Post World War Two Canada

Canada in the Post
World War Two World
Canada’s Role on the International Stage
 1945- Canada is one of the world wealthiest nations
 after the initial post-war turmoil- Canada settles into a
era of prosperity -GNP has doubled since the start of
the war
 Population grows by 1.7 million (war brides, refugees,
displaced persons)
A White Canada (con’t)
 King still wanted to preserve Canada’s fundamental
 Limited immigration laws to white and Christian
preferably northern European-blocking Arabs, Asians
and Jews where possible (book- Strangers at the Door)
Louis St. Laurent Takes Power
 King wins his final
election in 1945 and
will stay in power
until Louis St.
Laurent becomes
Canada’s next PM in
Canada Changes in Post WWII
 The baby boom starts –12 million to 18 million (1946-61)
 Suburbia is created – consumer society is created by TV
 Average family has 4 kids
 between 1945-60 Canada grows very wealthy by supplying
natural resources to the US (trees, oil from Alta, hydro)
 1948 Louis St. Laurent (Lib.) replaces King as PM-1948-57
 Europe and Asia are once again on the brink of bankruptcy
Canada/US Relations
 -Canada is militarily strong with the third largest navy
and fourth largest air force in the world
 Canada and the US are closer than ever before after
 Odensburg Agreement 1940- Permanent Joint Defence
of North America and the Hyde Park Agreement 1941Coordinated war effort for production.
 Canada was an important ally during WWII and a
future ally to the US in the upcoming Cold War
The Cold War Begins
 1945 Igor Gouzenko (a clerk in the Soviet Embassy)
defects with proof of a Soviet spy ring in Canada, the
US and Britain.
 Spies are found in the Department of External Affairs,
British High Commission and an MP in the LabourProgressive Party- Fred Rose (Canadian Communist
Party) he is convicted of espionage for six years.
 There are also moles in the US State Department
An Iron Curtain Descends
 The Soviets want the technology for the A-bomb
 Churchill coins the phrase an “Iron Curtain had
descended on Europe”–an ominous wall of silence
between the two WWII allies
 The Cold War was a 40 year conflict using propaganda,
espionage, economic and political pressure rather than
full-scale war with nuclear weapons (arms race)
Western Democracy vs. the Eastern Bloc
 both the US and USSR divided up the globe after the
 -East vs West struggle or Communist vs. Democratic
 -Stalin is extremely paranoid and the USSR is
aggressively expansionist to include as many satellite
states as possible in its “sphere of influence” by
economic or military means.
 The US spent the post-war
period in witch hunts looking
for suspected communists.
Louis St. Laurent reminded
Canadians that such tactics
were trademarks of a
dictatorship not a democracy.
Marshall Plan
 The US and Canada helped to
rebuild war-torn Europe
through the Marshall Plan
which spent $13.5 billion in
economic aid to get western
allies “back on their feet”
(1948-53) -of which Canada
spent $706 million on food and
equipment –Soviets wanted a
weakened Europe.
The Truman Doctrine
 The US also took
control of many areas of
the Pacific and Central
America mainly by
economic means. The
“Truman Doctrine’s”
goal was to contain the
spread of communism.
 1949- Canada joins the North Atlantic Treaty (p.134)
Organization (NATO) a defensive military alliance of
western nations created to slow Soviet expansion.
Louis St.Laurent is instrumental in NATO’s creation
(as Min. of External Affairs and then PM)
 12 original members – today there are 16+ members
 was Canada a “lap dog” of America? Or was it in
position to have a say as part of an alliance?
The Warsaw Pact
 Soviets create an alliance of satellite states known as
the Warsaw Pact in 1955 in response to NATO because
they had been invaded twice in the 21st century by
western powers
 1957- Canada joins in the
North American Air Defence
System (NORAD) to help
protect N. America from
aerial nuclear attack
bombers -three lines of radar
defence – Pine tree, MidCanada and Distant Early
Warning or DEW line.
Canada as a Middle Power
 Canada assumes the role of a “middle power”-
“moderate mediatory middle power” in the post war
era. Not a superpower but wealthy enough to have an
United Nations
 1944-United Nations-is
created as a place where
nations can solve
conflicts peacefully-UN
Charter was drafted at
Dumbarton Oaks before
the end of war. The UN
is founded in April 1945
in San Francisco-it had
51 original delegatestoday there are more
than 150
Declaration of Human Rights
 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: “All
humans beings are born free and equal in dignity and
rights” Article 1 of Universal Declaration of Human
Rights drafted by a Canadian - John Humphrey
The UN goals are to:
1)promote international peace and security
2)provide a forum for international debate
3)assist economic, social and cultural development
4)expand basic human freedoms.
