every member nation has a seat in the General Assembly of the UN in New York- they meet yearly to discuss issues of global concern. The Security Council has 15 member – ten elected for two year terms. The “Big Five” USSR, USA, Britain, China and France are permanent members of the Security Council -have veto power on any peacekeeping force actions and often they will not agree on actions and use veto power. International Court at The Hague The UN has an International Court of Justice at The Hague in the Netherlands. Other council include UNICEF, WHO, UNESCO, GATT The Koren War 1950-53 Korean War -first true test of the UN’s powers -Korea is split after WWII into North (Soviet controlled) and South (US controlled). North Korea invades (over the 38th parallel) South Korea with 100,000 troops armed with Soviet weapons. A U.N. “police action” is demanded by the US to this aggression and a force is sent in to stop the invasion – 16 countries come to the aid of the US led operation. Soviets were boycotting the Security Council. The Korean War Canada sends 3 battleships and air support and eventually troops who are armed with American made equipment, tactics and training (symbolic shift from British). -North Koreans are almost successful until a major offensive at Inchon is led by General Douglas MacArthur that pushes them back. Red China under Mao throws hundreds of thousands Chinese troops into the war and the US debates using nuclear weapons- 3 million die in war. In 1953 a ceasefire is declared with the border being the 38th parallel. 30,000 Canadians served in war - Costs 1,550 casualties and 516 deaths The Suez Crisis 1860’s – French construct Suez Canal (British invested heavily) to link Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea for trade (link to India and Arab oil). In 1955 British and French troops withdraw from Canal Zone and Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser seizes it because it is in Egyptian territory. The Suez Crisis Britain and France make a secret pact with Israel to invade Canal Zone and they then orders a withdrawl of troops to keep the area free for international trade. Egypt doesn’t comply and BR and FR begin to bomb canal zone- both US and USSR agree to condemn this attack (USSR threaten to bomb London and Paris). UN Peacekeeping Canada is asked for support by BR and is told that Canada’s first obligation is to the UN Charter (more symbolism). Louis St. Laurent (PM) sends Lester Pearson- Canada’s top diplomat and former president of the UN General Assembly to step in and argues for the creation of a UN peacekeeping force to position themselves between warring factions and impose a ceasefire. Pearson Wins Nobel Peace Prize Nasser rejects Canadian troops because they wear Union Jacks on uniform (when Pearson becomes PM he insists on a new “Canadian” uniform and new flag). Pearson wins the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 – St. Laurent takes the heat for turning his back on Canada’s two founding nations. A Peacekeeping Tradition is born Canada has been used in 40 United Nations sanctioned peacekeeping missions and six nonsanctioned peacekeeping mission in the last half century. 1% of the world’s population has provided 10% of the world’s peacekeeping forces . Canada’s peacekeepers have served all over the world. Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis -scares many Canadians because of brinkmanship between Kennedy and Khrushchev over the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba. Kennedy does not get the support he wants from PM John Diefenbaker. Diefenbaker wants to wait for UN report on Cuban situation and Kennedy goes ahead with a naval blockade that comes close to ending in a nuclear war before an agreement is reached. The Vietnam War The 1960’s see the influence of the baby boomers protesting US involvement in the war in Vietnam. 10,000 Canadian will go off to Vietnam-32,000 American draft dodgers to come to Canada. 