The Security Council
 Every member nation has a seat in the General
Assembly of the UN in New York- they meet yearly to
discuss issues of global concern.
 The Security Council has 15 member – ten elected for
two year terms.
 The “Big Five” USSR, USA, Britain, China and France
are permanent members of the Security Council -have
veto power on any peacekeeping force actions and
often they will not agree on actions and use veto
International Court at The Hague
 The UN has an International Court of Justice at The
Hague in the Netherlands. Other council include
The Koren War
 1950-53 Korean War
 -first true test of the UN’s powers
 -Korea is split after WWII into North (Soviet
controlled) and South (US controlled). North Korea
invades (over the 38th parallel) South Korea with
100,000 troops armed with Soviet weapons. A U.N.
“police action” is demanded by the US to this
aggression and a force is sent in to stop the invasion –
16 countries come to the aid of the US led operation.
Soviets were boycotting the Security Council.
The Korean War
 Canada sends 3 battleships and air support and eventually
troops who are armed with American made equipment,
tactics and training (symbolic shift from British).
 -North Koreans are almost successful until a major
offensive at Inchon is led by General Douglas MacArthur
that pushes them back. Red China under Mao throws
hundreds of thousands Chinese troops into the war and the
US debates using nuclear weapons- 3 million die in war. In
1953 a ceasefire is declared with the border being the 38th
parallel. 30,000 Canadians served in war - Costs 1,550
casualties and 516 deaths
The Suez Crisis
 1860’s – French construct Suez Canal (British invested
heavily) to link Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea for
trade (link to India and Arab oil). In 1955 British and
French troops withdraw from Canal Zone and
Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser seizes it because it is in
Egyptian territory.
The Suez Crisis
 Britain and France make a secret pact with Israel to
invade Canal Zone and they then orders a withdrawl of
troops to keep the area free for international trade.
Egypt doesn’t comply and BR and FR begin to bomb
canal zone- both US and USSR agree to condemn this
attack (USSR threaten to bomb London and Paris).
UN Peacekeeping
 Canada is asked for support by BR and is told that
Canada’s first obligation is to the UN Charter (more
symbolism). Louis St. Laurent (PM) sends Lester
Pearson- Canada’s top diplomat and former president
of the UN General Assembly to step in and argues for
the creation of a UN peacekeeping force to position
themselves between warring factions and impose a
Pearson Wins Nobel Peace Prize
 Nasser rejects Canadian troops because they wear
Union Jacks on uniform (when Pearson becomes PM
he insists on a new “Canadian” uniform and new flag).
Pearson wins the Nobel Peace Prize in 1957 – St.
Laurent takes the heat for turning his back on
Canada’s two founding nations.
A Peacekeeping Tradition is born
 Canada has been used in 40 United Nations
sanctioned peacekeeping missions and six nonsanctioned peacekeeping mission in the last half
century. 1% of the world’s population has provided
10% of the world’s peacekeeping forces . Canada’s
peacekeepers have served all over the world.
Cuban Missile Crisis
 Cuban Missile Crisis -scares many Canadians because
of brinkmanship between Kennedy and Khrushchev
over the placement of Soviet missiles in Cuba.
Kennedy does not get the support he wants from PM
John Diefenbaker. Diefenbaker wants to wait for UN
report on Cuban situation and Kennedy goes ahead
with a naval blockade that comes close to ending in a
nuclear war before an agreement is reached.
The Vietnam War
 The 1960’s see the influence of the baby boomers
protesting US involvement in the war in Vietnam.
10,000 Canadian will go off to Vietnam-32,000
American draft dodgers to come to Canada. 500
Canadian firms supply war materials (napalm, Agent
Orange). Lestor Pearson questions Lyndon Johnson’s
tactics in Vietnam.
Canada’s Foreign Policy Takes a
New Direction in 1960’s
 As Trudeau dealt with the “Canadian Unity” issue
at home he led Canada towards a foreign policy
that was less dependent on U.S. approval. Canada
recognized the People’s Republic of China in 1970
and began to encourage ties with many nations to
promote trade and “aid” with the developing world
and to open lines of communication with potential
adversaries that the U.S. didn’t approve of (ex
Canada as a Middle Power
 Canada’s role as a middle power increased in
importance as the Cold War intensified again in
the 1980’s. Under Trudeau Canada lessened
defence spending and removed nuclear weapons
from its soil completely by 1984 (under Mulroney).
Although Canada has remained involved in
NORAD and NATO for defence it also promoted
trade and mutual respect for all nations –rich and
poor- and the need for social and economic
development of all nations.
Mulroney and Reagan
 Brian Mulroney comes to power (in 1984-93) he
works hard to re-establish a strong relationship
(free trade as a focal point) with the U.S. and
President Ronald Reagan. In the late 1980’s and
early 1900’s Mikhail Gorbachev introduces
“glasnost” in the Eastern bloc that eventually leads
to the end to the Cold War.
Operation Desert Storm
 In 1991 the Gulf War starts when Saddam Hussein
invades Kuwait and the UN sends a US led
coalition force to defeat Iraq. Canada sends 4000
troops 26 aircraft and 3 warships as part of
Operation Desert Storm.
Recent UN Involvement
 Jean Chretien come to power (in 1993) and Canada
saw its role within the United Nations
peacekeeping forces increase in places like Africa
(Somalia and Rwanda), the former Yugoslavia.
Canada in Afghanistan
 In 2003 the Liberal government of Paul Martin
went into Afghanistan as part of a UN effort to
reclaim that country from the Taliban government
who supported Al-Queda in their 9/11 attack. The
Canadian government has sent the military to
rebuild democracy in that country. To date 117
Canadians have died.
As Canada Moves Forward
 As the Twenty-first century moves forward Canada
finds itself dealing with issues around its
involvement within the United Nations, its
relationship with the United States and how a new
era of “globalization” can benefit both Canada and
its trading partners.
Canada’s Changing Society in the
Post War Era
 Canada In the 1950-60’s
 Unlike the end of World War I Canada prospers
after WWII (after a little turmoil).Troops return
from war to a cheap land, free education, low
interest rates and plenty of work. Canadians have
plenty of work and plenty of disposable income for
houses (growth of suburbs) and cars and
Canada’s Changing Society in the
Post War Era
 As a result of the war and the post war prosperity
Canadians have come to except the following advances
in Canadian society.
-40 hour work week-good wages-two weeks annual
-the idea of Medicare is introduced –passed 1968
-Unemployment Insurance 1945
-Family Allowance 1944
-Old Age Security 1951
The Fifties
This new
wealth leads
to political
and labour
stability and
the good
Youth Movement of the Sixties
 As the Baby
Boomers reach
voting age they
begin to speak out
about their
attitudes towards
traditional society
Canada’s Changing Society in the
Post War Era
 Queen Elizabeth
II is coronated in
The Modern Family
 The middle class now has a
disposable income for cars, TV’s,
kitchen appliances. The average
family has four kids (no birth
control quite yet). Influence of
the church is decreasing and the
influence of TV was increasing.
Mass marketing and
consumerism create a new way of
Protecting Canadian Identity
 American influence continues to impact on Canada
both economically and culturally through TV (fashion,
music, radio
 A movement starts to protect Canadian Culture. The
Canada Council and CRTC are created (30% Canadian
content of broadcast) and a new CBC TV promotes
Canadian culture.
Economic Challenges of the 70’s
 Inflation
 1973 Oil
 Businesses failing
 Energy and labour costs soared
 Produce demand were down
 Unemployment rose
 Dual-income families
Regional Disparity
 1970s recession
 Economic gap between poor and prosperous
 Natural resources hit the hardest
 Government struggles with how to manage
costs and maintain services
Dealing with the Deficit
 Deficit by 1984 at $160 billion debt
 Mulroney government
 Follow US and Britain
 Trim social programs and save money
 FTA would bring employment and thriving
 1990 recession
 1993 Conservatives out
Mulroney out and Chretien in
 Jean Chrétien Liberal
 $466 billion
 Post-secondary education, welfare,
healthcare cut
 Government was doing less for Canadians
 Read pg 186
The Quiet Revolution
 Union Nationale comes to power in Quebec under
Maurice Duplessis in 1936. He is a strong
authoritarian leader who has strong ties to business
and is anti-labour, he supports foreign business
investment and maintaining French culture and the
Roman Catholic church in Quebec. Quebec workers
are under paid and treated like 2nd class citizens. In
1959 Duplessis dies and the Quiet Revolution begins to
bring reform to Quebec.