500 Canadian firms supply war materials (napalm, Agent Orange). Lestor Pearson questions Lyndon Johnson’s tactics in Vietnam. Canada’s Foreign Policy Takes a New Direction in 1960’s As Trudeau dealt with the “Canadian Unity” issue at home he led Canada towards a foreign policy that was less dependent on U.S. approval. Canada recognized the People’s Republic of China in 1970 and began to encourage ties with many nations to promote trade and “aid” with the developing world and to open lines of communication with potential adversaries that the U.S. didn’t approve of (ex Cuba). Canada as a Middle Power Canada’s role as a middle power increased in importance as the Cold War intensified again in the 1980’s. Under Trudeau Canada lessened defence spending and removed nuclear weapons from its soil completely by 1984 (under Mulroney). Although Canada has remained involved in NORAD and NATO for defence it also promoted trade and mutual respect for all nations –rich and poor- and the need for social and economic development of all nations. Mulroney and Reagan Brian Mulroney comes to power (in 1984-93) he works hard to re-establish a strong relationship (free trade as a focal point) with the U.S. and President Ronald Reagan. In the late 1980’s and early 1900’s Mikhail Gorbachev introduces “glasnost” in the Eastern bloc that eventually leads to the end to the Cold War. Operation Desert Storm In 1991 the Gulf War starts when Saddam Hussein invades Kuwait and the UN sends a US led coalition force to defeat Iraq. Canada sends 4000 troops 26 aircraft and 3 warships as part of Operation Desert Storm. Recent UN Involvement Jean Chretien come to power (in 1993) and Canada saw its role within the United Nations peacekeeping forces increase in places like Africa (Somalia and Rwanda), the former Yugoslavia. Canada in Afghanistan In 2003 the Liberal government of Paul Martin went into Afghanistan as part of a UN effort to reclaim that country from the Taliban government who supported Al-Queda in their 9/11 attack. The Canadian government has sent the military to rebuild democracy in that country. To date 117 Canadians have died. As Canada Moves Forward As the Twenty-first century moves forward Canada finds itself dealing with issues around its involvement within the United Nations, its relationship with the United States and how a new era of “globalization” can benefit both Canada and its trading partners. Canada’s Changing Society in the Post War Era Canada In the 1950-60’s Unlike the end of World War I Canada prospers after WWII (after a little turmoil).Troops return from war to a cheap land, free education, low interest rates and plenty of work. Canadians have plenty of work and plenty of disposable income for houses (growth of suburbs) and cars and entertainment. Canada’s Changing Society in the Post War Era As a result of the war and the post war prosperity Canadians have come to except the following advances in Canadian society. -40 hour work week-good wages-two weeks annual vacation -the idea of Medicare is introduced –passed 1968 -Unemployment Insurance 1945 -Family Allowance 1944 -Old Age Security 1951 The Fifties This new wealth leads to political and labour stability and the good life. Youth Movement of the Sixties As the Baby Boomers reach voting age they begin to speak out about their attitudes towards traditional society and authoritarianism. Canada’s Changing Society in the Post War Era Queen Elizabeth II is coronated in 1953. The Modern Family The middle class now has a disposable income for cars, TV’s, kitchen appliances. The average family has four kids (no birth control quite yet). Influence of the church is decreasing and the influence of TV was increasing. Mass marketing and consumerism create a new way of life. Protecting Canadian Identity American influence continues to impact on Canada both economically and culturally through TV (fashion, music, radio A movement starts to protect Canadian Culture. The Canada Council and CRTC are created (30% Canadian content of broadcast) and a new CBC TV promotes Canadian culture. Economic Challenges of the 70’s Inflation 1973 Oil Businesses failing Energy and labour costs soared Produce demand were down Unemployment rose Dual-income families Regional Disparity 1970s recession Economic gap between poor and prosperous regions Natural resources hit the hardest Government struggles with how to manage costs and maintain services Dealing with the Deficit Deficit by 1984 at $160 billion debt Mulroney government Follow US and Britain Trim social programs and save money FTA would bring employment and thriving businesses 1990 recession 1993 Conservatives out Mulroney out and Chretien in Jean Chrétien Liberal $466 billion Post-secondary education, welfare, healthcare cut Government was doing less for Canadians Read pg 186 The Quiet Revolution Union Nationale comes to power in Quebec under Maurice Duplessis in 1936. He is a strong authoritarian leader who has strong ties to business and is anti-labour, he supports foreign business investment and maintaining French culture and the Roman Catholic church in Quebec. Quebec workers are under paid and treated like 2nd class citizens. In 1959 Duplessis