The End of Duplessis
 Quebec as a separate nation
 Fleur-de-lis/Roman Catholic church – French symbols
 Farm, faith, and family
 Open to foreign investments
 Favourable business opportunities = bribery and
 La Grande Noirceur -the Great Gloom
The Times they are a changing
 The 1960’s prove to be a decade of
change on many levels because of
the “baby boom” generation
reaching voting age and declaring
their independence. The
attitudes of the time demand
social change (rebellion, antiauthoritarian, well educated,
Peace Movement, Civil Rights
etc.). Quebec wants equality.
Jean Lesage’s Liberals and “Maitres
Chez Nous”
 Jean Lesage and the Quebec
Liberals come to power and the
idea of “La Survivance”
(survival) begins with the
slogan “Maitres chez nous”
(masters in our own house).
Lesage moves towards a secular
society that hopes to advance
French-speaking Quebecois
and the idea of “deux nations”
(French and English Canada).
The Quiet Revolution
 “Time for a change” Liberal Jean Lesage
 Modernize the province
 Economy, politics, education, and culture
 Students were encouraged to take science and
technology classes
 People were now able to think for themselves
 Roman Catholic church influence declined
 Strengthen Quebec's economic control (hydro)
Quebecois ask Questions
 Francophone Quebeckers felt injustice from English
speaking Canadians
Ottawa was too English
Why no Cabinet posts held by Quebec?
Why did French-Canadians not have a right to their
own schools and hospital like the rest of Canada, while
English-Canadians in Quebec had those rights
Why did Quebec's Francophone majority have to
speak English in stores?
Front du Liberation du Quebec
 An extremist group
(Front du Liberation du
Quebec) begin a
terrorist campaign to
drive out English
Canadians from Quebec
by bombing many
federal sites. They cry
“Independence or
Bi and Bi Commission
 1963- In response to
Quebec’s concerns
Lester Pearson’s
government sets up
Bilingualism and
Biculturalism Royal
Commission to study
the issue and it finds
that Quebeckers
need assurance that
they are among
 In 1968 Pierre Trudeau becomes
PM (Trudeaumania for a “hip”
young intellectual) he is a
French speaking federalist who
takes on the challenge of a
separatist movement led by
Rene Levesque and others. In
1969 Trudeau’s government
passes the Official Languages
Act to entitle French speakers to
be educated and tried in a court
of law in French.
The October Crisis
 In 1970 “The October Crisis”
shakes Quebec when the FLQ
abduct James Cross and Pierre
Laporte and eventually murder
Laporte. The premier Robert
Bourassa asks the federal
government for help, Trudeau
invokes the War Measures Act
to maintain “peace and
security”. The crisis is bought
to an end quickly.
Just Watch Me
 War Measures Act
 Civil rights suspended
 Arrested or detained without being charged
 FLQ membership became a crime
 Army into Ottawa show of force and protection for
government officials
 How far are you willing to take this? “Just watch me”
Bill 22
 In 1974 Quebec passes Bill 22 and Bill 101 to make
French the official language of Quebec and maintain a
strong French culture
Canada bilingual, Quebec unilingual
Premier Robert Bourassa passed Bill 22
Businesses faced restrictions
If you wanted to attend an English school you needed
to pass a language test to prove if you were “English”
Bill 101
 Bill 101 “Charter of the French Language” 1977
 French the only official language of Quebec
 Banned English on commercial signs restricted access
to English-language education
 Didn’t ban English but rather, “any language other
then French”
 Not pro-French but anti-English
 If lose language lose everything = first crucial line of
The Parti Quebecois
 In 1976 the Parti Quebecois under Levesques
becomes the government of Quebec and are
elected on a promise of a referendum on
Quebec independence or “sovereigntyassociation” which would give Quebec
control of many traditional “federal
responsibilities” (ex. immigration, taxes,
social policies etc.) In 1980 Referendum Day
results are a 60% “No” vote.
Trudeau Out
 1979 Trudeau out
 Economy floundered, increased inflation,
West alienation – too much time spent on
Quebec and the National Energy Policy
sent Alberta into an uproar.
 Joe Clark (Joe Who) Progressive
Conservative elected in 1979
Minority government
Youngest PM at 39
Tough-mined budget
Non-confidence vote and out in 10
16th Prime
Minister of
In office
June 4, 1979 –
March 3, 1980
1980 Referendum
 A mandate to negotiate with Canada
 Sovereignty-association ~ political independence but close
economic ties(benefits)of association with Canada
Encouraged Maitre chez nous.