dies and the Quiet Revolution begins to bring reform to Quebec. The End of Duplessis Quebec as a separate nation Fleur-de-lis/Roman Catholic church – French symbols Farm, faith, and family Open to foreign investments Favourable business opportunities = bribery and corruption La Grande Noirceur -the Great Gloom The Times they are a changing The 1960’s prove to be a decade of change on many levels because of the “baby boom” generation reaching voting age and declaring their independence. The attitudes of the time demand social change (rebellion, antiauthoritarian, well educated, Peace Movement, Civil Rights etc.). Quebec wants equality. Jean Lesage’s Liberals and “Maitres Chez Nous” Jean Lesage and the Quebec Liberals come to power and the idea of “La Survivance” (survival) begins with the slogan “Maitres chez nous” (masters in our own house). Lesage moves towards a secular society that hopes to advance French-speaking Quebecois and the idea of “deux nations” (French and English Canada). The Quiet Revolution “Time for a change” Liberal Jean Lesage Modernize the province Economy, politics, education, and culture Students were encouraged to take science and technology classes People were now able to think for themselves Roman Catholic church influence declined Strengthen Quebec's economic control (hydro) Quebecois ask Questions Francophone Quebeckers felt injustice from English speaking Canadians Ottawa was too English Why no Cabinet posts held by Quebec? Why did French-Canadians not have a right to their own schools and hospital like the rest of Canada, while English-Canadians in Quebec had those rights Why did Quebec's Francophone majority have to speak English in stores? Front du Liberation du Quebec An extremist group (Front du Liberation du Quebec) begin a terrorist campaign to drive out English Canadians from Quebec by bombing many federal sites. They cry “Independence or Death”. Bi and Bi Commission 1963- In response to Quebec’s concerns Lester Pearson’s government sets up Bilingualism and Biculturalism Royal Commission to study the issue and it finds that Quebeckers need assurance that they are among equals. Trudeaumania In 1968 Pierre Trudeau becomes PM (Trudeaumania for a “hip” young intellectual) he is a French speaking federalist who takes on the challenge of a separatist movement led by Rene Levesque and others. In 1969 Trudeau’s government passes the Official Languages Act to entitle French speakers to be educated and tried in a court of law in French. The October Crisis In 1970 “The October Crisis” shakes Quebec when the FLQ abduct James Cross and Pierre Laporte and eventually murder Laporte. The premier Robert Bourassa asks the federal government for help, Trudeau invokes the War Measures Act to maintain “peace and security”. The crisis is bought to an end quickly. Just Watch Me War Measures Act Civil rights suspended Arrested or detained without being charged FLQ membership became a crime Army into Ottawa show of force and protection for government officials How far are you willing to take this? “Just watch me” Bill 22 In 1974 Quebec passes Bill 22 and Bill 101 to make French the official language of Quebec and maintain a strong French culture Canada bilingual, Quebec unilingual Premier Robert Bourassa passed Bill 22 Businesses faced restrictions If you wanted to attend an English school you needed to pass a language test to prove if you were “English” enough Bill 101 Bill 101 “Charter of the French Language” 1977 French the only official language of Quebec Banned English on commercial signs restricted access to English-language education Didn’t ban English but rather, “any language other then French” Not pro-French but anti-English If lose language lose everything = first crucial line of defense The Parti Quebecois In 1976 the Parti Quebecois under Levesques becomes the government of Quebec and are elected on a promise of a referendum on Quebec independence or “sovereigntyassociation” which would give Quebec control of many traditional “federal responsibilities” (ex. immigration, taxes, social policies etc.) In 1980 Referendum Day results are a 60% “No” vote. Trudeau Out 1979 Trudeau out Economy floundered, increased inflation, West alienation – too much time spent on Quebec and the National Energy Policy sent Alberta into an uproar. Joe Clark (Joe Who) Progressive Conservative elected in 1979 Minority government Youngest PM at 39 Tough-mined budget Non-confidence vote and out in 10 months 16th Prime Minister of Canada In office June 4, 1979 – March 3, 1980 1980 Referendum A mandate to negotiate with Canada Sovereignty-association ~ political independence but close economic ties(benefits)of association with Canada Encouraged Maitre chez nous. Trudeau encouraged Quebec people to remain part of a strong, united, forward looking Canada If vote no for separation Trudeau would make changes to the Constitution 40% yes 60% no Nearly 150 corporate offices left to Toronto Canada Act 1982 In 1982 Canada’s constitution is patriated without the agreement of then Quebec’s premier Levesque. Chretien reaches agreement with the “kitchen compromise” and Trudeau gets agreement from 9 of 10 premiers using the “not withstanding clause”. Trudeau Legacy Retired 1984 Redefined Canada as bilingual and multicultural country Defeated separatism Kept American economic influences in check Created Crown corporations giving Canada greater control over natural resources Political terrorism in Quebec was crushed Brought Constitution home Charter of Rights and Freedoms Trudeau Legacy Trudeau made many controversial calls, An advocate of disarmament, he slashed Canada’s contribution to NATO by half and allowed Canadian ships and planes to rust in neglect. He also brought in the metric system, beginning in 1975, which changed our miles to km and our fractions to decimals. Autocrat. Democrat. Dilettante. Love him or hate him, Pierre Trudeau’s impact on Canadian society has been immense and far-reaching. “We are all Trudeau’s children – whether we like it or not.” Brian Mulroney September 4, 1984 Brian Mulroney won 211 seats (Conservative) Revitalize Canada's stagnant economy (better ties with US) Bring Quebec into the 1982 Constitution (amend original deal FreeTrade Agreement 1987 Removing tariffs and import duties between two countries Closer ties with US GST (Goods and Service Tax) Jan 1, 1991 Shifted burden from private companies to individuals Compensate for export duties and free trade Meech Lake In 1984 Progressive Conservative Brian Mulroney comes to power and tries to deal with the issue of Quebec’s separtist. In 1987 at Meech Lake Mulroney gets Quebec to sign the accord with Quebec being recognized as a “distinct society” within Canada - but the accord is never ratified by all the other provinces. Meech Lake defeated Mulroney had reopened an issue that forced him to concede too many federal powers to provincial governments. Everyone now wanted to be recognized as a “distinct society” (like Quebec). He sets a deadline for the Accord to be ratified and it is crushed when Eijlah Harper will not allow the opening of debate in the Manitoba Legislature because he feels that the Accord does not recognize First Nations peoples. The Bloc As Levesque and the Parti Quebecois disappear the Bloc Quebecois emerges (now at the federal level)to take on the issue of separation in 1990 and is nearly successful is its push for “sovereignty-association” in a 1995 Referendum. Under the leadership of Lucien Bouchard the “no” side barely lost with 49.4% and then Prime Minister Chretien promised to deal with the issue heading into the new century. Multiculturalism During the 1960’s Diefenbaker had finally thrown out the old racial immigration policies and quotas of Mackenzie King. Restricted immigration until 1960’s 1971 Multicultural Act ~ Equality of all “cultural and ethnic groups” Funding to ethnic organizations, further secondlanguage instruction Multiculturalism embraced at an official level Revitalise and invigorate Canada Multiculturalism in the 60’s/70’s Canada had opened up the country to people of all ethnic races and backgrounds. 1962 new less stringent limitations 1967 “colour-blind” Required training and specific skills Point system based on education and employment prospects National and racial origins were no longer factors In 1971 the Multicultural Act was passed by the Trudeau Government. This Act put an emphasis on equality of all “cultural and ethnic groups”. The Cultural Mosaic Canadians took pride in being a nation that had an immigration policy that put an emphasis on education and skills rather than race. Immigrants were evaluated on what they had to offer Canada- immigrants were “pulled” to Canada looking for a better life. Refugees were taken in to Canada because they were fleeing or being “pushed” away from persecution or war. The Cultural Mosaic In 1971 it was the first time the majority of immigrants who came to Canada were not of European ancestry. Canada was becoming multicultural and the Canadian nation was moving in a new direction that would allow for a more diverse Canada that gave greater recognition to all its ethnic groups.