Trudeau encouraged Quebec people to remain part of a
strong, united, forward looking Canada
If vote no for separation Trudeau would make changes to
the Constitution
40% yes 60% no
Nearly 150 corporate offices left to Toronto
Canada Act 1982
 In 1982 Canada’s
constitution is patriated
without the agreement
of then Quebec’s
premier Levesque.
Chretien reaches
agreement with the
“kitchen compromise”
and Trudeau gets
agreement from 9 of 10
premiers using the “not
withstanding clause”.
Trudeau Legacy
 Retired 1984
 Redefined Canada as bilingual and multicultural
Defeated separatism
Kept American economic influences in check
Created Crown corporations giving Canada greater
control over natural resources
Political terrorism in Quebec was crushed
Brought Constitution home
Charter of Rights and Freedoms
Trudeau Legacy
 Trudeau made many controversial calls, An advocate of
disarmament, he slashed Canada’s contribution to NATO
by half and allowed Canadian ships and planes to rust in
neglect. He also brought in the metric system, beginning
in 1975, which changed our miles to km and our fractions to
 Autocrat. Democrat. Dilettante. Love him or hate him,
Pierre Trudeau’s impact on Canadian society has been
immense and far-reaching.
 “We are all Trudeau’s children – whether we like it or not.”
Brian Mulroney
 September 4, 1984 Brian Mulroney won 211 seats
 Revitalize Canada's stagnant economy (better ties with US)
 Bring Quebec into the 1982 Constitution (amend original
 FreeTrade Agreement 1987
 Removing tariffs and import duties between two countries
 Closer ties with US
 GST (Goods and Service Tax) Jan 1, 1991
 Shifted burden from private companies to individuals
 Compensate for export duties and free trade
Meech Lake
 In 1984 Progressive
Conservative Brian
Mulroney comes to power
and tries to deal with the
issue of Quebec’s
 In 1987 at Meech Lake
Mulroney gets Quebec to
sign the accord with
Quebec being recognized
as a “distinct society”
within Canada - but the
accord is never ratified by
all the other provinces.
Meech Lake defeated
 Mulroney had reopened an issue that forced him to
concede too many federal powers to provincial
governments. Everyone now wanted to be recognized
as a “distinct society” (like Quebec). He sets a deadline
for the Accord to be ratified and it is crushed when
Eijlah Harper will not allow the opening of debate in
the Manitoba Legislature because he feels that the
Accord does not recognize First Nations peoples.
The Bloc
 As Levesque and the Parti Quebecois disappear the
Bloc Quebecois emerges (now at the federal level)to
take on the issue of separation in 1990 and is nearly
successful is its push for “sovereignty-association” in a
1995 Referendum. Under the leadership of Lucien
Bouchard the “no” side barely lost with 49.4% and
then Prime Minister Chretien promised to deal with
the issue heading into the new century.
 During the 1960’s Diefenbaker had finally thrown out
the old racial immigration policies and quotas of
Mackenzie King.
Restricted immigration until 1960’s
1971 Multicultural Act ~ Equality of all “cultural and
ethnic groups”
Funding to ethnic organizations, further secondlanguage instruction
Multiculturalism embraced at an official level
Revitalise and invigorate Canada
Multiculturalism in the 60’s/70’s
 Canada had opened up the country to people of all ethnic
races and backgrounds.
1962 new less stringent limitations
1967 “colour-blind”
Required training and specific skills
Point system based on education and employment
National and racial origins were no longer factors
In 1971 the Multicultural Act was passed by the Trudeau
Government. This Act put an emphasis on equality of all
“cultural and ethnic groups”.
The Cultural Mosaic
 Canadians took pride in being a
nation that had an immigration
policy that put an emphasis on
education and skills rather than
race. Immigrants were
evaluated on what they had to
offer Canada- immigrants were
“pulled” to Canada looking for a
better life. Refugees were taken
in to Canada because they were
fleeing or being “pushed” away
from persecution or war.
The Cultural Mosaic
 In 1971 it was the first time the
majority of immigrants who
came to Canada were not of
European ancestry. Canada
was becoming multicultural
and the Canadian nation was
moving in a new direction that
would allow for a more diverse
Canada that gave greater
recognition to all its ethnic

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